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Station Wagon
A STATION WAGON, also called an ESTATE CAR, ESTATE WAGON, or simply WAGON or ESTATE, is an automotive body-style variant of a sedan/saloon with its roof extended rearward over a shared passenger/cargo volume with access at the back via a third or fifth door (the liftgate or tailgate ), instead of a trunk lid. The body style transforms a standard three-box design into a two-box design — to include an A, B, and C-pillar , as well as a D-pillar. Station wagons can flexibly reconfigure their interior volume via fold-down rear seats to prioritize either passenger or cargo volume
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Kombi (other)
KOMBI or COMBI may refer to: KOMBI * Battle of Kombi , a 1647 battle between Ndongo-Matamba (assisted by the Dutch) and the Portuguese * Kombi , a Japanese term for a comedy duo * Kombi (band) , a Polish pop rock band * Kombini , a type of Japanese convenience store * Volkswagen
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Buick Sport Wagon
The BUICK SPORT WAGON was a mid-size station wagon built by Buick
Buick
and a corporate sister of the Oldsmobile Vista Cruiser
Oldsmobile Vista Cruiser
. Featuring a raised roof and skylights over the cargo and second seat area, this model was an extended wheelbase version of the Buick
Buick
Skylark station wagon. Buick
Buick
Sport Wagons were built in three generations, spanning 1964–67, 1968–69, and 1970–72. During this time period, this was the only luxury level station wagon offered under the Buick
Buick
model line. The last generation did not receive the skylights. CONTENTS * 1 1964–1967 * 2 1968–1969 * 3 1970–1972 * 4 1978–1980 * 5 References * 6 External links 1964–1967An innovative model was introduced on February 4, 1964
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Peugeot 508
The PEUGEOT 508 is a large family car launched in 2011 by French automaker Peugeot
Peugeot
, and followed by the 508 SW, an estate version, in March 2011. It replaces the Peugeot
Peugeot
407 , as well as the larger Peugeot
Peugeot
607 , for which no more direct replacement is scheduled. It shares its platform and most engine options with the second generation Citroën C5
Citroën C5
: the two cars are produced alongside one another at the company's Rennes Plant , and in Wuhan
Wuhan
, China
China
for sales inside China. At the end of 2014, Peugeot
Peugeot
launched the new generation of 508, 508 SW and also RXH. The front of the car was redesigned, and full led headlights are now available. New engines were also launched, for example, a new engine, front wheel drive appeared for the RXH
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Car Body Style
Governments and private organizations have developed CAR CLASSIFICATION schemes that are used for innumerable purposes including regulation, description and categorization, among others. This article details commonly used classification schemes in use worldwide
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Sedan (automobile)
A SEDAN /sɪˈdæn/ (American , Canadian , Australian , and New Zealand English ) or SALOON (British , Irish and Indian English ) is a passenger car in a three-box configuration with A, B max-width:224px"> 1962 Rambler Classic 2- and 4-door sedans The primary purpose of the sedan is to transport people and their baggage on ordinary roads. Sedan versions of the automobile body style have a central pillar (B-pillar) that supports the roof and come in two- and four-door versions. Sedans usually have a two-box or three-box body. In the U.S., the term sedan has been used to denote a car with fixed window frames, as opposed to the hardtop style without a "B" pillar and where the sash or window frame, if any, winds down with the glass. Popular in the U.S. from the 1950s through the 1970s, true hardtop body designs have become increasingly rare
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Liftgate
A TAIL LIFT (term used in the UK, also called a "liftgate" in North America) is a mechanical device permanently installed on the rear of a work truck, van , or lorry , and is designed to facilitate the materials handling of goods from ground level or a loading dock to the level of the vehicle bed, or vice versa. The majority of tail lifts are hydraulic or pneumatic in operation, although they can be mechanical, and are controlled by an operator using an electric relay switch . Using a tail lift can make it unnecessary to use machinery such as a forklift truck to load heavy items on to a vehicle. A tail lift can also bridge the difference in height between a loading dock and the vehicle load bed. Tail lifts are available for many sizes of vehicle, from standard vans to articulated lorries, and standard models can lift anywhere up to 2500kg
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Three-box Styling
THREE-BOX DESIGN is a broad automotive styling term describing a coupé , sedan , notchback or hatchback where—when viewed in profile—principal volumes are articulated into three separate compartments or boxes: engine, passenger and cargo. Three-box designs are highly variable. The Renault Dauphineis a three-box that carries its engine in the rear and its cargo up front. The styling of the Škoda Octaviaintegrates a hatchback with the articulation of a three-box. This style was later used by its larger Škoda Superb , which marketed as the TwinDoor, within the liftgate operable as a trunk lid or as a full hatchback. As with the third generation European Ford Escort (also a hatchback), the third box may be vestigial. And three-box styling need not be boxy: Car Design News calls the fluid and rounded Fiat Lineaa three-box design —and most examples of the markedly bulbous styling of the ponton genre are three-box designs
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Pillar (car)
PILLARS are the vertical or near vertical supports of a car 's window area or greenhouse —designated respectively as the A, B, C or (in larger cars) D-pillar, moving from the front to rear, in profile view. The consistent alphabetical designation of a car's pillars provides a common reference for design discussion and critical communication. As an example, rescue teams employ pillar nomenclature to facilitate communication when cutting wrecked vehicles, as when using the jaws of life . The B pillars are sometimes referred to as "posts" (two-door or four-door post sedan). CONTENTS * 1 Design * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links DESIGNIn the case of the B (or center) pillar on four-door sedans, the pillar is typically a closed steel structure welded at the bottom to the car's rocker panel and floorpan , as well as on the top to the roof rail or panel
