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State-owned Enterprise
A STATE-OWNED ENTERPRISE (SOE) is a legal entity that undertakes commercial activities on behalf of the state, its owner. The legal status of SOEs varies from being a part of the government to being stock companies with the state as a regular stockholder . The defining characteristics of SOEs are that they have a distinct legal form and are established to operate in commercial affairs and commercial activities. While they may also have public policy objectives (e.g., a state railway company may aim to make transportation more accessible), SOEs should be differentiated from other forms of government agencies or state entities established to pursue purely nonfinancial objectives. Government-owned corporations are common with natural monopolies and infrastructure, such as railways and telecommunications, strategic goods and services (mail, weapons), natural resources and energy, politically sensitive business, broadcasting, banking, demerit goods (e.g. alcoholic beverages ), and merit goods (healthcare)
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List Of Government-owned Companies
This is a LIST OF GOVERNMENT-OWNED COMPANIES. A government-owned corporation is a legal entity that undertakes commercial activities on behalf of an owner government . Their legal status varies from being a part of government to stock companies with a state as a regular stockholder . There is no standard definition of a government-owned corporation (GOC) or state-owned enterprise (SOE), although the two terms can be used interchangeably. The defining characteristics are that they have a distinct legal form and they are established to operate in commercial affairs. While they may also have public policy objectives, GOCs should be differentiated from other forms of government agencies or state entities established to pursue purely non-financial objectives
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Talk
TALK may refer to: * Conversation , interactive communication between two or more people * Speech , the production of a spoken language * Interaction , face to face conversations * Compulsive talking , beyond the bounds of what is considered to be a socially acceptable amount of talking * Communication , the encoding and decoding of exchanged messages between peopleCONTENTS * 1 Software * 2 Books * 3 Film and TV * 4 Music * 4.1 Albums * 4.2 Songs SOFTWARE * Google Talk , a Windows- and web-based instant messaging program * talk (software) , a Unix messaging program * AppleTalk , an early networking protocol designed by Apple for their Macintosh computersBOOKS * _Talk_ (play) , a play by Carl Hancock Rux * _Talk_ (magazine) , an American magazineFILM AND TV * _Talk_ (film) , a 1994 Australian film * Talk show , a broadcast program format * Talk radio , a radio formatMUSIC * Talk Talk , a British rock group active from 1981 to 1991ALBUMS * _Talk_ (Yes album) , 1994 * _Talk_ (Paul Kelly album) , 1981SONGS * "Talk" (Coldplay song) * "Talk" (DJ Snake song) * "Talk", by Kreesha Turner on the album _Passion _ * "Talk", by Tracy Bonham on the album _ The Liverpool Sessions _ * "Talk", by M.I.A
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Commerce
COMMERCE is "the activity of buying and selling, especially on a large scale". Commerce
Commerce
includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural and technological systems that are in operation in any country or internationally . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 See also * 4 References ETYMOLOGY Commerce
Commerce
is derived from the Latin
Latin
commercium, from cum and merx, merchandise. HISTORY The caduceus has been used today as the symbol of commerce with which Mercury has traditionally been associated. Some commentators trace the origins of commerce to the very start of transaction in prehistoric times. Apart from traditional self-sufficiency , trading became a principal facility of prehistoric people, who bartered what they had for goods and services from each other. Historian Peter Watson and Ramesh Manickam dates the history of long-distance commerce from circa 150,000 years ago. In historic times, the introduction of currency as a standardized money , facilitated a wider exchange of goods and services. Numismatists have collections of these pokem tokens, which include coins from some Ancient World large-scale societies, although initial usage involved unmarked lumps of precious metal
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Joint-stock Company
A JOINT-STOCK COMPANY is a business entity in which different amount of shares of the company stock can be bought and sold by shareholders . Each shareholder owns company stock in proportion, evidenced by their shares (certificates of ownership). That allows for the unequal ownership of a business with some shareholders owning more of a company than others. Shareholders are able to transfer their shares to others without any effects to the continued existence of the company. In modern-day corporate law , the existence of a joint-stock company is often synonymous with incorporation (possession of legal personality separate from shareholders) and limited liability (shareholders are liable for the company's debts only to the value of the money they invested in the company). Therefore, joint-stock companies are commonly known as corporations or limited companies . Some jurisdictions still provide the possibility of registering joint-stock companies without limited liability. In the United Kingdom and other countries that have adopted its model of company law, they are known as unlimited companies . In the United States
United States
, they are known simply as joint-stock companies
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Shareholder
A SHAREHOLDER or STOCKHOLDER is an individual or institution (including a corporation ) that legally owns one or more shares of stock in a public or private corporation . Shareholders may be referred to as members of a corporation. Legally, a person is not a shareholder in a corporation until his or her name and other details are entered in the register of shareholders. Shareholders of a corporation are legally separate from the corporation itself. They are generally not liable for the debts of the corporation; and the shareholders' liability for company debts are said to be limited to the unpaid share price, unless if a shareholder has offered guarantees. DESCRIPTIONShareholders are granted special privileges depending on the class of stock. The board of directors of a corporation generally governs a corporation for the benefit of shareholders
