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Staphylococcus Aureus
Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
aureus (also known as golden staph) is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a member of the normal flora of the body, frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin. It is often positive for catalase and nitrate reduction and is a facultative anaerobe that can grow without the need for oxygen.[1] Although S. aureus is not always pathogenic (and can commonly be found existing as a commensal), it is a common cause of skin infections including abscesses, respiratory infections such as sinusitis, and food poisoning. Pathogenic strains often promote infections by producing virulence factors such as potent protein toxins, and the expression of a cell-surface protein that binds and inactivates antibodies. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of S. aureus such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a worldwide problem in clinical medicine
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False Color
False color
False color
(or false colour) refers to a group of color rendering methods used to display images in color which were recorded in the visible or non-visible parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. A false-color image is an image that depicts an object in colors that differ from those a photograph (a true-color image) would show. In addition, variants of false color such as pseudocolor, density slicing, and choropleths are used for information visualization of either data gathered by a single grayscale channel or data not depicting parts of the electromagnetic spectrum (e.g. elevation in relief maps or tissue types in magnetic resonance imaging).Contents1 Types of color renderings1.1 True color 1.2 False color 1.3 Pseudocolor 1.4 Density slicing 1.5 Choropleth2 False color
False color
in the arts 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksTypes of color renderings[edit] True color[edit] "True-color" redirects here
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Human Skin
The human skin is the outer covering of the body. In humans, it is the largest organ of the integumentary system. The skin has up to seven layers of ectodermal tissue and guards the underlying muscles, bones, ligaments and internal organs.[1] Human
Human
skin is similar to that of most other mammals, and human skin is very similar to pig skin.[2][3] Though nearly all human skin is covered with hair follicles, it can appear hairless. There are two general types of skin, hairy and glabrous skin (hairless).[4] The adjective cutaneous literally means "of the skin" (from Latin
Latin
cutis, skin). Because it interfaces with the environment, skin plays an important immunity role in protecting the body against pathogens[5] and excessive water loss.[6] Its other functions are insulation, temperature regulation, sensation, synthesis of vitamin D, and the protection of vitamin B folates. Severely damaged skin will try to heal by forming scar tissue
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Female Reproductive System
The female reproductive system (or female genital system) is made up of the internal and external sex organs that function in reproduction of new offspring. In the human the female reproductive system is immature at birth and develops to maturity at puberty to be able to produce gametes, and to carry a fetus to full term. The internal sex organs are the uterus and Fallopian tubes, and the ovaries. The uterus or womb accommodates the embryo which develops into the fetus. The uterus also produces vaginal and uterine secretions which help the transit of sperm to the Fallopian tubes. The ovaries produce the ova (egg cells). The external sex organs are also known as the genitals and these are the organs of the vulva including the labia, clitoris and vaginal opening. The vagina is connected to the uterus at the cervix.[1] At certain intervals, the ovaries release an ovum, which passes through the Fallopian tube
Fallopian tube
into the uterus
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Nostril
A nostril (or naris /ˈneɪrɪs/, plural nares /ˈneɪriːz/) is one of the two channels of the nose, from the point where they bifurcate to the external opening. In birds and mammals, they contain branched bones or cartilages called turbinates, whose function is to warm air on inhalation and remove moisture on exhalation. Fish
Fish
do not breathe through their noses, but they do have two small holes used for smelling, which may, indeed, be called nostrils. The Procellariiformes
Procellariiformes
are distinguished from other birds by having tubular extensions of their nostrils. In humans, the nasal cycle is the normal ultradian cycle of each nostril's blood vessels becoming engorged in swelling, then shrinking. The nostrils are separated by the septum. The septum can sometimes be deviated, causing one nostril to appear larger than the other
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Nomenclature Codes
Nomenclature is a system of names or terms, or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences. Nomenclature is the system of assignment of names given to organic compounds.[1] The principles of naming vary from the relatively informal conventions of everyday speech to the internationally agreed principles, rules and recommendations that govern the formation and use of the specialist terms used in scientific and any other disciplines.[2] Naming "things" is a part of general human communication using words and language: it is an aspect of everyday taxonomy as people distinguish the objects of their experience, together with their similarities and differences, which observers identify, name and classify
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Scotland
