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State Duma
GOVERNMENT (341) * United Russia (341)OPPOSITION (104) * Communist Party (42) * Liberal Democratic Party (39) * A Just Russia
A Just Russia
(23)OTHER (2) * Rodina (1) * Civic Platform (1) * Vacant (3) ELECTIONS VOTING SYSTEM * Party-list proportional representation
Party-list proportional representation
(2007 and 2011 elections) * Parallel voting with 5% threshold (1993 -2003 elections and since 2016 elections ) LAST ELECTION 18 September 2016 NEXT ELECTION September 2021 MEETING PLACE State Duma
Duma
Building Moscow, street Okhotny Ryad, 1 WEBSITE www.duma.gov.ru This article is about the modern Russian assembly. For the historical body, see State Duma of the Russian Empire . For other uses, see State Duma (other) and Duma (other)
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Parallel Voting
PARALLEL VOTING describes a mixed electoral system where voters in effect participate in two separate elections for a single chamber using different systems, and where the results in one election have little or no impact on the results of the other. Specifically, it usually refers to the semi-proportional system used in Japan
Japan
, South Korea
South Korea
, Taiwan
Taiwan
, some regions of Russia
Russia
and elsewhere, sometimes known as the SUPPLEMENTARY MEMBER (SM) system or, by some political scientists, MIXED MEMBER MAJORITARIAN (MMM), which combines first-past-the-post voting (FPTP) with party-list proportional representation (PR)
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Voting System
An ELECTORAL SYSTEM is the set of rules that determines how elections and referendums are conducted and how their results are determined. Political electoral systems are organized by governments, while non-political elections may take place in business, non-profit organisations and informal organisations. Electoral systems consist of sets of rules that govern all aspects of the voting process: when elections occur, who is allowed to vote , who can stand as a candidate, how ballots are marked and cast , how the ballots are counted (electoral method), limits on campaign spending , and other factors that can affect the outcome. Political electoral systems are defined by constitutions and electoral laws, are typically conducted by election commissions , and can use multiple types of elections for different offices
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Russian Language
RUSSIAN (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia
Russia
, Belarus
Belarus
, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularity in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
, the Baltics , the Caucasus
Caucasus
, and Central Asia
Central Asia
). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia
Latvia
, Moldova
Moldova
, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states
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Legislature
A LEGISLATURE is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city . Legislatures form important parts of most governments ; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as legislation . Legislatures observe and steer governing actions and usually have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process. The members of a legislature are called legislators . In a democracy , legislators are most commonly popularly elected , although indirect election and appointment by the executive are also used, particularly for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber
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Upper House
An UPPER HOUSE, sometimes called a senate , is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature (or one of three chambers of a tricameral legislature ), the other chamber being the lower house . The house formally designated as the upper house is usually smaller and often has more restricted power than the lower house. Examples of upper houses in countries include the United Kingdom's House of Lords
House of Lords
, India's Rajya Sabha , Russia's Federation Council , Ireland's Seanad
Seanad
, Malaysia's Dewan Negara , Germany's Bundesrat and the United States Senate
Senate

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Russian Criminal Code
The RUSSIAN CRIMINAL CODE (Russian : Уголовный кодекс Российской Федерации, frequently abbreviated УК РФ) is the prime source of the Law of the Russian Federation concerning criminal offences. The previous Criminal Code of the Russian Federation came into force on 1 January 1997. Moreover, on the 8 January President Yeltsin signed the Criminal Correctional Code to regulate the conditions of the sentences. The new Criminal Code replaced the Soviet analogue of 1960. The main changes deal with economic crimes and property crimes . These were the main pitfalls of the Soviet Criminal Code, as most of other chapters were already amended to correspond to new Russian realities
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Party-list Proportional Representation
PARTY-LIST PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation (PR) in elections in which multiple candidates are elected (e.g., elections to parliament ) through allocations to an electoral list . They can also be used as part of mixed additional member systems . In these systems, parties make lists of candidates to be elected, and seats get allocated to each party in proportion to the number of votes the party receives. Voters may vote directly for the party, as in Albania
Albania
, Argentina
Argentina
, Turkey
Turkey
, and Israel
Israel
; or for candidates whose vote total will pool to the party, as in Finland
Finland
, Brazil
Brazil
and the Netherlands
Netherlands
; or for a list of candidates, as in Hong Kong
Hong Kong

