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St Matthew Friday Street
ST. MATTHEW FRIDAY STREET was a church in the City of London
London
located on Friday Street, off Cheapside . Recorded since the 13th century, the church was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666, then rebuilt by the office of Sir Christopher Wren . The rebuilt church was demolished in 1885. CONTENTS * 1 The middle ages * 2 Seventeenth century * 3 Rebuilding after the Great Fire * 4 Demolition * 5 Organ * 5.1 Organists * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Publications * 9 External links THE MIDDLE AGESSt. Matthew was the only church in the City of London
London
dedicated to the apostle and patron saint of accountants. Friday Street was so named, according to John Stow , after the fishmongers living there, although none are recorded in the parish records. Cheapside was the principal market street of medieval London
London
(“cheap” meaning market) and many of the lesser streets running off were called after the commodity sold there, such as Milk Street, Bread Street and Wood Street. It is more likely, therefore, that Friday Street was so called from fishmongers vending, rather than living there. The earliest surviving reference to the church is in a document from the reign of Henry III, as “St Matthew in Fridaistret”. A document from 1381-2 refers to the church as “St. Matthew in Chepe”
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Friday Street
FRIDAY STREET is a hamlet on the gentle lower north slope of Leith Hill in Surrey , England. It is in a wooded headwater ravine, just to the south of Wotton and the A25 , a single rather than dual road , running between Guildford to the west and Dorking to the east. Statistically it is insufficient to make up a census unit. Friday Street also has varied map definitions and is part of the relatively sparsely populated civil parish of Wotton . Its lake is one of three hammer ponds in the Vale of Holmesdale in Surrey. These were used from the medieval age until the early 19th century when wholly surpassed by metalwork production specialist centres, principally Sheffield and the West Midlands (region) , assisted by cheap inter-regional transport, coal replacing charcoal as a fuel and by technological advances, being in a narrow band of ironstone -rich hills, the Greensand Ridge . Central to Friday Street on most maps is its hammer pond
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London
LONDON /ˈlʌndən/ ( listen ) is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom . Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain , London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans , who named it _ Londinium _. London's ancient core, the City of London
City of London
, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries. Since at least the 19th century, "London" has also referred to the metropolis around this core, historically split between Middlesex , Essex , Surrey , Kent , and Hertfordshire , which today largely makes up Greater London
Greater London
, a region governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly . London is a leading global city in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism, and transportation. It is crowned as the world's largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world . London is a world cultural capital. It is the world's most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the world\'s largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic
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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, with the North Sea to its east, the English Channel to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world . The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe
Europe
. It is also the 21st-most populous country , with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants
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Christian Denomination
A CHRISTIAN DENOMINATION is a distinct religious body within Christianity , identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine. Individual bodies, however, may use alternative terms to describe themselves, such as church or sometimes fellowship . Divisions between one group and another are defined by authority and doctrine; issues such as the nature of Jesus , the authority of apostolic succession , eschatology , and papal primacy may separate one denomination from another. Groups of denominations—often sharing broadly similar beliefs, practices, and historical ties—are sometimes known as "branches of Christianity " or "denominational families". Individual Christian groups vary widely in the degree to which they recognize one another. Several groups claim to be the direct and sole authentic successor of the church founded by Jesus Christ in the 1st century AD . Others, however, believe in denominationalism, where some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same religion regardless of their distinguishing labels, beliefs, and practices. Because of this concept, some Christian bodies reject the term "denomination" to describe themselves, to avoid implying equivalency with other churches or denominations
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Church Of England
