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 picture info Steam Distillation Steam distillation is a special type of distillation (a separation process) for temperature sensitive materials like natural aromatic compounds. It once was a popular laboratory method for purification of organic compounds, but has become obsolete by vacuum distillation. Steam distillation remains important in certain industrial sectors. Many organic compounds tend to decompose at high sustained temperatures. Separation by distillation at the normal (1 atmosphere) boiling points is not an option, so water or steam is introduced into the distillation apparatus. The water vapor carries small amounts of the vaporized compounds to the condensation flask, where the condensed liquid phase separates, allowing easy collection. This process effectively enables distillation at lower temperatures, reducing the deterioration of the desired products [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] picture info Aniline Aniline is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2. Consisting of a phenyl group attached to an amino group, aniline is the prototypical aromatic amine. Its main use is in the manufacture of precursors to polyurethane and other industrial chemicals. Like most volatile amines, it has the odor of rotten fish [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] picture info Celsius The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI). As an SI derived unit, it is used by all countries in the world, except the United States, Myanmar, and Liberia. It is named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who developed a similar temperature scale. The degree Celsius (symbol: °C) can refer to a specific temperature on the Celsius scale as well as a unit to indicate a temperature interval, a difference between two temperatures or an uncertainty [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] Vapor–liquid Equilibrium In thermodynamics and chemical engineering, the vapor–liquid equilibrium (VLE) describes the distribution of a chemical species between the vapor phase and a liquid phase. The concentration of a vapor in contact with its liquid, especially at equilibrium, is often expressed in terms of vapor pressure, which will be a partial pressure (a part of the total gas pressure) if any other gas(es) are present with the vapor. The equilibrium vapor pressure of a liquid is in general strongly dependent on temperature. At vapor–liquid equilibrium, a liquid with individual components in certain concentrations will have an equilibrium vapor in which the concentrations or partial pressures of the vapor components have certain values depending on all of the liquid component concentrations and the temperature [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] picture info Partial Pressure In a mixture of gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the hypothetical pressure of that gas if it alone occupied the entire volume of the original mixture at the same temperature. The total pressure of an ideal gas mixture is the sum of the partial pressures of the gases in the mixture. It relies on the following isotherm relation: ${\displaystyle {\frac {V_{x}}{V_{tot}}}={\frac {p_{x} [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] picture info International Standard Book Number The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each separate edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is ten digits long if assigned before 2007, and thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-specific and varies between countries, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering (SBN) created in 1966 [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] picture info Digital Object Identifier In computing, a digital object identifier (DOI) is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). An implementation of the Handle System, DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to identify their referents uniquely [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] Theoretical Plate A theoretical plate in many separation processes is a hypothetical zone or stage in which two phases, such as the liquid and vapor phases of a substance, establish an equilibrium with each other. Such equilibrium stages may also be referred to as an equilibrium stage, ideal stage, or a theoretical tray. The performance of many separation processes depends on having series of equilibrium stages and is enhanced by providing more such stages [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] picture info Steam Engine A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. The steam engine uses the force produced by steam pressure to push a piston back and forth inside a cylinder. This pushing force is transformed, by a connecting rod and flywheel, into rotational force for work. The term "steam engine" is generally applied only to reciprocating engines as just described, not to the steam turbine. Steam engines are external combustion engines, where the working fluid is separated from the combustion products [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] picture info Laboratory Equipment A laboratory ( or picture info Soap Soap is both a salt of a fatty acid and the term for a variety of cleansing and lubricating products produced from it. Household uses for soaps include washing, bathing, and other types of housekeeping, where soaps act as surfactants, emulsifying oils to enable them to be carried away by water [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] picture info Fatty Acid In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated. Most naturally occurring fatty acids have an unbranched chain of an even number of carbon atoms, from 4 to 28. Fatty acids are usually derived from triglycerides or phospholipids. Fatty acids are important dietary sources of fuel for animals because, when metabolized, they yield large quantities of ATP. Many cell types can use either glucose or fatty acids for this purpose. Long-chain fatty acids cannot cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and so cannot be used as fuel by the cells of the central nervous system; picture info Petrochemical Petrochemicals, also called petroleum distillates, are chemical products derived from petroleum. Some chemical compounds made from petroleum are also obtained from other fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas, or renewable sources such as corn or sugar cane. The two most common petrochemical classes are olefins (including ethylene and propylene) and aromatics (including benzene, toluene and xylene isomers). Oil refineries produce olefins and aromatics by fluid catalytic cracking of petroleum fractions. Chemical plants produce olefins by steam cracking of natural gas liquids like ethane and propane. Aromatics are produced by catalytic reforming of naphtha. Olefins and aromatics are the building-blocks for a wide range of materials such as solvents, detergents, and adhesives [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] picture info Oil Refinery Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils. Oil refineries are typically large, sprawling industrial complexes with extensive piping running throughout, carrying streams of fluids between large chemical processing units, such as distillation columns. In many ways, oil refineries use much of the technology of, and can be thought of, as types of chemical plants. The crude oil feedstock has typically been processed by an oil production plant [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]