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Moscow
MOSCOW (/ˈmɒskoʊ/ or /ˈmɒskaʊ/ ; Russian : Москва́, tr. Moskva, IPA: ( listen )) is the capital and most populous city of Russia
Russia
, with 12.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area . Moscow
Moscow
has the status of a Russian federal city . Moscow
Moscow
is a major political, economic, cultural, and scientific centre of Russia
Russia
and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
, as well as the largest city entirely on the European continent . By broader definitions Moscow
Moscow
is among the world\'s largest cities , being the 14th largest metro area , the 18th largest agglomeration , the 15th largest urban area , and the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide
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Supreme Soviet Of Russia
Dynamic (1938—1978) * 1 deputy per 150,000 citizens (1938—1978) 975 (1978—1990) 252 (1990–1993) ELECTIONS LAST GENERAL ELECTION 16 May–22 June 1990 First session of the Congress of People\'s Deputies of Russia (indirect )* MEETING PLACE White House FOOTNOTES ^ Last direct (but rigged ) general elections to the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR were held in 1985
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Manezhnaya Square, Moscow
MANEZHNAYA (Russian : Манежная площадь, IPA: , Manege Square) is a large pedestrian open space in the Tverskoy District , at the heart of Moscow . It is bound by the Hotel Moskva to the east, the State Historical Museum and the Alexander Garden to the south, the Moscow Manege to the west, and the 18th-century headquarters of the Moscow State University to the north. The square forms a vital part of downtown Moscow, connecting Red Square (which sprawls behind the Iberian Gate immediately to the south) with the major traffic artery Tverskaya Street , which starts here and runs northwestward in the direction of Saint Petersburg . It is served by three Moscow Metro stations: Okhotny Ryad , Ploshchad Revolyutsii , and Teatralnaya
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Lower House
A LOWER HOUSE is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature , the other chamber being the upper house . Inside the Australian House of Representatives Despite its official position "below" the upper house, in many legislatures worldwide, the lower house has come to wield more power. A legislature composed of only one house is described as unicameral
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Lower House
A LOWER HOUSE is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature , the other chamber being the upper house . Inside the Australian House of Representatives Despite its official position "below" the upper house, in many legislatures worldwide, the lower house has come to wield more power. A legislature composed of only one house is described as unicameral
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Russian Constitutional Crisis Of 1993
Victory of Yeltsin and the executive government * Presidential rule by decree imposed * Supreme Soviet , Congress , regional and local Soviets disbanded * Parliamentary election and constitutional referendum held in 1993 BELLIGERENTS President of Russia
Russia
Main Administration of Protection Ministry of the Interior Ministry of Defence * Kantemirovskaya Tank Division * Taman Division FAPSI
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Boris Yeltsin
BORIS NIKOLAYEVICH YELTSIN (Russian : Бори́с Никола́евич Е́льцин; IPA: ( listen ); (1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation , serving from 1991 to 1999. Originally a supporter of Mikhail Gorbachev , Yeltsin emerged under the perestroika reforms as one of Gorbachev's most powerful political opponents. During the late 1980s, Yeltsin had been a member of the Politburo , and in late 1987 tendered a letter of resignation in protest. No one had resigned from the Politburo before. This act branded Yeltsin as a rebel and led to his rise in popularity as an anti-establishment figure. On 29 May 1990 he was elected the chairman of the Russian Supreme Soviet
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Law Of The Russian Federation
The primary and fundamental statement of laws in the Russian Federation is the Constitution of the Russian Federation
Constitution of the Russian Federation

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