Scotland
Scotland
(/ˈskɒtlənd/; Scots: [ˈskɔtlənd]; Scottish Gaelic: Alba
Alba
[ˈal̪ˠapə] ( listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.[16][17][18] It shares a border with England
England
to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea
North Sea
to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea
Irish Sea
to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands,[19] including the Northern Isles
Northern Isles
and the Hebrides. The Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
and continued to exist until 1707
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Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Aberdeen
(/æbərˈdiːn/ ( listen); Scots: Aiberdeen,  listen (help·info); Scottish Gaelic: Obar Dheathain [ˈopər ˈʝɛ.ɛɲ]; Latin: Aberdonia) is Scotland's third most populous city, one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas and the United Kingdom's 37th most populous built-up area, with an official population estimate of 196,670 for the city of Aberdeen[1] and 229,800 for the local authority area.[2] Nicknames include the Granite
Granite
City, the Grey City
City
and the Silver City with the Golden Sands
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Vaccine
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and to further recognize and destroy any of the microorganisms associated with that agent that it may encounter in the future. Vaccines can be prophylactic (example: to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (e.g., vaccines against cancer are being investigated).[1][2][3][4] The administration of vaccines is called vaccination
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Research And Development
Research
Research
and development (R&D, R+D, or Rn'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.[1] Research
Research
and development constitutes the first stage of development of a potential new service or the production process. R&D activities differ from institution to institution, with two primary models[1] of an R&D department either staffed by engineers and tasked with directly developing new products, or staffed with industrial scientists and tasked with applied research in scientific or technological fields, which may facilitate future product development
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Antibody
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig),[1] is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses. The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the pathogen, called an antigen, via the Fab's variable region.[2][3] Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (for example, by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival). Depending on the antigen, the binding may impede the biological process causing the disease or may activate macrophages to destroy the foreign substance
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Pathogen
In biology, a pathogen (Greek: πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a germ in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.[1][2] Typically the term is used to describe an infectious agent such as a virus, bacterium, protozoa, prion, a fungus, or other micro-organism.[3][4] The scientific study of pathogens is called Pathology. There are several substrates including pathways where the pathogens can invade a host. The principal pathways have different episodic time frames, but soil contamination has the longest or most persistent potential for harboring a pathogen
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Facultative Anaerobic Organism
A facultative anaerobe is an organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present, but is capable of switching to fermentation or anaerobic respiration if oxygen is absent.[1] An obligate aerobe, by contrast, cannot make ATP in the absence of oxygen, and obligate anaerobes die in the presence of oxygen.[2] Some examples of facultative anaerobic bacteria are Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus
Streptococcus
spp.,[3] Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria spp.[4] and Shewanella oneidensis. Certain eukaryotes are also facultative anaerobes, including fungi such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae[5] and many aquatic invertebrates such as Nereid (worm) polychaetes.[6] See also[edit]Aerobic respiration Anaerobic respiration Fermentation Obligate aerobe Obligate anaerobe MicroaerophileReferences[edit]^ Hogg, S. (2005). Essential Microbiology
Microbiology
(1st ed.). Wiley. pp. 99–100
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Denitrification
Denitrification
Denitrification
is a microbially facilitated process where nitrate is reduced and ultimately produces molecular nitrogen (N2) through a series of intermediate gaseous nitrogen oxide products. Facultative anaerobic bacteria perform denitrification as a type of respiration that reduces oxidized forms of nitrogen in response to the oxidation of an electron donor such as organic matter. The preferred nitrogen electron acceptors in order of most to least thermodynamically favorable include nitrate (NO3−), nitrite (NO2−), nitric oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O) finally resulting in the production of dinitrogen (N2) completing the nitrogen cycle. Denitrifying microbes require a very low oxygen concentration of less than 10%, as well as organic C for energy
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Catalase
1DGB, 1DGF, 1DGG, 1DGH, 1F4J, 1QQWIdentifiersAliases CAT, catalaseExternal IDs MGI: 88271 HomoloGene: 55514 GeneCards: CATGene location (Human)Chr. Chromosome
Chromosome
11 (human)[1]Band 11p13 Start 34,438,925 bp[1]End 34,472,062 bp[1]Gene location (Mouse)Chr. Chromosome
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