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Statin
Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase
HMG-CoA reductase
inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications. Statins have been found to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in those who are at high risk of cardiovascular disease. The evidence is strong that statins are effective for treating CVD in the early stages of the disease (secondary prevention) and in those at elevated risk but without CVD (primary prevention).[1][2] Side effects of statins include muscle pain, increased risk of diabetes mellitus, and abnormalities in liver enzyme tests.[3] Additionally, they have rare but severe adverse effects, particularly muscle damage.[4] They inhibit the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase
HMG-CoA reductase
which plays a central role in the production of cholesterol
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Sudden Cardiac Death
Cardiac arrest
Cardiac arrest
is a sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart to effectively pump.[9] Symptoms include loss of consciousness and abnormal or absent breathing.[1][2] Some individuals may experience chest pain, shortness of breath, or nausea before cardiac arrest.[2] If not treated within minutes, it usually leads to death.[9] The most
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Dyslipidemia
Dyslipidemia is an abnormal amount of lipids (e.g. triglycerides, cholesterol and/or fat phospholipids) in the blood. In developed countries, most dyslipidemias are hyperlipidemias; that is, an elevation of lipids in the blood. This is often due to diet and lifestyle. Prolonged elevation of insulin levels can also lead to dyslipidemia. Likewise, increased levels of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) may cause dyslipidemia.[citation needed]Contents1 Classification1.1 Types2 Screening 3 ReferencesClassification[edit] Physicians and basic researchers classify dyslipidemias in two distinct ways:Presentation in the body (including the specific type of lipid that is increased) Underlying cause for the condition (genetic, or secondary to another condition)
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United States Preventive Services Task Force
The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) is "an independent panel of experts in primary care and prevention that systematically reviews the evidence of effectiveness and develops recommendations for clinical preventive services".[1] The task force, a panel of primary care physicians and epidemiologists, is funded, staffed, and appointed by the U.S
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Physical Exercise
Physical exercise
Physical exercise
is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.[1] It is performed for various reasons, including increasing growth and development, preventing aging, strengthening muscles and the cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, and also enjoyment. Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system and helps prevent certain "diseases of affluence" such as coronary heart disease,[2] type 2 diabetes,[3] and obesity
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Clinical Practice Guidelines
A medical guideline (also called a clinical guideline or clinical practice line) is a document with the aim of guiding decisions and criteria regarding diagnosis, management, and treatment in specific areas of healthcare. Such documents have been in use for thousands of years during the entire history of medicine. However, in contrast to previous approaches, which were often based on tradition or authority, modern medical guidelines are based on an examination of current evidence within the paradigm of evidence-based medicine.[1][2][3] They usually include summarized consensus statements on best practice in healthcare
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Generic Medication
A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance and intended use, but does not carry the brand name.[1][2] The generic drug may differ from the original in non-essential characteristics such as color, taste and packaging.[2][3] Although they may not be associated with a particular company, generic drugs are usually subject to government regulations in the countries where they are dispensed. They are labeled with the name of the manufacturer and a generic nonproprietary name such as the United States Adopted Name or international nonproprietary name of the drug. A generic drug must contain the same active ingredients as the original brand-name formulation. The U.S
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US$
 United States  East Timor[2][Note 1]  Ecuador[3][Note 2]  El Salvador[4]  Federated States of Micronesia  Marshall Islands  Palau  Panama[Note 3]  Zimbabwe[Note 4]3 non-U.S
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United States Dollar
The United States
United States
dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States
United States
and its territories per the United States
United States
Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent (¢) units, but is occasionally divided into 1000 mills (₥) for accounting. The circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
Notes that are denominated in United States dollars (12 U.S.C. § 418). Since the suspension in 1971[4] of convertibility of paper U.S. currency into any precious metal, the U.S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money.[5] As it is the most used in international transactions, the U.S
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High Blood Pressure
Hypertension
Hypertension
(HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.[10] High blood pressure usually does not cause symptoms.[1] Long-term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral vascular disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, and dementia.[2][3][4][11] High blood pressure is classified as either primary (essential) high blood pressure or secondary high blood pressure.[5] About
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Smoking
Smoking
Smoking
is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream. Most commonly the substance is the dried leaves of the tobacco plant which have been rolled into a small square of rice paper to create a small, round cylinder called a "cigarette". Smoking
Smoking
is primarily practiced as a route of administration for recreational drug use because the combustion of the dried plant leaves vaporizes and delivers active substances into the lungs where they are rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream and reach bodily tissue
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Releasing And Inhibiting Hormones
Releasing hormones and inhibiting hormones are hormones whose main purpose is to control the release of other hormones, either by stimulating or inhibiting their release. They are also called liberins (/ˈlɪbərɪnz/) and statins (/ˈstætɪnz/) (respectively), or releasing factors and inhibiting factors. The examples are hypothalamic-pituitary hormones that can be classified from several viewpoints: they are hypothalamic hormones (originating in the hypothalamus), they are hypophysiotropic hormones (affecting the hypophysis, that is, the pituitary gland), and they are tropic hormones (having other endocrine glands as their target). For example, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is released from the hypothalamus in response to low levels of secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the pituitary gland. The TSH in turn is under feedback control by the thyroid hormones T4 and T3
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Cochrane Review
Cochrane is a non-profit, non-governmental organization formed to organize medical research findings so as to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions faced by health professionals, patients, and policy makers.[4][5] Cochrane includes 53 review groups that are based at research institutions worldwide
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National Institute For Health And Clinical Excellence
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence
(NICE) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom,[1] which publishes guidelines in four areas:[2]the use of health technologies within the NHS (such as the use of new and existing medicines, treatments and procedures) clinical practice (guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific d
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American College Of Cardiology
The American College of Cardiology
American College of Cardiology
(ACC), based in Washington, D.C., is a nonprofit medical association established in 1949. The ACC is the professional home for the entire cardiovascular care team. The mission of the College and its more than 52,000 members is to transform cardiovascular care and to improve heart health. The ACC leads in the formation of health policy, standards and guidelines. The College operates national registries to measure and improve care, offers cardiovascular accreditation to hospitals and institutions, provides professional medical education, disseminates cardiovascular research and bestows credentials upon cardiovascular specialists who meet stringent qualifications
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American Heart Association
The American Heart
Heart
Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States
United States
that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke. Originally formed in New York City
New York City
in 1924 as the Association for the Prevention and Relief of Heart
Heart
Disease,[1] it is currently headquartered in Dallas, Texas. The American Heart
Heart
Association is a national voluntary health agency. They are known for publishing standards on basic life support and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS), and in 2014 issued its first guidelines for preventing strokes in women.[2] They are known also for operating a number of highly visible public service campaigns starting in the 1970s, and also operate a number of fundraising events
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