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Stock
The stock (also capital stock) of a corporation is constituted of the equity stock of its owners. A single share of the stock represents fractional ownership of the corporation in proportion to the total number of shares. In liquidation, the stock represents the residual assets of the company that would be due to stockholders after discharge of all senior claims such as secured and unsecured debt. Stockholders' equity cannot be withdrawn from the company in a way that is intended to be detrimental to the company's creditors.[1]Contents1 Shares 2 Types2.1 Rule 144 stock3 Stock
Stock
derivatives 4 History 5 Shareholder 6 Application6.1 Shareholder rights 6.2 Means of financing7 Trading7.1 Buying 7.2 Selling 7.3 Stock
Stock
price fluctuations 7.4 Share price determination 7.5 Arbitrage trading8 See also 9 References 10 External linksShares[edit] The shares together form stock
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Physical Capital
In economics, physical capital or just capital is a factor of production (or input into the process of production), consisting of machinery, buildings, computers, and the like. The production function takes the general form Y=f(K, L), where Y is the amount of output produced, K is the amount of capital stock used and L is the amount of labor used. In economic theory, physical capital is one of the three primary factors of production, also known as inputs in the production function. The others are natural resources (including land), and labor—the stock of competences embodied in the labor force. "Physical" is used to distinguish physical capital from human capital (a result of investment in the human agent), circulating capital, and financial capital.[1][2] "Physical capital" is fixed capital, any kind of real physical asset that is not used up in the production of a product
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Share (finance)
Share may refer to:To share a resource (such as food or money) is to make joint use of it; see Sharing Share, Kwara, a town and LGA in Kwara State, Nigeria Share (finance), a stock or other security such as a mutual fund Share (newspaper), a newspaper in Toronto, Canada Share (film), a 2015 short drama film Southern Hemisphere Auroral Radar Experiment, tracking space weather from Antarctica Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, a health and soc
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Reinsurance
Reinsurance is insurance that is purchased by an insurance company. In the classic case, reinsurance allows insurance companies to remain solvent after major claims events, such as major disasters like hurricanes and wildfires. In addition to its basic role in risk management, reinsurance is sometimes used for tax mitigation and other reasons. The company that purchases the reinsurance policy is called a "ceding company" or "cedent" or "cedant" under most arrangements. The company issuing the reinsurance policy is referred simply as the "reinsurer". A company that purchases reinsurance pays a premium to the reinsurance company, who in exchange would pay a share of the claims incurred by the purchasing company. The reinsurer may be either a specialist reinsurance company, which only undertakes reinsurance business, or another insurance company
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Real Estate
Real estate
Real estate
is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more generally) buildings or housing in general. Also: the business of real estate; the profession of buying, selling, or renting land, buildings, or housing."[1] It is a legal term used in jurisdictions whose legal system is derived from English common law, such as India, the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Pakistan, Australia, and New Zealand.Contents1 Residential real estate 2 Sales and marketing 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksResidential real estate Residential real estate may contain either a single family or multifamily structure that is available for occupation or for non-business purposes.[2] Residences can be classified by if and how they are connected to neighbouring residences and land
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Credit Derivative
In finance, a credit derivative refers to any one of "various instruments and techniques designed to separate and then transfer the credit risk"[1] or the risk of an event of default of a corporate or sovereign borrower, transferring it to an entity other than the lender[2][3] or debtholder. An unfunded credit derivative is one where credit protection is bought and sold between bilateral counterparties without the protection seller having to put up money upfront or at any given time during the life of the deal unless an event of default occurs. Usually these contracts are traded pursuant to an International Swaps and Derivatives Association (ISDA) master agreement. Most credit derivatives of this sort are credit default swaps
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Personal Finance
Personal finance
Personal finance
is the financial management which an individual or a family unit performs to budget, save, and spend monetary resources over time, taking into account various financial risks and future life events.[1] When planning personal finances, the individual would consider the suitability to his or her needs of a range of banking products (checking, savings accounts, credit cards and consumer loans) or investment private equity, (stock market, bonds, mutual funds) and insurance (life insurance, health insurance, disability insurance) products or participation and monitoring of and- or employer-sponsored reti
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Currency
A currency (from Middle English: curraunt, "in circulation", from Latin: currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.[1][2] A more general definition is that a currency is a system of money (monetary units) in common use, especially in a nation.[3] Under this definition, US dollars, British pounds, Australian dollars, and European euros are examples of currency. These various currencies are recognized stores of value and are traded between nations in foreign exchange markets, which determine the relative values of the different currencies.[4] Currencies in this sense are defined by governments, and each type has limited boundaries of acceptance. Other definitions of the term "currency" are discussed in their respective synonymous articles banknote, coin, and money
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Exchange Rate
