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St Columb Minor Church
ST COLUMB MINOR CHURCH is a late 15th-century Church of England parish church in St Columb Minor in Cornwall
Cornwall
, United Kingdom. CONTENTS * 1 Site * 2 Building * 3 Restorations * 4 Features of the church * 5 References * 6 External links SITEThe site is probably that of an ancient barrow where pagan rites were celebrated, and was originally circular. The position is in full view of the twin tumuli, the symbol of the fruitfulness of Mother Nature. It is sheltered from the strong winds of the Atlantic and looks down the Rialton valley and across at Castle-an-Dinas at the summit of Castle Downs
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Box Pews
BOX PEW is a type of church pew that is encased in panelling and was prevalent in England and other Protestant countries from the 16th to early 19th century. CONTENTS * 1 History in England * 2 New England * 3 Gallery * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading HISTORY IN ENGLANDBefore the Reformation , seating was not customary in churches and only accorded to the lord of the manor, civic dignitaries and finally churchwardens. After 1569 stools and seating were installed in Protestant Churches primarily because the congregation were expected to listen to sermons, and various types of seating were introduced including the box pew. There are records of box pews being installed in Ludlow parish church before 1577. Box pews provided privacy and allowed the family to sit together
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Dry Rot
DRY ROT is wood decay caused by certain species of fungi that digest parts of the wood which give the wood strength and stiffness. It was previously used to describe any decay of cured wood in ships and buildings by a fungus which resulted in a darkly colored deteriorated and cracked condition. The life-cycle of dry rot can be broken down into four main stages. Dry rot
Dry rot
begins as a microscopic spore which, in high enough concentrations, can resemble a fine orange dust. If the spores are subjected to sufficient moisture they will begin to grow fine white strands known as hyphae . As the hyphae germinate they will eventually form a large mass known as mycelium . The final stage is a fruiting body which pumps new spores out into the surrounding air. In other fields, the term has been applied to the decay of crop plants by fungi. In health and safety , the term is used to describe the deterioration of rubber , for example the cracking of rubber hoses
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Victorian Restoration
VICTORIAN RESTORATION was the widespread and extensive refurbishment and rebuilding of Church of England
Church of England
churches and cathedrals that took place in England and Wales during the 19th-century reign of Queen Victoria . It was not the same process as is understood today by the term building restoration . Against a background of poorly maintained church buildings; a reaction against the Puritan
Puritan
ethic manifested in the Gothic Revival
Gothic Revival
; and a shortage of churches where they were needed in cities, the Cambridge Camden Society and the Oxford Movement
Oxford Movement
advocated a return to a more medieval attitude to churchgoing. The change was embraced by the Church of England
Church of England
which saw it as a means of reversing the decline in church attendance
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Pulpit
PULPIT is a raised stand for preachers in a Christian church. The origin of the word is the Latin pulpitum (platform or staging). The traditional pulpit is raised well above the surrounding floor for audibility and visibility, accessed by steps, with sides coming to about waist height. From the late medieval period onwards, pulpits have often had a canopy known as the sounding board or abat-voix above and sometimes also behind the speaker, normally in wood. Though sometimes highly decorated, this is not purely decorative, but can have a useful acoustic effect in projecting the preacher's voice to the congregation below. Most pulpits have one or more book-stands for the preacher to rest his or her bible, notes or texts upon. The pulpit is generally reserved for clergy . This is mandated in the regulations of the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
church, and several others (though not always strictly observed)
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Altar
An ALTAR is any structure upon which offerings such as sacrifices are made for religious purposes , and by extension the 'Holy table' of post-reformation Anglican
Anglican
churches. Altars are usually found at shrines , and they can be located in temples , churches and other places of worship. Today they are used particularly in Christianity
Christianity
, Buddhism
Buddhism
, Hinduism
Hinduism
, Shinto
Shinto
, Taoism
Taoism
, as well as in Freemasonry
Freemasonry
. Also seen in Neopaganism and Ceremonial Magic . Judaism
Judaism
used such a structure until the destruction of the Second Temple
Temple
. Many historical faiths also made use of them, including Greek and Norse religion
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Charles II Of England
CHARLES II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England , Scotland and Ireland . He was king of Scotland from 1649 until his deposition in 1651, and king of England, Scotland and Ireland from the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 until his death. Charles II's father, Charles I , was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War
English Civil War
. Although the Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II king on 5 February 1649, England entered the period known as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth , and the country was a de facto republic, led by Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell

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Newquay
NEWQUAY (/ˈnjuːki/ , Cornish : Tewynblustri ) is a town, civil parish , seaside resort and fishing port in Cornwall
Cornwall
, England, UK. It is situated on the North Atlantic
North Atlantic
coast of Cornwall
Cornwall
approximately 20 miles (32 km) west of Bodmin
Bodmin
and 12 miles (19 km) north of Truro . The town is bounded to the west by the River Gannel and its associated salt marsh, and to the east by the Porth Valley. Newquay has been expanding inland (south) since it was founded. In 2001, the census recorded a permanent population of 19,562, increasing to 20,342 at the 2011 census
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Early English Period
