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Stephen Wolfram
Stephen Wolfram
Stephen Wolfram
(born August 29, 1959) is a British-American[7] computer scientist, physicist, and businessman. He is known for his work in computer science, mathematics, and in theoretical physics.[8][9] In 2012 he was named an inaugural fellow of the American Mathematical Society.[10] As a businessman, he is the founder and CEO of the software company Wolfram Research
Wolfram Research
where he worked as chief designer of Mathematica
Mathematica
and the Wolfram Alpha
Wolfram Alpha
answer engine
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Peer-reviewed
Peer review
Peer review
is the evaluation of work by one or more people of similar competence to the producers of the work (peers). It constitutes a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field. Peer review
Peer review
methods are employed to maintain standards of quality, improve performance, and provide credibility. In academia, scholarly peer review is often used to determine an academic paper's suitability for publication. Peer review
Peer review
can be categorized by the type of activity and by the field or profession in which the activity occurs, e.g., medical peer review.Contents1 Professional 2 Scholarly 3 Government policy 4 Medical 5 See also 6 ReferencesProfessional[edit] Professional peer review focuses on the performance of professionals, with a view to improving quality, upholding standards, or providing certification
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Wunderkind
In psychology research literature, the term child prodigy is defined as a person under the age of ten who produces meaningful output in some domain to the level of an adult expert performer.[1][2][3] The term Wunderkind (from German: Wunderkind, literally "wonder child") is sometimes used as a synonym for "prodigy", particularly in media accounts
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Knowledge-based Programming
A knowledge-based system (KBS) is a computer program that reasons and uses a knowledge base to solve complex problems. The term is broad and is used to refer to many different kinds of systems; the one common theme that unites all knowledge based systems is an attempt to represent knowledge explicitly via tools such as ontologies and rules rather than implicitly via code the way a conventional computer program does. A knowledge based system has three types of sub-systems: a knowledge base, an user interface and an inference engine. The knowledge base represents facts about the world, often in some form of subsumption ontology. The inference engine represents logical assertions and conditions about the world, usually represented via IF-THEN rules.[1] Contents1 Overview 2 Eliciting and Integrating knowledge with data 3 See also 4 References 5 Further readingOverview[edit] Knowledge-based systems were first developed by artificial intelligence researchers
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Bochum
Bochum
Bochum
(German pronunciation: [ˈboːxʊm] ( listen); Westphalian: Baukem) is a city in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
Germany
and part of the Arnsberg region. It is located in the Ruhr area and is surrounded by the cities (in clockwise direction) of Herne, Castrop-Rauxel, Dortmund, Witten, Hattingen, Essen
Essen
and Gelsenkirchen. With a population of nearly 365,000, it is the 16th most populous city in Germany
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Enemy Alien
An enemy or a foe is an individual or a group that is verified as forcefully adverse or threatening. The concept of an enemy has been observed to be "basic for both individuals and communities".[1] The term "enemy" serves the social function of designating a particular entity as a threat, thereby invoking an intense emotional response to that entity.[2] The state of being or having an enemy is enmity, foehood or foeship.Contents1 Terms 2 As a function of social science 3 In literature 4 Treatment4.1 Religious doctrines5 See also 6 References 7 External linksTerms[edit] Duel
Duel
between two enemiesThe term enemy is derived from Latin for "bad friend" (Latin: inimicus).[3] "Enemy" is a strong word, and "emotions associated with the enemy would include anger, hatred, frustration, envy, jealousy, fear, distrust, and possibly grudging respect".[2] As a political concept, an enemy is likely to be met with hate, violence, battle and war
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Lady Margaret Hall
Lady Margaret Hall, referred to as LMH colloquially,[2] is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
in England, located on the banks of the River Cherwell
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Claude Lévi-Strauss
Claude Lévi-Strauss
Claude Lévi-Strauss
(English: /klɔːd ˈleɪvi ˈstraʊs/;[1] French: [klod levi stʁos]; 28 November 1908, Brussels
Brussels
– 30 October 2009, Paris)[2][3][4] was a French anthropologist and ethnologist whose work was key in the development of the theory of structuralism and structural anthropology.[5] He held the chair of Social Anthropology
Anthropology
at the Collège de France
Collège de France
between 1959 and 1982 and was elected a member of the Académie française
Académie française
in 1973
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The Savage Mind
The Savage Mind (French: La Pensée sauvage) is a 1962 work of structural anthropology by Claude Lévi-Strauss. The English translation appeared in 1966.Contents1 Contents1.1 "The Savage Mind" 1.2 Critique of totemism2 SignificanceContents[edit] "The Savage Mind"[edit] Lévi-Strauss makes clear that "la pensée sauvage" refers not to the discrete mind of any particular type of human, but rather to 'untamed' human thought: "In this book it is neither the mind of savages nor that of primitive or archaic humanity, but rather mind in its untamed state as distinct from mind cultivated or domesticated for the purpose of yielding a return." (219) Savage thought, Lévi-Strauss argues, continually gathers and applies structures wherever they can be used
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Reichstag Fire
The Reichstag fire
