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Standard Cell
In semiconductor design, STANDARD CELL methodology is a method of designing application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) with mostly digital-logic features. Standard cell methodology is an example of design abstraction, whereby a low-level very-large-scale integration ( VLSI ) layout is encapsulated into an abstract logic representation (such as a N AND gate ). Cell-based methodology — the general class to which standard cells belong — makes it possible for one designer to focus on the high-level (logical function) aspect of digital design, while another designer focuses on the implementation (physical) aspect. Along with semiconductor manufacturing advances, standard cell methodology has helped designers scale ASICs from comparatively simple single-function ICs (of several thousand gates), to complex multi-million gate system-on-a-chip (SoC) devices
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Dielectric
A DIELECTRIC (or DIELECTRIC MATERIAL) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field . When a dielectric is placed in an electric field, electric charges do not flow through the material as they do in an electrical conductor , but only slightly shift from their average equilibrium positions causing DIELECTRIC POLARIZATION. Because of dielectric polarization, positive charges are displaced toward the field and negative charges shift in the opposite direction. This creates an internal electric field that reduces the overall field within the dielectric itself. If a dielectric is composed of weakly bonded molecules, those molecules not only become polarized, but also reorient so that their symmetry axes align to the field. The study of dielectric properties concerns storage and dissipation of electric and magnetic energy in materials
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Weston Cell
The WESTON CELL is a wet-chemical cell that produces a highly stable voltage suitable as a laboratory standard for calibration of voltmeters . Invented by Edward Weston in 1893, it was adopted as the International Standard for EMF between 1911 and 1990. CONTENTS * 1 Chemistry * 2 Characteristics * 3 References * 4 Literature * 5 External links CHEMISTRYThe anode is an amalgam of cadmium with mercury with a cathode of pure mercury over which a paste of mercurous sulfate and mercury is placed. The electrolyte is a saturated solution of cadmium sulfate , and the depolarizer is a paste of mercurous sulfate . As shown in the illustration, the cell is set up in an H-shaped glass vessel with the cadmium amalgam in one leg and the pure mercury in the other. Electrical connections to the cadmium amalgam and the mercury are made by platinum wires fused through the lower ends of the legs
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Clark Cell
The CLARK CELL, invented by English engineer Josiah Latimer Clark in 1873, is a wet-chemical cell (colloquially: battery) that produces a highly stable voltage . In 1893, the output of the Clark cell
Clark cell
at 15 °C was defined by the International Electrical Congress as 1.434 volts, and this definition became law in the United States in 1894. This definition was later supplanted by one based on the Weston cell . CONTENTS * 1 Chemistry * 2 Construction * 2.1 Original cell * 2.2 H-form cell * 3 Characteristics * 4 Sources * 5 References CHEMISTRYClark cells use a zinc , or zinc amalgam , anode and a mercury cathode in a saturated aqueous solution of zinc sulfate , with a paste of mercurous sulfate as depolarizer . CONSTRUCTIONORIGINAL CELLClark's original cell was set up in a glass jar in a similar way to a gravity Daniell cell
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Application-specific Integrated Circuit
An APPLICATION-SPECIFIC INTEGRATED CIRCUIT (ASIC) /ˈeɪsɪk/ , is an integrated circuit (IC) customized for a particular use, rather than intended for general-purpose use. For example, a chip designed to run in a digital voice recorder or a high-efficiency Bitcoin miner is an ASIC. Application-specific standard products (ASSPs) are intermediate between ASICs and industry standard integrated circuits like the 7400 or the 4000 series . As feature sizes have shrunk and design tools improved over the years, the maximum complexity (and hence functionality) possible in an ASIC has grown from 5,000 gates to over 100 million. Modern ASICs often include entire microprocessors , memory blocks including ROM , RAM , EEPROM , flash memory and other large building blocks. Such an ASIC is often termed a SoC (system-on-chip )
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VLSI
VERY-LARGE-SCALE INTEGRATION (VLSI) is the process of creating an integrated circuit (IC) by combining thousands of transistors into a single chip. VLSI began in the 1970s when complex semiconductor and communication technologies were being developed. The microprocessor is a VLSI device. Before the introduction of VLSI technology most ICs had a limited set of functions they could perform. An electronic circuit might consist of a CPU , ROM , RAM and other glue logic . VLSI lets IC designers add all of these into one chip. A VLSI integrated-circuit die CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Developments * 3 Structured design * 4 Struggles * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links HISTORYThe History of the transistor dates to the mid-1920s when several inventors attempted devices that were intended to control current in solid-state diodes and convert them into triodes
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Integrated Circuit Layout
INTEGRATED CIRCUIT LAYOUT, also known IC LAYOUT, IC MASK LAYOUT, or MASK DESIGN, is the representation of an integrated circuit in terms of planar geometric shapes which correspond to the patterns of metal , oxide , or semiconductor layers that make up the components of the integrated circuit. When using a standard process—where the interaction of the many chemical, thermal, and photographic variables is known and carefully controlled—the behaviour of the final integrated circuit depends largely on the positions and interconnections of the geometric shapes. Using a computer-aided layout tool, the layout engineer—or layout technician—places and connects all of the components that make up the chip such that they meet certain criteria—typically: performance, size, density, and manufacturability. This practice is often subdivided between two primary layout disciplines: Analog and digital
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Negated AND Gate
