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State-owned Enterprise
A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is a business enterprise where the state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership.[1] Defining characteristics of SOEs are their distinct legal form and operation in commercial affairs and activities. While they may also have public policy objectives (e.g., a state railway company may aim to make transportation more accessible), SOEs should be differentiated from government agencies or state entities established to pursue purely nonfinancial objectives.[2]Contents1 Terminology 2 Sectors 3 Effects 4 SOEs around the world4.1 Europe 4.2 Middle East5 See also 6 References6.1 Citations 6.2 Sources7 Further readingTerminology[edit] The terminology around the term state-owned enterprise is murky
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Public Company
A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public corporation is a corporation whose ownership is dispersed among the general public in many shares of stock which are freely traded on a stock exchange or in over the counter markets. In some jurisdictions, public companies over a certain size must be listed on an exchange
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Irish Sugar
Greencore
Greencore
Group plc is a food company in Ireland. Established by the Irish government
Irish government
in 1991 when they privatised Irish Sugar, today its lines span mainly convenience food related interests in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom. Greencore
Greencore
is today the world's largest sandwich manufacturer. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index.Contents1 History 2 Operations 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] The company was established in 1926 in Carlow
Carlow
as a private enterprise known as the Irish Sugar Manufacturing Company, Limited. The Sugar Manufacture Act, 1933[3] was passed to promote self-sufficiency in sugar manufacture; this act was brought on by a crisis in the industry and resulted in the nationalisation of sugar manufacture
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Petroleum
Petroleum
Petroleum
is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface. It is commonly refined into various types of fuels. Components of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation i.e. separation of a liquid mixture into fractions differing in boiling point by means of distillation, typically using a fractionating column. It consists of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other organic compounds.[1] The name petroleum covers both naturally occurring unprocessed crude oil and petroleum products that are made up of refined crude oil. A fossil fuel, petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, usually zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and subjected to both intense heat and pressure. Petroleum
Petroleum
has mostly been recovered by oil drilling (natural petroleum springs are rare)
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Airport
AirPort
AirPort
is the name given to a series of products by Apple Inc.
Apple Inc.
using the (Wi-Fi) protocols (802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n and 802.11ac). These products comprise a number of wireless routers and wireless cards
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Airline
An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines utilize aircraft to supply these services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for codeshare agreements. Generally, airline companies are recognized with an air operating certificate or license issued by a governmental aviation body. Airlines vary in size, from small domestic airlines to full-service international airlines. Airline
Airline
services can be categorized as being intercontinental, domestic, regional, or international, and may be operated as scheduled services or charters. The largest airline currently is American Airlines
American Airlines
Group.Contents1 History1.1 The first airlines 1.2 European airline industry1.2.1 Beginnings 1.2.2 Rationalization 1.2.3 Global expansion 1.2.4 EU airline deregulation1.3 U.S
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Public Transport
Public transport
Public transport
(also known as public transportation, public transit, or mass transit) is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public, typically managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, and that charge a posted fee for each trip.[1][2][3] Examples of public transport include city buses, trolleybuses, trams (or light rail) and passenger trains, rapid transit (metro/subway/underground, etc.) and ferries
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Health Care
Health
Health
care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings. Healthcare is delivered by health professionals (providers or practitioners) in allied health fields. Physicians
Physicians
and physician associates are a part of these health professionals. Dentistry, midwifery, nursing, medicine, optometry, audiology, pharmacy, psychology, and other health professions are all part of healthcare. It includes work done in providing primary care, secondary care, and tertiary care, as well as in public health. Access to health care may vary across countries, communities, and individuals, largely influenced by social and economic conditions as well as the health policies in place
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Mail
