HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1500] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

picture info

Standard Chinese
STANDARD CHINESE, also known as MODERN STANDARD MANDARIN, STANDARD MANDARIN, or simply MANDARIN, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
, and also one of the four official languages of Singapore
Singapore
. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect , its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects , and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese . Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is an analytic language , though with many compound words . There exist two standardised forms of the language, namely PUTONGHUA in Mainland China
China
and GUOYU in Taiwan. Aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(plus Hanyu Pinyin romanization for teaching), while Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters (plus Bopomofo for teaching). There are many characters that are identical between the two systems
[...More...]

"Standard Chinese" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Standard Chinese (other)
STANDARD CHINESE is the official language of China STANDARD CHINESE may also refer to: * Written vernacular Chinese , the standard for written Chinese * Mandarin (late imperial lingua franca) , the spoken standard of the Ming and Qing dynasties * Mandarin Chinese , the most widely spoken form of dialect on which Standard Chinese is based. This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title STANDARD CHINESE. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Standard_Chinese_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
[...More...]

"Standard Chinese (other)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Huayu (other)
HUAYU is an alternative name of Standard Chinese , used in parts of Southeast Asia. HUAYU may also refer to: * Huayu, Shanxi (化峪), a town in Jishan County, Shanxi, China * Huayu, Shandong (化雨), a town in Jinxiang County, Shandong, ChinaSEE ALSO * Hua Yu (other) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title HUAYU. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Huayu_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
[...More...]

"Huayu (other)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

China
CHINA, officially the PEOPLE\'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the world\'s most populous country , with a population of over 1.381 billion . Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometres (3.7 million square miles), it is the world's second-largest state by land area and third- or fourth-largest by total area . Governed by the Communist Party of China , it exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces , five autonomous regions , four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin , Shanghai , and Chongqing ) and the Special Administrative Regions Hong Kong and Macau , also claiming sovereignty over Taiwan . China is a great power and a major regional power within Asia, and has been characterized as a potential superpower . China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain . For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties , beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty . Since then, China has then expanded, fractured, and re-unified numerous times
[...More...]

"China" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Taiwan
TAIWAN (/ˌtaɪˈwɑːn/ ( listen )), officially the REPUBLIC OF CHINA (ROC), is a state in East Asia . Its neighbors include China (officially the People's Republic of China, PRC) to the west, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. Taiwan is the most populous state that is not a member of the United Nations and the largest economy outside the UN. The island of Taiwan , formerly known as Formosa, was inhabited by Taiwanese aborigines before the 17th century, when Dutch and Spanish colonies opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning , the island was annexed by the Qing dynasty , the last dynasty of China. The Qing ceded Taiwan to Japan in 1895 after the Sino-Japanese War . While Taiwan was under Japanese rule, the Republic of China (ROC) was established on the mainland in 1912 after the fall of the Qing dynasty . Following the Japanese surrender to the Allies in 1945, the ROC took control of Taiwan. However, the resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the ROC's loss of the mainland to the Communists , and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949
[...More...]

"Taiwan" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Singapore
SINGAPORE (/ˈsɪŋɡəpɔːr/ (_ listen )), officially the REPUBLIC OF SINGAPORE, sometimes referred to as the Lion City_, the _Garden City_ or the _ Little Red Dot _, is a sovereign city-state in Southeast Asia . It lies one degree (137 km) north of the equator , at the southern tip of peninsular Malaysia , with Indonesia 's Riau Islands to the south. Singapore's territory consists of one main island along with 62 other islets . Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23% (130 km2), and its greening policy has covered the densely populated island with tropical flora, parks and gardens . Stamford Raffles founded colonial Singapore in 1819 as a trading post of the East India Company ; after its collapse and the eventual establishment of the British Raj , the islands were ceded to Britain and became part of its Straits Settlements in 1826. During the Second World War , Singapore was occupied by Japan . It gained independence from the UK in 1963 by federating with other former British territories to form Malaysia , but separated two years later over ideological differences , becoming a sovereign nation in 1965
[...More...]

"Singapore" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

L2 Speakers
A person's SECOND LANGUAGE or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person. In contrast, a foreign language is a language that is learned in an area where that language is not generally spoken. Some languages, often called auxiliary languages , are used primarily as second languages or lingua francas . More informally, a second language can be said to be any language learned in addition to one's native language, especially in the context of second language acquisition , (that is, learning a new foreign language). A person's first language is not necessarily their dominant language, the one they use most or are most comfortable with. For example, the Canadian census defines _first language_ for its purposes as "the first language learned in childhood and still spoken", recognizing that for some, the earliest language may be lost, a process known as language attrition . This can happen when young children move, with or without their family (because of immigration or international adoption ), to a new language environment
[...More...]

"L2 Speakers" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common _ancestral language_ or _parental language_, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the _daughter languages_ within a language family as being _genetically related_. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. There are also many dead and extinct languages, as well as some that are still insufficiently studied to be classified, or are even unknown outside their respective speech communities. Membership of languages in a language family is established by comparative linguistics . Sister languages are said to have a "genetic" or "genealogical" relationship. The latter term is older
[...More...]