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American Heritage Dictionary
THE AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE (AHD) is an American dictionary of English published by Boston publisher Houghton Mifflin , the first edition of which appeared in 1969. Its creation was spurred by the controversy over the Webster\'s Third New International Dictionary
Dictionary
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Linguistics * 3 Usage panel * 4 Illustrations * 5 First edition * 6 Second and later editions * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links HISTORYJames Parton, the publisher (and co-owner) of the history magazine American Heritage , was appalled by the permissiveness of Webster\'s Third , published in 1961, and tried to buy the G. and C. Merriam Company so he could undo the changes. When that failed, he contracted with Houghton to publish a new dictionary
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Model Range
An AUTOMOBILE MODEL (or CAR MODEL or MODEL OF CAR, and typically abbreviated to just "model") is a particular brand of vehicle sold under a marque by a manufacturer, usually within a range of models, usually of different sizes or capabilities. From an engineering point of view, a particular car model is usually defined and/or constrained by the use of a particular car chassis /bodywork combination or the same monocoque , although sometimes this is not the case, and the model represents a marketing segment. A model may also be referred to as a NAMEPLATE , specifically when referring to the product from the point of view of the manufacturer, especially a model over time. For example, the Chevrolet Suburban
Chevrolet Suburban
is the oldest automobile nameplate in continuous production, dating to 1934 (1935 model year), while the Chrysler New Yorker
Chrysler New Yorker
was (until its demise in 1996) the oldest North American car nameplate
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Automotive Platform Sharing
A CAR PLATFORM is a shared set of common design, engineering, and production efforts, as well as major components over a number of outwardly distinct models and even types of cars , often from different, but related marques . It is practiced in the automotive industry to reduce the costs associated with the development of products by basing those products on a smaller number of platforms. This further allows companies to create distinct models from a design perspective on similar underpinnings. CONTENTS * 1 Definition and benefits * 2 Examples * 3 Advantages * 4 Disadvantages * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links DEFINITION AND BENEFITSPlatform sharing is a product development method where different products and the brand attached share the same components. The purpose with platform sharing is to reduce the cost and have a more efficient product development process
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Powertrain
In a motor vehicle , the term POWERTRAIN or POWERPLANT describes the main components that generate power and deliver it to the road surface, water, or air. This includes the engine , transmission , drive shafts , differentials , and the final drive (drive wheels , continuous track as in military tanks or caterpillar tractors, propeller , etc.). More recently in hybrid Powertrains the battery, the electric motor and the control algorithm are also seen as elements of the Powertrain. Usually "powertrain" is used to refer to simply the engine and transmission, including the other components only if they are integral to the transmission. A motor vehicle's DRIVELINE or drivetrain consists of the parts of the powertrain excluding the engine and transmission. It is the portion of a vehicle, after the transmission, that changes depending on whether a vehicle is front-wheel , rear-wheel , or four-wheel drive , or less-common six-wheel or eight-wheel drive
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Popular Mechanics
POPULAR MECHANICS is a classic magazine of popular science and technology . First published by Henry Haven Windsor , January 11, 1902, it has been owned since 1958 by Hearst . There are nine international editions, including a now-defunct Latin American version that had been published for decades, and a newer South African edition. The Russian edition of Popular Mechanics
Popular Mechanics
has been issued since 2002. In 2013, the US edition changed from twelve to ten issues per year. CONTENTS * 1 Format * 2 History * 3 Podcast * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links FORMAT Popular Mechanics
Popular Mechanics
features regular sections on automotive, home, outdoors, science, and technology topics. A recurring column is "Jay Leno 's Garage" featuring observations by the famed late-night talk show host and vehicle enthusiast
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Renault Clio
The RENAULT CLIO is a supermini car (B-segment), produced by the French automobile manufacturer Renault
Renault
. It was launched in 1990, and was in its fourth generation in 2012. The Clio has had substantial critical and commercial success, being consistently one of Europe's top-selling cars since its launch, and it is largely credited with restoring Renault's reputation and stature after a difficult second half of the 1980s. The Clio is one of only three cars, the others being the Volkswagen Golf
Volkswagen Golf
and Opel Astra
Opel Astra
, to have been voted European Car of the Year twice, in 1991 and 2006
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Audi A4
The AUDI A4 is a line of compact executive cars produced since late 1994 by the German car manufacturer Audi
Audi
, a subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group
Volkswagen Group
. The A4 has been built in five generations and is based on the Volkswagen Group B platform . The first generation A4 succeeded the Audi 80
Audi 80
. The automaker's internal numbering treats the A4 as a continuation of the Audi 80
Audi 80
lineage, with the initial A4 designated as the B5-series, followed by the B6, B7, B8 and the B9. The B8 and B9 versions of the A4 are built on the Volkswagen Group
Volkswagen Group
MLB platform shared with many other Audi
Audi
models and potentially one Porsche
Porsche
model within Volkswagen