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Public Policy
PUBLIC POLICY is the principled guide to action taken by the administrative executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues, in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs . The foundation of public policy is composed of national constitutional laws and regulations. Further substrates include both judicial interpretations and regulations which are generally authorized by legislation. Public policy
Public policy
is considered strong when it solves problems efficiently and effectively, serves justice, supports governmental institutions and policies, and encourages active citizenship. Other scholars define public policy as a system of "courses of action, regulatory measures, laws , and funding priorities concerning a given topic promulgated by a governmental entity or its representatives." Public policy
Public policy
is commonly embodied in "constitutions, legislative acts, and judicial decisions." In the United States
United States
, this concept refers not only to the result of policies, but more broadly to the decision-making and analysis of governmental decisions. As an academic discipline , public policy is studied by professors and students at public policy schools of major universities throughout the country. The U.S
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Railway Company
A RAILWAY COMPANY or RAILROAD COMPANY is an entity that operates a railroad track or trains . Such a company can either be private or public . Some railway companies operate both the trains and the track, while particularly in European Union
European Union
ownership of track and train operation is separated in different companies. STRUCTUREMany countries have a national railway company that owns all track and operates all trains in the country, for instance the Russian Railways (the world's largest rail company by network size). Other countries have many different, sometimes competing, railway companies that operate each their own lines, particularly in the United States and Canada
Canada
. In Europe, the EU requires its members to split the railway companies into a number of different companies. Usually public owned companies own the track and other public companies (sometimes owned by regional governments) own the train cars . Public service obligations or franchising is then used to determine the right to operate the line for a limited time period, with multiple private companies bidding for the privilege to operate. Other companies offer trackside and rolling stock maintenance
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Natural Monopoly
A NATURAL MONOPOLY is a monopoly in an industry in which high infrastructural costs and other barriers to entry relative to the size of the market give the largest supplier in an industry, often the first supplier in a market, an overwhelming advantage over potential competitors . This frequently occurs in industries where capital costs predominate, creating economies of scale that are large in relation to the size of the market; examples include public utilities such as water services and electricity . Natural monopolies were discussed as a potential source of market failure by John Stuart Mill , who advocated government regulation to make them serve the public good . CONTENTS* 1 Definition * 1.1 Formal definition * 2 History * 3 Regulation
Regulation
* 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading DEFINITION This section includes a list of references , related reading or external links , BUT ITS SOURCES REMAIN UNCLEAR BECAUSE IT LACKS INLINE CITATIONS . Please help to improve this section by introducing more precise citations. (July 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )Two different types of cost are important in microeconomics : MARGINAL COST , and FIXED COST . The marginal cost is the cost to the company of serving one more customer
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Demerit Good
In economics , a DEMERIT GOOD is "a good or service whose consumption is considered unhealthy, degrading, or otherwise socially undesirable due to the perceived negative effects on the consumers themselves". It is over-consumed if left to market forces. Examples of demerit goods include tobacco , alcoholic beverages , recreational drugs , gambling , junk food and prostitution . Because of the nature of these goods, governments often levy taxes on these goods (specifically, sin taxes ), in some cases regulating or banning consumption or advertisement of these goods. CONTENTS * 1 Concept * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Further reading CONCEPTThere is an important conceptual distinction between a demerit good and a negative externality . A negative externality occurs when the consumption of a good has measurable negative consequences on others who do not consume the good themselves. Pollution (due, for example, to automobile use) is the canonical example of a negative externality. Another example is cigarettes. It not only affects a deliberate or addicted smoker through damage to health, but also indirect smokers exposed to the smoke (second hand smoking ). By contrast, a demerit good is viewed as undesirable because its consumption has negative effects upon the consumer
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Merit Good
The concept of a MERIT GOOD introduced in economics by Richard Musgrave (1957, 1959) is a commodity which is judged that an individual or society should have on the basis of some concept of need, rather than ability and willingness to pay. The term is, perhaps, less often used today than it was in the 1960s to 1980s but the concept still lies behind many economic actions by governments which are not performed specifically for financial reasons or by supporting incomes (e.g. via tax rebates). Examples include the provision of food stamps to support nutrition, the delivery of health services to improve quality of life and reduce morbidity, subsidized housing and arguably education. In many cases, merit goods provide services which it is argued should apply universally to everyone in a particular situation, a view that is close to the concept of primary goods found in work by philosopher John Rawls or discussions about social inclusion . On the supply side, it is sometimes suggested that there will be more support in society for implicit redistribution via the provision of certain kinds of goods and services, rather than explicit redistribution through income. Alternatively, it is sometimes suggested that society in general may be in a better position to determine what individuals need (such arguments are often criticised for being paternalistic, often by those who would like to reduce to a minimum economic activity by government)