The CHURCH OF ENGLAND (C OF E) is the state church of England . The Archbishop of Canterbury (currently Justin Welby ) is the most senior cleric, although the monarch is the supreme governor . The Church of England is also the mother church of the international Anglican Communion . It traces its history to the Christian church recorded as existing in the Roman province of Britain by the third century, and to the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by Augustine of Canterbury . The English church renounced papal authority when Henry VIII failed to secure an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon in the 1530s. The English Reformation accelerated under Edward VI 's regents, before a brief restoration of papal authority under Queen Mary I and King Philip . The Act of Supremacy 1558 renewed the breach and the Elizabethan Settlement charted a course enabling the English church to describe itself as both Catholic and Reformed: * _Catholic_ in that it views itself as a part of the universal church of Jesus Christ in unbroken continuity with the early apostolic church. This is expressed in its emphasis on the teachings of the early Church Fathers , as formalised in the Apostles\' , Nicene , and Athanasian creeds
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Architect
An ARCHITECT is someone who plans, designs, and reviews the construction of buildings . To _practice architecture_ means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings, that have as their principal purpose human occupancy or use. Etymologically, _architect_ derives from the Latin _architectus_, which derives from the Greek _(_arkhi-_, chief +_ tekton_, builder), i.e., CHIEF BUILDER. _ Professionally, an architect's decisions affect public safety, and thus an architect must undergo specialized training consisting of advanced education and a _practicum_ (or _internship_) for practical experience to earn a license to practice architecture . Practical, technical, and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction (see below). The terms ARCHITECT and ARCHITECTURE are also used in the disciplines of landscape architecture , naval architecture , and often information technology (for example a network architect or software architect ). In most jurisdictions, the professional and commercial uses of the terms "architect" and "landscape architect" are legally protected
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Christopher Wren
SIR CHRISTOPHER WREN PRS (/ˈrɛn/ ; 30 October 1632 – 8 March 1723 ) is one of the most highly acclaimed English architects in history. He was accorded responsibility for rebuilding 52 churches in the City of London after the Great Fire in 1666, including what is regarded as his masterpiece, St. Paul\'s Cathedral , on Ludgate Hill , completed in 1710. The principal creative responsibility for a number of the churches is now more commonly attributed to others in his office, especially Nicholas Hawksmoor . Other notable buildings by Wren include the Royal Naval College, Greenwich , and the south front of Hampton Court Palace . The Wren Building , the main building at the College of William and Mary , Virginia, is attributed to Wren. Educated in Latin and Aristotelian physics at the University of Oxford , Wren was a notable anatomist , astronomer , geometer , and mathematician-physicist , as well as an architect. He was a founder of the Royal Society (president 1680–82), and his scientific work was highly regarded by Isaac Newton and Blaise Pascal
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Sacred Architecture
SACRED ARCHITECTURE (also known as RELIGIOUS ARCHITECTURE) is a religious architectural practice concerned with the design and construction of places of worship and/or sacred or intentional space, such as churches , mosques , stupas , synagogues , and temples . Many cultures devoted considerable resources to their sacred architecture and places of worship. Religious and sacred spaces are amongst the most impressive and permanent monolithic buildings created by humanity. Conversely, sacred architecture as a locale for meta-intimacy may also be non-monolithic, ephemeral and intensely private, personal and non-public. Sacred, religious and holy structures often evolved over centuries and were the largest buildings in the world, prior to the modern skyscraper. While the various styles employed in sacred architecture sometimes reflected trends in other structures, these styles also remained unique from the contemporary architecture used in other structures. With the rise of Abrahamic monotheisms (particularly Christianity and Islam ), religious buildings increasingly became centres of worship , prayer and meditation . The Western scholarly discipline of the history of architecture itself closely follows the history of religious architecture from ancient times until the Baroque period , at least
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Baroque Architecture
BAROQUE ARCHITECTURE is the building style of the Baroque era , begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church . It was characterized by new explorations of form, light and shadow, and dramatic intensity. Whereas the Renaissance drew on the wealth and power of the Italian courts and was a blend of secular and religious forces, the Baroque was, initially at least, directly linked to the Counter-Reformation, a movement within the Catholic Church to reform itself in response to the Protestant Reformation . Baroque architecture and its embellishments were on the one hand more accessible to the emotions and on the other hand, a visible statement of the wealth and power of the Catholic Church. The new style manifested itself in particular in the context of the new religious orders, like the Theatines and the Jesuits who aimed to improve popular piety. The architecture of the High Roman Baroque can be assigned to the papal reigns of Urban VIII , Innocent X and Alexander VII , spanning from 1623 to 1667
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City Of London
