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Sri Lankan Civil War
Sri Lankan government
Sri Lankan government
victoryRebel group Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
Tamil Eelam
militarily defeated Sri Lankan government
Sri Lankan government
reestablishes control over entire islandTerritorial changes Government regains total control of former LTTE-controlled areas in the North and East of the country.Belligerents Sri Lanka Indian Peace Keeping Force (1987–1990) Liberation Tigers of Tamil EelamCommanders and leaders J. R. Jayawardene
J. R. Jayawardene
(1983–1989) Ranasinghe Premadasa † (1989–1993) D. B. Wijetunga (1993–1994) Chandrika Kumaratunga
Chandrika Kumaratunga
(1994–2005) Mahinda Rajapaksa
Mahinda Rajapaksa
(2005–2009) R. Venkataraman
R

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Tamil Eelam
Tamil Eelam
Eelam
(Tamil: தமிழீழம் tamiḻ īḻam, generally rendered outside Tamil-speaking areas as தமிழ் ஈழம்) is a proposed independent state that Tamils in Sri Lanka, India
India
and the Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora
Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora
aspire to create in the north and east of Sri Lanka
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First Battle Of Elephant Pass
The First Battle of Elephant Pass was a battle fought in July 1991 for the control of the Sri Lankan military base of Elephant Pass, which was of strategic importance as it linked the northern mainland known as Wanni with the Jaffna Peninsula. The battle was fought between troops of the Sri Lankan army and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, commonly known as LTTE.Contents1 Battle 2 Operation Balavegaya 3 See also 4 ReferencesBattle[edit] On July 10, 1991, the LTTE launched a massive attack at Elephant Pass. The battle was, up until that time, the most violent and bloody confrontation that ever took place between the LTTE and the Sri Lankan Army. The LTTE had previously surrounded the base and blocked off routes north and south so no reinforcements could come in. Also, at the beginning of July the LTTE moved anti-aircraft guns close to the base so no helicopters could bring in supplies
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Operation Pawan
Operation Pawan (Hindi: ऑपरेशन पवन Ŏparēśan Pavan, lit. "Operation Wind") was the code name assigned to the operation by the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) to take control of Jaffna
Jaffna
from the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
Tamil Eelam
(LTTE), better known as the Tamil Tigers, in late 1987 to enforce the disarmament of the LTTE
LTTE
as a part of the Indo- Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Accord. In brutal fighting lasting about three weeks, the IPKF took control of the Jaffna Peninsula from the LTTE, something that the Sri Lankan Army had tried but failed to do
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Operation Trishul
Operation Trishul (Sanskrit: त्रिशूल Triśūla, lit. "Operation Trishul"), along with Operation Viraat, was an anti-insurgency operation launched by the IPKF against the LTTE in April 1988 in Northern Sri Lanka, in the provinces of Maannar to Mullaitivu and Elephant Pass to Vavuniya.[1] The operation was planned as a result of the evolving doctrine among the Indian high command of conducting search and destroy missions against LTTE strongholds instead of holding key strongpoints. References[edit]^ https://web.archive.org/web/20061207042557/http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Army/History/1987/Chapter04.html. Archived from the original on December 7, 2006
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Operation Viraat
Operation Viraat (Sanskrit: विराट Virāṭa, lit. "Operation Giant"), along with Operation Trishul, was an anti-insurgency operation launched by the IPKF against the LTTE in April 1988 in Northern Sri Lanka, in the provinces of Mannar to Mullaitivu and Elephant Pass to Vavuniya.[1] The operation was planned as a result of the evolving doctrine among the Indian high command of conducting search and destroy missions against LTTE strongholds instead of holding key strong points. It utilized approximately 15,000 troops including armoured corps, Paratroops, as well as the infantry troops and army aviation. The operation achieved some success in disrupting LTTE operations,with seizure of weaponry and inflicting limited casualties among the LTTE cadres
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Operation Checkmate (Sri Lanka)
Operation Checkmate was an anti-insurgency operation carried out by the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) against the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) in the Vadamarachi area of northern Sri Lanka in June 1988. Initiated immediately prior to the elections in the North eastern provinces, the aim of the operation was to destroy the Tigers' capacity to hinder the electoral process, which they had called to boycott. It ended in an IPKF victory.[1] References[edit]^ "Jain Commission Interim Report.Growth of Sri Lankan Tamil Militancy in Tamil Nadu.Chapter Chapter I.Phase 1.(1981-1986)"
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Jaffna University Helidrop
The Jaffna University Helidrop was the first of the operations launched by the Indian Peace Keeping Forces (IPKF) aimed at disarming the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) by force and securing the town of Jaffna, Sri Lanka, in the opening stages of Operation Pawan during the active Indian mediation in the Sri Lankan Civil War. Mounted on the midnight of 12 October 1987, the operation was planned as a fast heliborne assault involving Mi-8's of the No.109 HU, the 10th Para Commandos and a contingent of the 13th Sikh LI. The aim of the operation was to capture the LTTE leadership at Jaffna University building which served as the Tactical Headquarters of the LTTE, which was expected to shorten Operation Pawan, the battle for Jaffna. However, the operation ended disastrously, failing to capture its objectives due to intelligence and planning failures
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Eelam War II