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State Ownership
STATE OWNERSHIP (also called PUBLIC OWNERSHIP and GOVERNMENT OWNERSHIP) refers to property interests that are vested in the state or a public body representing a community as opposed to an individual or private party . State ownership
State ownership
may refer to ownership and control of any asset , industry , or enterprise at any level (national , regional , local or municipal ); or to non-governmental public ownership. The process of bringing an asset into state ownership is called nationalization or municipalization . State ownership
State ownership
is one of the three major forms of property ownership, differentiated from private, cooperative and common ownership . In market-based economies , state-owned assets are frequently managed and operated as joint-stock corporations with a government owning either all or a controlling stake of the shares . This form is often referred to as a state-owned enterprise . A state-owned enterprise might variously operate as a not-for-profit corporation , as it may not be required to generate a profit; as a commercial enterprise in competitive sectors; or as a natural monopoly . Governments may also use the profitable entities they own to support the general budget . The creation of a state-owned enterprise from other forms of public property is called corporatization . In Soviet-type economies , state property was the dominant form of industry as property
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Stock
The STOCK (also CAPITAL STOCK) of a corporation is constituted of the equity stock of its owners. A single share of the stock represents fractional ownership of the corporation in proportion to the total number of shares. In liquidation, the stock represents the residual assets of the company that would be due to stockholders after discharge of all senior claims such as secured and unsecured debt . Stockholders' equity cannot be withdrawn from the company in a way that is intended to be detrimental to the company's creditors. CONTENTS * 1 Shares
Shares
* 2 Types * 2.1 Rule 144 stock * 3 Stock
Stock
derivatives * 4 History * 5 Shareholder * 6 Application * 6.1 Shareholder rights * 6.2 Means of financing * 7 Trading * 7.1 Buying * 7.2 Selling * 7.3 Stock
Stock
price fluctuations * 7.4 Share price determination * 7.5 Arbitrage trading * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links SHARESThe stock of a corporation is partitioned into shares , the total of which are stated at the time of business formation. Additional shares may subsequently be authorized by the existing shareholders and issued by the company. In some jurisdictions, each share of stock has a certain declared par value , which is a nominal accounting value used to represent the equity on the balance sheet of the corporation
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China Investment Corporation
Ding Xuedong (Chairman and CEO) Li Keping ( Vice Chairman , President and CIO ) OPERATING INCOME US$ 74.474 Billion (2015) NET INCOME US$ 73.944 Billion (2015) TOTAL ASSETS US$ 813.762 Billion (2015) TOTAL EQUITY US$ 724.742 Billion (2015) NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 467 (2013) SUBSIDIARIES Central Huijin Investment WEBSITE www.china-inv.cnCHINA INVESTMENT CORPORATION (CIC) (Chinese : 中国投资有限责任公司; pinyin : zhōngguó tóuzī yǒuxiàn zérèn gōngsī) is a sovereign wealth fund responsible for managing part of the People's Republic of China's foreign exchange reserves . CIC was established in 2007 with approximately US$200 billion of assets under management . At the end of 2015, the CIC had over US$810 billion in assets under management. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Governance * 2.1 Board of Directors * 2.2 Board of Supervisors * 2.3 Executive Committee * 2.4 International Advisory Council * 3 Subsidiaries and minority interests * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYAs of 2007, the People's Republic of China
China
has US$1.4 trillion in currency reserves , while this had grown by 2013 to US$3.44 trillion. The China
China
Investment Corporation was established with the intent of utilizing these reserves for the benefit of the state, modeled according to Temasek Holdings of Singapore
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Morgan Stanley
MORGAN STANLEY (NYSE : MS) is a leading global financial services firm providing investment banking, securities, wealth management and investment management services. It is headquartered at 1585 Broadway in the Morgan Stanley Building , Midtown Manhattan , New York City. With offices in more than 42 countries and more than 55,000 employees, the firm's clients include corporations, governments, institutions and individuals. Morgan Stanley, formed by J.P. Morgan "> The Morgan Stanley Building Morgan Stanley is a leading global financial services corporation that, through its subsidiaries and affiliates, advises, and originates, trades, manages and distributes capital for, governments, institutions and individuals. The company operates in three business segments: Institutional Securities, Wealth Management, and Investment Management. Morgan Stanley's office on Times Square HISTORY See also: JPMorgan Chase and J.P. Morgan & Co. 1935–1950 Morgan Stanley traces its roots in the history of J.P. Morgan & Co. Following the Glass–Steagall Act , it was no longer possible for a corporation to have investment banking and commercial banking businesses under a single holding entity. J.P. Morgan & Co. chose the commercial banking business over the investment banking business. As a result, some of the employees of J.P
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