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St Columb Minor Church
St Columb Minor
St Columb Minor
Church is a late 15th-century Church of England
Church of England
parish church in St Columb Minor
St Columb Minor
in Cornwall, United Kingdom.Contents1 Site 2 Building 3 Restorations 4 Features of the church 5 References 6 External linksSite[edit] The site is probably that of an ancient barrow where pagan rites were celebrated, and was originally circular.[citation needed] The position is in full view of the twin tumuli, the symbol of the fruitfulness of Mother Nature. It is sheltered from the strong winds of the Atlantic and looks down the Rialton valley and across at Castle-an-Dinas at the summit of Castle Downs. Here the Celtic missionaries, centuries before the Columba
Columba
legend arose, drove away the evil spirits and replaced pagan magic by Christian worship, and erected the first wooden sanctuary
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Castle Rushen
Castle
Castle
Rushen (Manx: Cashtal Rosien) is a medieval castle located in the Isle of Man's historic capital, Castletown, in the south of the island. It towers over the Market Square to the south-east and the harbour to the north-east
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Beer Stone
Beer Quarry Caves
Beer Quarry Caves
is a man-made limestone underground complex located about a mile west of the village of Beer, Devon,[1] and the main source in England
England
for beer stone. The underground tunnels resulted from 2,000 years of quarrying beer stone, which was particularly favoured for cathedral and church features such as door and window surrounds because of its colour and workability for carving. Stone from the quarry was used in the construction of several of southern England's ancient cathedrals and a number of other important buildings as well as for many town and village churches,[2] and for some buildings in the United States. Extraction was particularly intense during the Middle Ages, but continued until the 1920s. An adit to another set of workings can be seen from the South West Coast Path east of Branscombe, having been exposed by a landslip in the late 18th century
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William Hals
William Hals (1655–1737) was a British historian who compiled a History of Cornwall, the first work of any magnitude that was printed in Cornwall.[1] He was born at Tresawsan, in the parish of Merther in Cornwall.[2] Much of his work was never published but was used by other Cornish historians, including Davies Gilbert, Thomas Tonkin, and John Whitaker. Some of his original work is now held by the British Library.Contents1 Family 2 Parochial History of Cornwall 3 Other works 4 Sources 5 ReferencesFamily[edit] He married three times. His first wife was an Evans of Landrini in Wales, his second a Carveth of Perranzabuloe, and his last wife was a Courtenay of Tremere
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Bice
Bice, from the French bis, originally meaning dark-coloured, is a green or blue pigment. In French the terms vert bis and azur bis mean dark green and dark blue respectively. Bice pigments were generally prepared from basic copper carbonates, but sometimes ultramarine or other pigments were used.[1] Historic usage[edit] Jo Kirby of the National Gallery London
National Gallery London
notes the occurrence of the pigment bice in three grades in an account of Tudor painting at Greenwich Palace
Greenwich Palace
in 1527. In this case, the three grades indicate the use of the mineral azurite rather than a manufactured blue copper carbonate. Similarly, green bice in other 16th-records may sometimes have been the mineral malachite.[2] Ian Bristow, a historian of paint, concluded that the pigment blue bice found in records of British interior-decoration until the first half of the 17th century was azurite
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Newquay
Newquay
Newquay
(/ˈnjuːki/ NEW-kee; Cornish: Tewynblustri[1]) is a town in the south west of England, in the United Kingdom. It is a civil parish, seaside resort, regional centre for aerospace industries and a fishing port on the North Atlantic
North Atlantic
coast of Cornwall, approximately 12 miles (19 km) north of Truro
Truro
and 20 miles (32 km) west of Bodmin.[2] The town is bounded to the west by the River Gannel
River Gannel
and its associated salt marsh, and to the east by the Porth Valley
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Charles II Of England
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685)[c] was king of England, Scotland and Ireland. He was king of Scotland from 1649 until his deposition in 1651, and king of England, Scotland and Ireland from the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 until his death. Charles II's father, Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War. Although the Parliament of Scotland
Parliament of Scotland
proclaimed Charles II king on 5 February 1649, England entered the period known as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth, and the country was a de facto republic, led by Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, and Charles fled to mainland Europe. Cromwell became virtual dictator of England, Scotland and Ireland, and Charles spent the next nine years in exile in France, the Dutch Republic and the Spanish Netherlands
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Dry Rot
Dry rot
Dry rot
is wood decay caused by certain species of fungi that digest parts of the wood which give the wood strength and stiffness. It was previously used to describe any decay of cured wood in ships and buildings by a fungus which resulted in a darkly colored deteriorated and cracked condition. The life-cycle of dry rot can be broken down into four main stages. Dry rot
Dry rot
