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State-owned Enterprise
A STATE-OWNED ENTERPRISE (SOE) is a legal entity that undertakes commercial activities on behalf of the state, its owner. The legal status of SOEs varies from being a part of the government to being stock companies with the state as a regular stockholder . The defining characteristics of SOEs are that they have a distinct legal form and are established to operate in commercial affairs and commercial activities. While they may also have public policy objectives (e.g., a state railway company may aim to make transportation more accessible), SOEs should be differentiated from other forms of government agencies or state entities established to pursue purely nonfinancial objectives. Government-owned corporations are common with natural monopolies and infrastructure, such as railways and telecommunications, strategic goods and services (mail, weapons), natural resources and energy, politically sensitive business, broadcasting, banking, demerit goods (e.g
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Telecommunications Company
A TELEPHONE COMPANY, also known as a TELCO, TELEPHONE SERVICE PROVIDER, or TELECOMMUNICATIONS OPERATOR, is a kind of communications service provider (CSP) (more precisely a telecommunications service provider or TSP) that provides telecommunications services such as telephony and data communications access. Many telephone companies were at one time government agencies or privately owned but state-regulated monopolies . The government agencies are often referred to, primarily in Europe, as PTTs (postal, telegraph and telephone services ). Telephone companies are common carriers , and in the United States are also called local exchange carriers . With the advent of mobile telephony , telephone companies now include wireless carriers , or mobile network operators
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Industry
INDUSTRY is the production of goods or related services within an economy . The major source of revenue of a group or company is the indicator of its relevant industry. When a large group has multiple sources of revenue generation, it is considered to be working in different industries. Manufacturing
Manufacturing
industry became a key sector of production and labour in European and North American countries during the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
, upsetting previous mercantile and feudal economies. This came through many successive rapid advances in technology, such as the production of steel and coal
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Electrical Power Industry
The ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY is the generation , transmission , distribution and sale of electric power to the general public. The electrical industry started with introduction of electric lighting in 1882. Throughout the 1880s and 1890s, growing economic and safety concerns lead to the regulation of the industry. Once an expensive novelty limited to the most densely populated areas, reliable and economical electric power has become a requirement for normal operation of all elements of developed economies. By the middle of the 20th century, electric power was seen as a "natural monopoly ", only efficient if a restricted number of organizations participated in the market; in some areas, vertically-integrated companies provides all stages from generation to retail, and only governmental supervision regulated the rate of return and cost structure
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Petroleum
PETROLEUM (from Greek : petra: "rock" + oleum: "oil". ) is a naturally occurring , yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth
Earth
's surface. It is commonly refined into various types of fuels . Components of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation . It consists of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other organic compounds . The name petroleum covers both naturally occurring unprocessed CRUDE OIL and petroleum products that are made up of refined crude oil. A fossil fuel , petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, usually zooplankton and algae , are buried underneath sedimentary rock and subjected to both intense heat and pressure. Petroleum
Petroleum
has mostly been recovered by oil drilling (natural petroleum springs are rare)
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Airport
An AIRPORT is an aerodrome with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport. Airports often have facilities to store and maintain aircraft, and a control tower . An airport consists of a landing area , which comprises an aerially accessible open space including at least one operationally active surface such as a runway for a plane to take off or a helipad , and often includes adjacent utility buildings such as control towers , hangars and terminals . Larger airports may have fixed-base operator services , airport aprons , taxiway bridges , air traffic control centres, passenger facilities such as restaurants and lounges , and emergency services . An airport with a helipad for rotorcraft but no runway is called a heliport . An airport for use by seaplanes and amphibious aircraft is called a seaplane base . Such a base typically includes a stretch of open water for takeoffs and landings , and seaplane docks for tying-up
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World War II
Allied victory * Collapse of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires * Dissolution of the League of Nations * Creation of the United Nations
United Nations
* Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers * Beginning of the Cold War (more... ) PARTICIPANTS ALLIES AXIS COMMANDERS AND LEADERS MAIN ALLIED LEADERS Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Eastern Europe
EASTERN EUROPE is the eastern part of the European continent . There is no consensus on the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical , geographical, cultural, and socioeconomic connotations. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe
Europe
as there are scholars of the region". A related United Nations paper adds that "every assessment of spatial identities is essentially a social and cultural construct ". One definition describes Eastern Europe
Europe
as a cultural entity: the region lying in Europe
Europe
with the main characteristics consisting of Byzantine
Byzantine
, Eastern Orthodox , and some Ottoman influences. Another definition was created during the Cold War
Cold War
and used more or less synonymously with the term Eastern Bloc
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National Oil Company