In digital electronics , a NAND GATE (NEGATIVE-AND) is a logic gate which produces an output which is false only if all its inputs are true; thus its output is complement to that of the AND gate . A LOW (0) output results only if both the inputs to the gate are HIGH (1); if one or both inputs are LOW (0), a HIGH (1) output results. It is made using transistors and junction diodes. By De Morgan\'s theorem , AB=A+B, and thus a N AND gate is equivalent to inverters followed by an OR gate . The N AND gate is significant because any boolean function can be implemented by using a combination of NAND gates. This property is called functional completeness . It shares this property with the NOR gate . Digital systems employing certain logic circuits take advantage of NAND's functional completeness. The function NAND(a1, a2, ..., an) is logically equivalent to NOT(a1 AND a2 AND ... AND an)
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Semiconductor Manufacturing
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE FABRICATION is the process used to create the integrated circuits that are present in everyday electrical and electronic devices. It is a multiple-step sequence of photo lithographic and chemical processing steps during which electronic circuits are gradually created on a wafer made of pure semiconducting material. Silicon
Silicon
is almost always used, but various compound semiconductors are used for specialized applications. The entire manufacturing process, from start to packaged chips ready for shipment, takes six to eight weeks and is performed in highly specialized facilities referred to as fabs
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System On A Chip
A SYSTEM ON A CHIP or SYSTEM ON CHIP (SOC or SOC) is an integrated circuit (also known as an "IC" or "chip") that integrates all components of a computer or other electronic systems. It may contain digital , analog , mixed-signal , and often radio-frequency functions—all on a single substrate . SoCs are very common in the mobile computing market because of their low power-consumption. A typical application is in the area of embedded systems . SoC integrates a microcontroller (or microprocessor ) with advanced peripherals like graphics processing unit (GPU), Wi-Fi module, or coprocessor . If the definition of a microcontroller is a system that integrates a microprocessor with peripheral circuits and memory, the SoC is to a microcontroller what a microcontroller is to processors , remembering that the SoC does not necessarily contain built-in memory. In general, there are three distinguishable types of SoCs
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AND Gate
The AND GATE is a basic digital logic gate that implements logical conjunction - it behaves according to the truth table to the right. A HIGH output (1) results only if both the inputs to the AND gate are HIGH (1). If neither or only one input to the AND gate is HIGH, a LOW output results. In another sense, the function of AND effectively finds the _minimum_ between two binary digits, just as the OR function finds the _maximum_ between two binary digits. Therefore, the output is always 0, except when all the inputs are 1. CONTENTS * 1 Symbols * 2 Implementations * 2.1 Alternatives * 3 IC package * 4 See also * 5 References SYMBOLSThere are three symbols for AND gates: the American (ANSI or 'military') symbol and the IEC ('European' or 'rectangular') symbol, as well as the deprecated DIN symbol. For more information see Logic Gate Symbols
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OR Gate
The OR GATE is a digital logic gate that implements logical disjunction – it behaves according to the truth table to the right. A HIGH output (1) results if one or both the inputs to the gate are HIGH (1). If neither input is high, a LOW output (0) results. In another sense, the function of OR effectively finds the maximum between two binary digits, just as the complementary AND function finds the minimum. CONTENTS * 1 Symbols * 2 Hardware description and pinout * 3 Implementations * 3.1 Alternatives * 4 Wired-OR * 5 See also * 6 References SYMBOLSThere are two symbols of OR gates: the American (ANSI or 'military') symbol and the IEC ('European' or 'rectangular') symbol, as well as the deprecated DIN
DIN
symbol. For more information see Logic Gate Symbols
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XOR
but not is Venn diagram of A B C {displaystyle scriptstyle Aoplus Boplus C} {displaystyle ~oplus ~} {displaystyle ~Leftrightarrow ~} EXCLUSIVE OR or EXCLUSIVE DISJUNCTION is a logical operation that outputs true only when inputs differ (one is true, the other is false). It is symbolized by the prefix operator J and by the infix operators XOR (/ˌɛks ˈɔːr/ ), EOR, EXOR, ⊻, ⊕, ↮, and ≢. The negation of XOR is logical biconditional , which outputs true only when both inputs are the same. It gains the name "exclusive or" because the meaning of "or" is ambiguous when both operands are true; the exclusive or operator _excludes_ that case. This is sometimes thought of as "one or the other but not both". This could be written as "A or B, but not, A and B". More generally, XOR is true only when an odd number of inputs are true
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Xnor
The XNOR GATE (sometimes, EXNOR, ENOR, and, rarely, NXOR, XAND) is a digital logic gate whose function is the logical complement of the exclusive OR (XOR ) gate. The two-input version implements logical equality , behaving according to the truth table to the right. A high output (1) results if both of the inputs to the gate are the same. If one but not both inputs are high (1), a low output (0) results. The algebraic notation used to represent the XNOR operation is S = A B {displaystyle S=Aodot B} . CONTENTS * 1 Symbols * 2 Hardware description and pinout * 3 Alternatives * 4 See also * 5 References SYMBOLSThere are 2 symbols for XNOR gates : one with distinctive shape and one with rectangular shape and label. The distinctive symbol for the XN OR gate is that of the XOR gate with an added inversion bubble
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Adder (electronics)
An ADDER is a digital circuit that performs addition of numbers. In many computers and other kinds of processors adders are used in the arithmetic logic units . They are also utilized in other parts of the processor, where they are used to calculate addresses , table indices, increment and decrement operators , and similar operations. Although adders can be constructed for many number representations , such as binary-coded decimal or excess-3 , the most common adders operate on binary numbers . In cases where two\'s complement or ones\' complement is being used to represent negative numbers , it is trivial to modify an adder into an adder–subtractor . Other signed number representations require more logic around the basic adder
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