The CITY OF LONDON is a city and county that contains the historic centre and central business district of London
London
. It constituted most of London
London
from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages , but the agglomeration has since grown far beyond the City's borders. The City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London
London
, though it remains a notable part of central London
London
. Administratively, it forms one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London
London
; however, the City of London
London
is not a London
London
borough , a status reserved for the other 32 districts (including London's only other city, the City of Westminster ). The City of London
London
is widely referred to simply as THE CITY (differentiated from the phrase "the city of London" by capitalising _City_) and is also colloquially known as the SQUARE MILE, as it is 1.12 sq mi (2.90 km2) in area. Both of these terms are also often used as metonyms for the United Kingdom's trading and financial services industries, which continue a notable history of being largely based in the City. The name _London_ is now ordinarily used for a far wider area than just the City
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Cheapside
CHEAPSIDE is a street in the City of London
City of London
, the historic and modern financial centre of London
London
, which forms part of the A40 London
London
to Fishguard road . It links St. Martin\'s Le Grand with Poultry . Near its eastern end at Bank junction , where it becomes Poultry, is Mansion House , the Bank of England , and Bank station . To the west is St. Paul\'s Cathedral , St. Paul\'s tube station and Paternoster Square . In the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, it was known as Westcheap, as opposed to Eastcheap , another street in the City, near London
London
Bridge . The boundaries of the wards of Cheap , Cordwainer and Bread Street run along Cheapside
Cheapside
and Poultry; prior to boundary changes in 2003 the road was divided amongst Farringdon Within and Cripplegate wards in addition to the current three. The contemporary Cheapside
Cheapside
is widely known as the location of a range of retail and food outlets and offices, as well as the City's only major shopping centre, One New Change
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Great Fire Of London
The GREAT FIRE OF LONDON was a major conflagration that swept through the central parts of the English city of London from Sunday, 2 September to Wednesday, 5 September 1666. The fire gutted the medieval City of London
City of London
inside the old Roman city wall . It threatened but did not reach the aristocratic district of Westminster , Charles II 's Palace of Whitehall , and most of the suburban slums . It consumed 13,200 houses, 87 parish churches, St Paul\'s Cathedral , and most of the buildings of the City authorities. It is estimated to have destroyed the homes of 70,000 of the City's 80,000 inhabitants. The death toll is unknown but traditionally thought to have been small, as only six verified deaths were recorded. This reasoning has recently been challenged on the grounds that the deaths of poor and middle-class people were not recorded, while the heat of the fire may have cremated many victims, leaving no recognisable remains. A melted piece of pottery on display at the Museum of London
Museum of London
found by archaeologists in Pudding Lane , where the fire started, shows that the temperature reached 1250 °C
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Sir Christopher Wren
SIR CHRISTOPHER WREN PRS (/ˈrɛn/ ; 30 October 1632 – 8 March 1723 ) is one of the most highly acclaimed English architects in history. He was accorded responsibility for rebuilding 52 churches in the City of London
London
after the Great Fire in 1666, including what is regarded as his masterpiece, St. Paul\'s Cathedral , on Ludgate Hill , completed in 1710. The principal creative responsibility for a number of the churches is now more commonly attributed to others in his office, especially Nicholas Hawksmoor . Other notable buildings by Wren include the Royal Naval College, Greenwich , and the south front of Hampton Court
Hampton Court
Palace . The Wren Building , the main building at the College of William and Mary , Virginia, is attributed to Wren. Educated in Latin
Latin
and Aristotelian physics at the University of Oxford
Oxford
, Wren was a notable anatomist , astronomer , geometer , and mathematician-physicist , as well as an architect. He was a founder of the Royal Society
Royal Society
(president 1680–82), and his scientific work was highly regarded by Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
and Blaise Pascal
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Matthew The Evangelist
MATTHEW THE APOSTLE (Hebrew : מַתִּתְיָהוּ‎‎ Mattityahu or מתי‎ Mattay, "Gift of YHVH "; Greek : Ματθαῖος Matthaios; also known as SAINT MATTHEW and as LEVI) was, according to the Christian Bible , one of the twelve apostles of Jesus and, according to Christian tradition, one of the four Evangelists . CONTENTS * 1 In the New Testament * 2 Early life * 3 Ministry * 4 Matthew\'s Gospel * 5 Non-canonical or Apocryphal Gospels * 6 Veneration * 7 In Islam * 8 Gallery * 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 Bibliography * 12.1 Commentaries * 12.2 General works * 13 External links IN THE NEW TESTAMENT Matthew in a painted miniature from a volume of Armenian Gospels dated 1609, held by the Bodleian Library Among the early followers and apostles of Jesus , Matthew is mentioned in Matthew 9:9 and Matthew 10:3 as a publican who, while sitting at the "receipt of custom" in