A NATIONAL OIL COMPANY (NOC) is an oil company fully or in the majority owned by a national government. According to the World Bank
World Bank
, NOCs accounted for 75% global oil production and controlled 90% of proven oil reserves in 2010. Due to their increasing dominance over global reserves, the importance of NOCs relative to International Oil
Oil
Companies (IOCs), such as ExxonMobil
ExxonMobil
, BP , or Royal Dutch Shell
Royal Dutch Shell
, has risen dramatically in recent decades. NOCs are also increasingly investing outside their national borders
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Saudia
SAUDIA (Arabic : السعودية‎‎ as-Suʿūdiyyah), also known as SAUDI ARABIAN AIRLINES (الخطوط الجوية العربية السعودية), is the national carrier airline of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, based in Jeddah
Jeddah
. The airline's main operational base is at King Abdulaziz International Airport in Jeddah
Jeddah
. King Khalid International Airport in Riyadh
Riyadh
and King Fahd International Airport
King Fahd International Airport
in Dammam
Dammam
are secondary hubs. The new Dammam
Dammam
airport was opened for commercial use on 28 November 1999. Dhahran International Airport in use until then, has reverted to being used as a military base. The airline is the third largest in the Middle East in terms of revenue, behind Emirates and Qatar Airways
Qatar Airways

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SABIC
Prince Saud bin Abdullah bin Thenayan Al-Saud , Chairman (2003-) Yousef Al-Benyan , Acting Chief Executive Officer PRODUCTS Chemicals
Chemicals
and intermediates, industrial polymers , fertilizers and metals REVENUE $35.5 billion USD
USD
(2016) NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 40,000 (2014) WEBSITE www.sabic.com SABIC
SABIC
(Saudi Basic Industries Corporation) is a Saudi diversified manufacturing company, active in chemicals and intermediates, industrial polymers, fertilizers, and metals. It is the largest public company in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, as listed in Tadawul , but the Saudi government still owns 70% of its shares. SABIC
SABIC
is also the largest listed company in the Middle East. Private shareholders are from Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and other countries of the six-nation Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)
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Western Europe
WESTERN EUROPE is the region comprising the western part of Europe
Europe
. Below, some different geographic, geopolitical and cultural definitions of the term are outlined. For centuries, Western Europe
Europe
was defined as the countries with dominant Catholic and Protestant churches, while Eastern Europe
Europe
was dominated by the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
. A more contemporary definition subdivides Western Europe
Europe
into several other regions like Central Europe
Europe
or Northern Europe
Europe

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Airline
An AIRLINE is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight . Airlines utilize aircraft to supply these services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for codeshare agreements . Generally, airline companies are recognized with an air operating certificate or license issued by a governmental aviation body. Airlines vary in size, from small domestic airlines to full-service international airlines. Airline
Airline
services can be categorized as being intercontinental, domestic, regional, or international, and may be operated as scheduled services or charters . The largest airline currently is American Airlines Group
American Airlines Group
. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 The first airlines * 1.2 European airline industry * 1.2.1 Beginnings * 1.2.2 Rationalization * 1.2.3 Global expansion * 1.2.4 EU airline deregulation * 1.3 U.S
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Public Transport
PUBLIC TRANSPORT (also known as PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION, PUBLIC TRANSIT, or MASS TRANSIT) is a shared passenger -transport service which is available for use by the general public, as distinct from modes such as taxicab , carpooling , hired buses, and transportation network companies , which are not shared by the general public without private arrangement. Public transport
Public transport
modes include city buses , trolleybuses , trams (or light rail ) and passenger trains , rapid transit (metro/subway/underground, etc.) and ferries . Public transport between cities is dominated by airlines , coaches , and intercity rail . High-speed rail
High-speed rail
networks are being developed in many parts of the world. Most public transport systems run to a prearranged timetable, with the most frequent services running to a headway (e.g.: "every 5 minutes" as opposed to being scheduled for any specific time of the day)
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Bankrupt
BANKRUPTCY is a legal status of a person or other entity that cannot repay the debts it owes to creditors . In most jurisdictions, bankruptcy is imposed by a court order , often initiated by the debtor . Bankruptcy is not the only legal status that an insolvent person may have, and the term bankruptcy is therefore not a synonym for insolvency . In some countries, such as the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, bankruptcy is limited to individuals, and other forms of insolvency proceedings (such as liquidation and administration ) are applied to companies. In the United States
United States
, bankruptcy is applied more broadly to formal insolvency proceedings. In France, the cognate French word banqueroute is used solely for cases of fraudulent bankruptcy, whereas the term faillite (cognate of "failure") is used for bankruptcy in accordance with the law
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ÖBB
The AUSTRIAN FEDERAL RAILWAYS (German: ÖSTERREICHISCHE BUNDESBAHNEN or ÖBB, formerly the BUNDESBAHN ÖSTERREICH or BBÖ) is the national railway system of Austria
Austria
, and the administrator of Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
's railways. The ÖBB group is owned entirely by the Republic of Austria and is divided into several separate businesses that manage the infrastructure and operate passenger and freight services. The Austrian Federal Railways
Austrian Federal Railways
has had two discrete periods of existence. It was first formed in 1923, using the Bundesbahn Österreich name, as a successor to the Imperial Royal Austrian State Railways (kkStB), but was incorporated into the Deutsche Reichsbahn during the 1938–1945 Anschluss