The mail or post is a system for physically transporting postcards, letters, and parcels.[1] A postal service can be private or public, though many governments place restrictions on private systems. Since the mid-19th century, national postal systems have generally been established as government monopolies with a fee on the article prepaid. Proof of payment is often in the form of adhesive postage stamps, but postage meters are also used for bulk mailing. Modern private postal systems are typically distinguished from national postal agencies by the names "courier" or "delivery service". Postal authorities often have functions other than transporting letters. In some countries, a postal, telegraph and telephone (PTT) service oversees the postal system, in addition to telephone and telegraph systems
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Bank
A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.[1] Lending
Lending
activities can be performed either directly or indirectly through capital markets. Due to their importance in the financial stability of a country, banks are highly regulated in most countries. Most nations have institutionalized a system known as fractional reserve banking under which banks hold liquid assets equal to only a portion of their current liabilities. In addition to other regulations intended to ensure liquidity, banks are generally subject to minimum capital requirements based on an international set of capital standards, known as the Basel Accords. Banking
Banking
in its modern sense evolved in the 14th century in the prosperous cities of Renaissance Italy
Renaissance Italy
but in many ways was a continuation of ideas and concepts of credit and lending that had their roots in the ancient world
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British Steel Corporation
British Steel
Steel
plc was a major British steel producer. It originated from the nationalised British Steel
Steel
Corporation (BSC), formed in 1967 which was privatised as a public limited company, British Steel
Steel
plc in 1988. It was once a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. The company merged with Koninklijke Hoogovens
Koninklijke Hoogovens
to form Corus Group
Corus Group
in 1999.Contents1 History1.1 Nationalisation 1.2 Restructuring 1.3 Privatisation2 Chairmen 3 Sponsorships 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksHistory[edit] Alasdair M. Blair (1997), Professor of International Relations and Head of the Department of Politics and Public Policy at De Montfort University, has explored the history of British Steel
Steel
since the Second World War to evaluate the impact of government intervention in a market economy
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Statoil
Government of Norway
Norway
(67%) Government Pension Fund of Norway
Norway
(3%) GEK Terna (1%)Others (29%)Number of employees21,600 (2015)[3]Website www.statoil.com Statoil
Statoil
ASA (OSE: STL) is a Norwegian multinational oil and gas company headquartered in Stavanger, Norway. It is a fully integrated petroleum company with operations in thirty-six countries
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Bankrupt
Bankruptcy
Bankruptcy
is a legal status of a person or other entity that cannot repay debts to creditors. In most jurisdictions, bankruptcy is imposed by a court order, often initiated by the debtor. Bankruptcy
Bankruptcy
is not the only legal status that an insolvent person may have, and the term bankruptcy is therefore not a synonym for insolvency. In some countries, such as the United Kingdom, bankruptcy is limited to individuals; other forms of insolvency proceedings (such as liquidation and administration) are applied to companies. In the United States, bankruptcy is applied more broadly to formal insolvency proceedings
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Telecommunications Company
A telephone company, also known as a telco, telephone service provider,[1] or telecommunications operator, is a kind of communications service provider (CSP) (more precisely a telecommunications service provider or TSP) that provides telecommunications services such as telephony and data communications access. Many telephone companies were at one time government agencies or privately owned but state-regulated monopolies. The government agencies are often referred to, primarily in Europe, as PTTs (postal, telegraph and telephone services).[2] Telephone companies are common carriers, and in the United States
United States
are also called local exchange carriers
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OPEC
Organization of the Petroleum
Petroleum
Exporting Countries (OPEC, /ˈoʊpɛk/ OH-pek, or OPEP in several other languages) is an intergovernmental organization of 14 nations as of February 2018, founded in 1960 in Baghdad
Baghdad
by the first five members (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela), and headquartered since 1965 in Vienna, Austria
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Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia[c] (/ˌsɔːdi əˈreɪbiə/ ( listen), /ˌsaʊ-/ ( listen)), officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA),[d] is a sovereign Arab
Arab
state in Western Asia
Western Asia
constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula. With a land area of approximately 2,150,000 km2 (830,000 sq mi), Saudi Arabia
Arabia
is geographically the fifth-largest state in Asia
Asia
and second-largest state in the Arab
Arab
world after Algeria
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