In finance, an exchange rate is the rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another. It is also regarded as the value of one country’s currency in relation to another currency.[1] For example, an interbank exchange rate of 114 Japanese yen
Japanese yen
to the United States dollar means that ¥114 will be exchanged for each US$1 or that US$1 will be exchanged for each ¥114. In this case it is said that the price of a dollar in relation to yen is ¥114, or equivalently that the price of a yen in relation to dollars is $1/114. Exchange rates are determined in the foreign exchange market,[2] which is open to a wide range of different types of buyers and sellers, and where currency trading is continuous: 24 hours a day except weekends, i.e. trading from 20:15 GMT
GMT
on Sunday until 22:00 GMT
GMT
Friday. The spot exchange rate refers to the current exchange rate
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Securitization
Securitization is the financial practice of pooling various types of contractual debt such as residential mortgages, commercial mortgages, auto loans or credit card debt obligations (or other non-debt assets which generate receivables) and selling their related cash flows to third party investors as securities, which may be described as bonds, pass-through securities, or collateralized debt obligations (CDOs). Investors are repaid from the principal and interest cash flows collected from the underlying debt and redistributed through the capital structure of the new financing
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Stockholder
A shareholder or stockholder is an individual or institution (including a corporation) that legally owns one or more shares of stock in a public or private corporation. Shareholders may be referred to as members of a corporation. Legally, a person is not a shareholder in a corporation until his or her name and other details are entered in the register of shareholders.[1] Shareholders of a corporation are legally separate from the corporation itself. They are generally not liable for the debts of the corporation; and the shareholders' liability for company debts are said to be limited to the unpaid share price, unless if a shareholder has offered guarantees. Description[edit] Shareholders are granted special privileges depending on the class of stock
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Hybrid Security
Hybrid securities are a broad group of securities that combine the characteristics of the two broader groups of securities, debt and equity. Hybrid securities pay a predictable (fixed or floating) rate of return or dividend until a certain date, at which point the holder has a number of options, including converting the securities into the underlying share. Therefore, unlike with a share of stock (equity), the holder enjoys a predetermined (rather than residual) cash flow, and, unlike with a fixed interest security (debt), the holder enjoys an option to convert the security to the underlying equity. Other common examples include convertible and converting preference shares. A hybrid security is structured differently than fixed-interest securities
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Public Finance
Public finance
Public finance
is the study of the role of the government in the economy.[1] It is the branch of economics which assesses the government revenue and government expenditure of the public authorities and the adjustment of one or the other to achieve desirable effects and avoid undesirable ones.[2] The purview of public finance is considered[by whom?] to be threefold: governmental effects on (1) efficient allocation of resources, (2) distribution of income, and (3) macroeconomic stabilization.Contents1 Overview 2
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Foreign Exchange Market
The foreign exchange market (Forex, FX, or currency market) is a global decentralized or over-the-counter (OTC) market for the trading of currencies. This market determines the foreign exchange rate. It includes all aspects of buying, selling and exchanging currencies at current or determined prices. In terms of trading volume, it is by far the largest market in the world, followed by the Credit market.[1] The main participants in this market are the larger international banks. Financial centers around the world function as anchors of trading between a wide range of multiple types of buyers and sellers around the clock, with the exception of weekends. Since currencies are always traded in pairs, the foreign exchange market does not set a currency's absolute value but rather determines its relative value by setting the market price of one currency if paid for with another
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Municipal Bond
A municipal bond, commonly known as a Muni Bond, is a bond issued by a local government or territory, or one of their agencies. It is generally used to finance public projects such as roads, schools, airports and seaports, and infrastructure-related repairs.[1] The term municipal bond is commonly used in the United States, which has the largest market of such trade-able securities in the world. As of 2011, the municipal bond market was valued at $3.7 trillion.[2] Potential issuers of municipal bonds include states, cities, counties, redevelopment agencies, special-purpose districts, school districts, public utility districts, publicly owned airports and seaports, and other governmental entities (or group of governments) at or below the state level having more than a de minimis amount of one of the three sovereign powers: the power of taxation, the power of eminent domain or the police power.[3] Municipal bonds may be general obligations of the issuer or secured by specified revenues
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Fixed Income
Fixed income
Fixed income
refers to any type of investment under which the borrower or issuer is obliged to make payments of a fixed amount on a fixed schedule. For example, the borrower may have to pay interest at a fixed rate once a year, and to repay the principal amount on maturity. Fixed-income securities can be contrasted with equity securities – often referred to as stocks and shares – that create no obligation to pay dividends or any other form of income. In order for a company to grow its business, it often must raise money – for example, to finance an acquisition; to buy equipment or land; or to invest in new product development. The terms on which investors will finance the company will depend on the risk profile of the company. The company can give up equity by issuing stock, or can promise to pay regular interest and repay the principal on the loan (bonds or bank loans). Fixed-income securities also trade differently than equities
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