ENGLISH GOTHIC is an architectural style that flourished in England from about 1180 until about 1520. As with the Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture
of other parts of Europe, English Gothic is defined by its pointed arches , vaulted roofs, buttresses , large windows , and spires . The Gothic style was introduced from France, where the various elements had first been used together within a single building at the choir of the Basilique Saint-Denis
Basilique Saint-Denis
north of Paris, built by the Abbot Suger
Abbot Suger
and dedicated on 11 June 1144. The earliest large-scale applications of Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture
in England are at Canterbury Cathedral
Canterbury Cathedral
and Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey

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Beer Stone
BEER QUARRY CAVES is a man-made limestone underground complex located about a mile west of the village of Beer, Devon
Beer, Devon
, and the main source in England
England
for beer stone. The underground tunnels resulted from 2,000 years of quarrying beer stone, which was particularly favoured for cathedral and church features such as door and window surrounds because of its colour and workability for carving. Stone from the quarry was used in the construction of several of southern England's ancient cathedrals and a number of other important buildings as well as for many town and village churches, and for some buildings in the United States. Extraction was particularly intense during the Middle Ages , but continued until the 1920s. An adit to another set of workings can be seen from the South West Coast Path
South West Coast Path
east of Branscombe , having been exposed by a landslip in the late 18th century
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William Hals
WILLIAM HALS (1655–1737), was a British historian who compiled a History of Cornwall, the first work of any magnitude that was ever printed in Cornwall. He was born at Tresawsan, in the parish of Merther in Cornwall. Much of his work was never published but was used by other Cornish historians, including Davies Gilbert , Thomas Tonkin , and John Whitaker . Some of his original work is now held by the British Library . CONTENTS * 1 Family * 2 Parochial History of Cornwall * 3 Other works * 4 Sources * 5 References FAMILYHe married three times. His first wife was an Evans of Landrini in Wales, his second a Carveth of Perranzabuloe , and his last wife was a Courtenay of Tremere
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Bice
BICE, from the French bis, originally meaning dark-coloured, is a green or blue pigment . In French the terms vert bis and azur bis mean dark green and dark blue respectively. Bice pigments were generally prepared from basic copper carbonates , but sometimes ultramarine or other pigments were used. HISTORIC USAGEJo Kirby of the National Gallery London notes the occurrence of the pigment bice in three grades in an account of Tudor painting at Greenwich Palace in 1527. In this case, the three grades indicate the use of the mineral azurite rather than a manufactured blue copper carbonate. Similarly, green bice in other 16th-records may sometimes have been the mineral malachite . Ian Bristow, a historian of paint , concluded that the pigment blue bice found in records of British interior-decoration until the first half of the 17th century was azurite. The expensive natural mineral azurite was superseded by manufactured blue verditer
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Castle Rushen
CASTLE RUSHEN (Manx : CASHTAL ROSIEN) is a medieval castle located in the Isle of Man\'s historic capital, Castletown , in the south of the island. It towers over the Market Square to the south-east and the harbour to the north-east. The castle is amongst the best examples of medieval castles on the British Isles, and is still in use as a court house , museum and educational centre. CONTENTS * 1 Construction * 2 Make-up of the castle * 3 History * 3.1 Changing hands between the Scots and English * 3.2 Castle Rushen in the English Civil War * 4 Non-military uses of the castle * 4.1 Administrative centre * 4.2 Prison * 4.3 Manx National Heritage site * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links CONSTRUCTIONThe castle cannot be dated to the nearest 100 years, although construction is thought to have taken place during the reigns of the late 12th century and early 13th century rulers of the Isle of Man – the Kings of Mann and the Isles
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Isle Of Man
The ISLE OF MAN (Manx : Ellan Vannin ), also known simply as MANN (/mæn/ ; Manx : Mannin ), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland
Ireland
. The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
, who holds the title of Lord of Mann and is represented by a Lieutenant Governor . Defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom. Ranked by the World Bank as the 5th richest nation in the world by GDP per capita, the largest sectors are insurance and eGaming with 17% of GNP each, followed by ICT and banking with 9% each. The island has been inhabited since before 6500 BC. Gaelic cultural influence began in the 5th century and the Manx language , a branch of the Gaelic languages , emerged
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Camelford
CAMELFORD (Cornish : Reskammel ) is a town and civil parish in north Cornwall
Cornwall
, England, United Kingdom, situated in the River Camel
River Camel
valley northwest of Bodmin Moor
Bodmin Moor
. The town is approximately ten miles (16 km) north of Bodmin
Bodmin
and is governed by Camelford
Camelford
Town Council. LANTEGLOS-BY-CAMELFORD is the ecclesiastical parish in which the town is situated (not to be confused with Lanteglos-by-Fowey ). The ward population at the 2011 Census was 4,001. The Town population at the same census was 865 only Camelford
Camelford
is in the North Cornwall
Cornwall
parliamentary constituency represented by Scott Mann MP since 2015. Until 1974, the town was the administrative headquarters of Camelford Rural District
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Camborne
CAMBORNE (Cornish : Kammbronn) is a town in west Cornwall
Cornwall
, England. The population at the 2011 Census was 20,845. The northern edge of the parish includes a section of the South West Coast Path , Hell\'s Mouth and Deadman's Cove. Camborne
Camborne
was formerly one of the richest tin mining areas in the world and home to the Camborne School of Mines
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