"Language Family" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Sino-Tibetan Languages
The SINO-TIBETAN LANGUAGES, in a few sources also known as TIBETO-BURMAN or TRANS-HIMALAYAN, are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia , Southeast Asia and South Asia . The family is second only to Indo-European in terms of the number of native speakers. The Sino-Tibetan languages with the most native speakers are the varieties of Chinese (1.3 billion speakers, the most of any language on Earth if counted as a single language), Burmese (33 million), and the Tibetic languages (8 million); but many Sino-Tibetan languages are spoken by small communities in remote mountain areas and as such are poorly documented. Several low-level groupings are well established, but the higher-level structure of the family remains unclear. Although the family is often presented as divided into Sinitic and Tibeto-Burman branches, a common origin of the non- Sinitic languages has never been demonstrated and is rejected by an increasing number of researchers
[...More...]

"Sino-Tibetan Languages" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Chinese Language
LEGEND: Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers Major Chinese-speaking settlements THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters
[...More...]

"Chinese Language" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Mandarin Chinese
MANDARIN (/ˈmændərɪn, -drɪn/ (_ listen ); simplified Chinese : 官话; traditional Chinese : 官話; pinyin : Guānhuà_; literally: "speech of officials") is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China
China
. The group includes the Beijing dialect , the basis of Standard Mandarin or Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
. Because most Mandarin dialects are found in the north, the group is sometimes referred to as the NORTHERN DIALECTS (北方话; _běifānghuà_). Many local Mandarin varieties are not mutually intelligible . Nevertheless, Mandarin is often placed first in any list of languages by number of native speakers (with nearly a billion). Mandarin is by far the largest of the seven or ten Chinese dialect groups, with 70 percent of Chinese speakers and a huge area stretching from Yunnan
Yunnan
in the southwest to Xinjiang
Xinjiang
in the northwest and Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
in the northeast. This is attributed to the greater ease of travel and communication in the North China
China
Plain compared to the more mountainous south, combined with the relatively recent spread of Mandarin to frontier areas. Most Mandarin varieties have four tones . The final stops of Middle Chinese have disappeared in most of these varieties, but some have merged them as a final glottal stop
[...More...]

"Mandarin Chinese" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Beijing Dialect
The BEIJING DIALECT (simplified Chinese : 北京话; traditional Chinese : 北京話; pinyin : Běijīnghuà), also known as PEKINGESE, is the prestige dialect of Mandarin spoken in the urban area of Beijing
Beijing
, China
China
. It is the phonological basis of Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
, which is the official language in the People\'s Republic of China
China
and Republic of China
China
and one of the official languages in Singapore
Singapore
. Although the Beijing
Beijing
dialect and Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
are similar, various differences generally make clear to Chinese speakers whether an individual is a native of Beijing
Beijing
speaking the local Beijing variant or is an individual speaking Standard Chinese
[...More...]

"Beijing Dialect" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Middle Mandarin
MANDARIN (simplified Chinese : 官话; traditional Chinese : 官話; pinyin : Guānhuà; literally: "official speech") was the common spoken language of administration of the Chinese empire during the Ming and Qing dynasties. It arose as a practical measure, to circumvent the mutual unintelligibility of the varieties of Chinese spoken in different parts of China. Knowledge of this language was thus essential for an official career, but it was never formally defined. The language was a koiné based on Mandarin dialects , initially those spoken around Nanjing but later switching to Beijing , and developed into Standard Chinese in the 20th century. It has also been referred to as the COURT DIALECT. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Phonology * 3 Vocabulary * 4 References * 5 Further reading HISTORYBy the late imperial period, local varieties of Chinese had diverged to the extent that people from different provinces could not understand one another. In order to facilitate communication between officials from different provinces, and between officials and the inhabitants of the areas to which they were posted, imperial administrations adopted a koiné based on various northern dialects. Until well into the 19th century, this language was based on dialects spoken in the area of Nanjing , the first Ming capital and a major cultural centre, though not identical to any single dialect
[...More...]

"Middle Mandarin" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Writing System
A WRITING SYSTEM is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication . While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages , writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer . The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium , such as paper or electronic storage , although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display , in sand, or by skywriting . The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets , syllabaries , or logographies . Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category. In the alphabetic category, there is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes ) of consonants and vowels that encode based on the general principle that the letters (or letter pair/groups) represent speech sounds . In a syllabary, each symbol correlates to a syllable or mora . In a logography, each character represents a word, morpheme , or other semantic units. Other categories include abjads , which differ from alphabets in that vowels are not indicated, and abugidas or alphasyllabaries, with each character representing a consonant–vowel pairing
[...More...]

"Writing System" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Traditional Chinese Characters
TRADITIONAL CHINESE CHARACTERS (traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese : 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin : Zhèngtǐzì/Fántĭzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan
Taiwan
, of Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
or in the Kangxi Dictionary
Kangxi Dictionary
. The modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
, and have been more or less stable since the 5th century (during the Southern and Northern Dynasties .) The retronym "traditional Chinese" is used to contrast traditional characters with Simplified Chinese characters
Chinese characters
, a standardized character set introduced by the government of the People\'s Republic of China
China
on Mainland China
Mainland China
in the 1950s
[...More...]

"Traditional Chinese Characters" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Simplified Chinese Characters
SIMPLIFIED CHINESE CHARACTERS (简化字; _jiǎnhuàzì_) are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the _Table of General Standard Chinese Characters _ for use in mainland China . Along with traditional Chinese characters , it is one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language . The government of the People\'s Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s in an attempt to increase literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore . Traditional Chinese characters are currently used in Hong Kong , Macau , and the Republic of China ( Taiwan ). While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups generally retain their use of Simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities generally tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name above or colloquially (简体字; _ jiǎntǐzì _). The latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms
[...More...]

"Simplified Chinese Characters" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
.