begins as a microscopic spore which, in high enough concentrations, can resemble a fine orange dust. If the spores are subjected to sufficient moisture they will begin to grow fine white strands known as hyphae. As the hyphae germinate they will eventually form a large mass known as mycelium. The final stage is a fruiting body which pumps new spores out into the surrounding air. In other fields, the term has been applied to the decay of crop plants by fungi
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Box Pews
Box pew
Box pew
is a type of church pew that is encased in panelling and was prevalent in England and other Protestant
Protestant
countries from the 16th to early 19th century.Contents1 History in England 2 New England 3 Gallery 4 See also 5 References 6 Further readingHistory in England[edit] Before the Reformation, seating was not customary in churches and only accorded to the lord of the manor, civic dignitaries and finally churchwardens. After 1569 stools and seating were installed in Protestant
Protestant
Churches primarily because the congregation were expected to listen to sermons, and various types of seating were introduced including the box pew. There are records of box pews being installed in Ludlow
Ludlow
parish church before 1577.[1] Box pews provided privacy and allowed the family to sit together
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Victorian Restoration
The Victorian restoration
Victorian restoration
was the widespread and extensive refurbishment and rebuilding of Church of England
Church of England
churches and cathedrals that took place in England and Wales during the 19th-century reign of Queen Victoria. It was not the same process as is understood today by the term building restoration. Against a background of poorly maintained church buildings; a reaction against the Puritan
Puritan
ethic manifested in the Gothic Revival; and a shortage of churches where they were needed in cities, the Cambridge Camden Society and the Oxford Movement
Oxford Movement
advocated a return to a more medieval attitude to churchgoing
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Pulpit
Pulpit
Pulpit
is a raised stand for preachers in a Christian church. The origin of the word is the Latin pulpitum (platform or staging).[1] The traditional pulpit is raised well above the surrounding floor for audibility and visibility, accessed by steps, with sides coming to about waist height. From the late medieval period onwards, pulpits have often had a canopy known as the sounding board or abat-voix above and sometimes also behind the speaker, normally in wood. Though sometimes highly decorated, this is not purely decorative, but can have a useful acoustic effect in projecting the preacher's voice to the congregation below. Most pulpits have one or more book-stands for the preacher to rest his or her bible, notes or texts upon. The pulpit is generally reserved for clergy. This is mandated in the regulations of the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
church, and several others (though not always strictly observed)
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Altar
An altar is any structure upon which offerings such as sacrifices are made for religious purposes, and by extension the 'Holy table' of post-reformation Anglican
Anglican
churches. Altars are usually found at shrines, and they can be located in temples, churches and other places of worship. Today they are used particularly in Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, Shinto, Taoism. Also seen in Neopaganism
Neopaganism
and Ceremonial Magic. Judaism
Judaism
used such a structure until the destruction of the Second Temple
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Isle Of Man
The Isle of Man
Isle of Man
(Manx: Ellan Vannin [ˈɛlʲən ˈvanɪn]), also known simply as Mann (/mæn/; Manx: Mannin [ˈmanɪn]), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea
Irish Sea
between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland. The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who holds the title of Lord of Mann
Lord of Mann
and is represented by a Lieutenant Governor. Defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom. Ranked by the World Bank
World Bank
as the 5th richest nation in the world by GDP per capita,[6] the largest sectors are insurance and eGaming with 17% of GNP each, followed by ICT and banking with 9% each.[7] The island has been inhabited since before 6500 BC. Gaelic cultural influence began in the 5th century and the Manx language, a branch of the Gaelic languages, emerged
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Bishop Of Exeter
The Bishop
Bishop
of Exeter
Exeter
is the Ordinary of the Church of England
Church of England
Diocese of Exeter
Exeter
in the Province of Canterbury.[2] The current incumbent, since 30 April 2014, is Robert Atwell.[3] The incumbent signs his name as his Christian name or forename followed by Exon., abbreviated from the Latin Episcopus Exoniensis
Exoniensis
(" Bishop
Bishop
of Exeter"). From the first bishop until the sixteenth century the Bishops of Exeter
Exeter
were in full communion with the Roman Catholic Church. However, during the Reformation the Church of England
Church of England
broke away from the authority of the Pope
Pope
and the Roman Catholic Church, at first temporarily and later more permanently
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Ceremonial Counties Of England
The ceremonial counties,[2] also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England,[3] are areas of England
England
to which a Lord Lieutenant
Lord Lieutenant
is appointed. Legally the areas in England, as well as in Wales and Scotland, are defined by the Lieutenancies Act 1997
Lieutenancies Act 1997
as counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies in Great Britain, in contrast to the areas used for local government
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