Reichstag fire
(German: Reichstagsbrand,  listen (help·info)) was an arson attack on the Reichstag building (home of the German parliament) in Berlin
Berlin
on 27 February 1933, just one month after Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
had been sworn in as Chancellor of Germany. The Nazis stated that Marinus van der Lubbe, a Dutch council communist, was found near the building. The Nazis publicly blamed the fire on communist agitators in general, although in a German court in 1933, it was decided that Van Der Lubbe had acted alone, as he claimed to have done. After the fire, the Reichstag Fire Decree was passed. The fire was used as evidence by the Nazi Party that communists were plotting against the German government. The event is seen as pivotal in the establishment of Nazi Germany. The fire started in the Reichstag building, the assembly location of the German Parliament
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Paula Heimann
Paula Heimann
Paula Heimann
(née Klatzko, 2 February 1899 – 22 October 1982) was a German psychiatrist and psychoanalyst, who established the phenomenon of countertransference as an important tool of psychoanalytic treatment.[1]Contents1 Life in Germany 2 Emigration and work in the United Kingdom 3 Works 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksLife in Germany[edit] After studying medicine in Königsberg, Berlin, and Frankfurt, Paula Klatzko took and passed her Staatsexamen (state exams) in Breslau. There she met her future husband, the physician Franz Heimann. Together they went to Heidelberg
Heidelberg
where she trained to be a psychiatrist from 1924–1927. She wrote her doctoral dissertation in 1925. Their daughter Mirza was born that same year. In 1927, the Heimann family moved to Berlin, where she began her psychoanalytic training under Theodor Reik
Theodor Reik
in 1929
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Quantum Field Theory
In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics. It is a set of notions and mathematical tools that combines classical fields, special relativity, and quantum mechanics,[1] and, when combined with the cluster decomposition principle,[2] it may be the only way to do so,[3] while retaining the ideas of quantum point particles and locality. QFT was historically widely believed to be truly fundamental. It is now believed, primarily due to the continued failures of quantization of general relativity, to be only a very good low-energy approximation, i.e. an effective field theory, to some more fundamental theory. QFT treats particles as excited states of an underlying field, so these are called field quanta
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George Zweig
George Zweig
George Zweig
(born May 30, 1937) is a Russian-American physicist. He was trained as a particle physicist under Richard Feynman.[1] He introduced, independently of Murray Gell-Mann, the quark model (although he named it "aces"). He later turned his attention to neurobiology. He has worked as a Research Scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory and MIT, and in the financial services industry.Contents1 Early life 2 Career 3 Awards and honors 4 ReferencesEarly life[edit] Zweig was born in Moscow, Russia into a Jewish family.[2] His father was a type of civil engineer known as a structural engineer. He graduated from the University of Michigan
University of Michigan
in 1959, with a bachelor's degree in mathematics, having taken numerous physics courses as electives
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Particle Physics
Particle
Particle
physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation. Although the word "particle" can refer to various types of very small objects (e.g. protons, gas particles, or even household dust), "particle physics" usually investigates the irreducibly smallest detectable particles and the fundamental interactions necessary to explain their behaviour. By our current understanding, these elementary particles are excitations of the quantum fields that also govern their interactions. The currently dominant theory explaining these fundamental particles and fields, along with their dynamics, is called the Standard Model. Thus, modern particle physics generally investigates the Standard Model
Standard Model
and its various possible extensions, e.g
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Matter Creation
Even restricting the discussion to physics, we do not have a unique definition of what matter is. In the currently known particle physics, summarised by the standard model of elementary particles and interactions, it is possible to distinguish in an absolute sense particles of matter and particles of antimatter. This is particularly easy for those particles that carry electric charge, such as electrons or protons or quarks. In the standard model, it is not possible to create a net amount of matter particles--or more precisely, it is not possible to change the net number of leptons or of quarks in any perturbative reaction among particles. This remark is consistent with all existing observations. However, similar processes are not considered to be impossible, and in fact they are expected in other models of the elementary particles, that extend the standard model
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Annihilation
In particle physics, annihilation is the process that occurs when a subatomic particle collides with its respective antiparticle to produce other particles, such as an electron colliding with a positron to produce two photons.[1] The total energy and momentum of the initial pair are conserved in the process and distributed among a set of other particles in the final state. Antiparticles have exactly opposite additive quantum numbers from particles, so the sums of all quantum numbers of such an original pair are zero. Hence, any set of particles may be produced whose total quantum numbers are also zero as long as conservation of energy and conservation of momentum are obeyed.[2] During a low-energy annihilation, photon production is favored, since these particles have no mass
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