 Sri Lanka Military of Sri Lanka Liberation Tigers of Tamil EelamCommanders and leadersRanasinghe Premadasa (1989–93) Dingiri Banda Wijetunge (1993–94) Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994–1995) Velupillai Prabhakaranv t eEelam War IIKokavil Sea Breeze Thrividha Balaya Balavegaya Sathbala Balavegaya II Welioya Elephant Pass Poonerynv t eSri Lankan Civil WarMain topicsEelam War I Indian intervention Eelam War II Eelam War III Eelam War IV Battles and operations Bombings and terrorist attacks Other military attacksMass gravesChemmani Duraiappa Mirusuvil SooriyakandaMassacresBlack July 1985 Valvettiturai Kumudini Akkaraipattu Prawn farm Eastern University 1990 Batticaloa 1991 Kokkadichcholai Jaffna lagoon Navaly Nagerkovil-Allaipiddy Vankalai Muttur Kent and Dollar Farm Anuradhapura Aranthalawa Kattankudi mosque Palliyagodella Kallarawa October 1995 Gonagala Kebithigollewa Jaffna Hos
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Battle Of Kokavil
The Battle of Kokavil was a battle in June and July 1990 for the control of the town of Kokavil in Sri Lanka. The battle was fought between the Sri Lankan Army (SLA) and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). The battle was primarily centered on the 14-day siege of the military camp at Kokavil, which eventually fell to the Tigers. Battle[edit] In early June 1990, LTTE fighters attacked SLA forces in the area of Mankulam. These initial attacks were repulsed but by June 12, both Mankulam and Kokavil were surrounded. On June 16 a ceasefire was declared so negotiations can take place. Shortly after this sixteen soldiers, from a military detachment guarding the Rupavahini Relay Station at Kokavil, left on leave leaving 69 soldiers at the camp. Soon after that, on June 27, the camp was surrounded by the LTTE. For the next 14 days the camp was constantly coming under attack. Medicine, food and water were in short supply. Supplies were dropped by helicopters
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Operation Sea Breeze (Sri Lanka)
Operation Sea Breeze was a combined military operation launched by the Sri Lanka Armed Forces in Mullaitivu. It was the first amphibious operation launched by the Sri Lankan military in its history. The operation was carried out to break the siege and reinforce the Sri Lanka Army camp in Mullaitivu
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Operation Thrividha Balaya
Operation Thrividha Balaya was a combined military operation, the first of its kind, launched by the Sri Lankan Military in Jaffna. The Operation was carried out to break the siege of the Sri Lanka Army garrison of the old Dutch Jaffna Fort in Jaffna.Contents1 Background 2 Operation 3 Aftermath 4 ReferencesBackground[edit] Plans were laid out by Maj. Gen Denzil Kobbekaduwa to rescue the troops 6 SLSR & Police led by Lt.Jayantha Fernando of (He had earlier volunteered to lead the troops of the besieged fort) of the besieged Jaffna Fort and to liberate the town of Jaffna with the combined strength of the Army, Navy & the Air Force. Troops of 1GR led by Lt. Col Gotabaya Rajapaksa and 1 SLSR led by Lt.Col Sarath Fonseka were tasked with breaking the siege at Jaffna Fort and regaining the town of Jaffna under government control. Captain A.H.M Razeek, Commander Northern Naval area planned the landings of the troops. Northern Zonal SLAF Commander, Wg.Cdr
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Operation Balavegaya
Operation Balavegaya (Operation Power force) was a combined military operation launched by the Sri Lankan military in Jaffna, the largest amphibious assault in its history. Operation Balavegaya was launched in response to the siege of Elephant Pass by the LTTE. It is believed that Operation Balavegaya was the largest and most successful military operation of the Sri Lankan military until Operation Riviresa in 1995.Contents1 Background 2 Battle for Elephant Pass 3 Operation Balavegaya I 4 Aftermath 5 ReferencesBackground[edit] In July 1990, when Maj. Gen. Denzil Kobbekaduwa took charge as commanding officer of Northern Operations, he instituted an operation code-named "Operation Gajasinghe" to pull out troops from Kilinochchi and strengthen the camp at Elephant Pass. He also established a temporary camp at Paranthan, north of Paranthan junction, for obtaining fresh water for the camp at Elephant Pass
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Battle Of Pooneryn
The Battle of Pooneryn
Pooneryn
was a battle fought on 11 November 1993 for the town of Pooneryn. LTTE
LTTE
codenamed this operation as Operation Frog.Contents1 Background 2 Battle 3 Aftermath 4 See also 5 ReferencesBackground[edit] Sri Lankan Army handed over their positions in the area to Indian Peaece Keeping Force (IPKF) in 1987 and regained them in 1992 in Operations Valampuri 1 and 2. The Poonaryn and Elephant pass Army camps blocked LTTE
LTTE
movements between Wanni and Jaffna, Since the LTTE secretly planned an attack on the Poonaryn Army garrison and the Navy detachment at Nagasivanthurei
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Indian Intervention In The Sri Lankan Civil War
The Indian intervention in the Sri Lankan Civil War was the deployment of the Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka intended to perform a peacekeeping role. The deployment followed the Indo-Sri Lankan Accord between India and Sri Lanka of 1987 which was intended to end the Sri Lankan Civil War between militant Sri Lankan Tamil nationalists, principally the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), and the Sri Lankan military. The original intention was the Indian Peace Keeping Force would not be involved in large scale military operations. However, after a few months, the Indian Peace Keeping Force engaged the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam in a series of battles
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Eelam War III
 Sri Lanka Military of Sri Lanka Liberation Tigers of Tamil EelamCommanders and leadersChandrika Kumaratunga (1994–2005) Velupillai PrabhakaranStrength247,000 18,000-24,000Casualties and losses7,838 2,876v t eEelam War IIIJaffna (1995) Riviresa Mullaitivu (1996) Sath Jaya Edibala Vavunathivu Jayasikurui (Thandikulam–Omanthai, Battle of Kanakarayankulam (1997)) Rivi bala Kilinochchi (1998) Rana Gosa Oddusuddan Kinihira A-9 highway 2nd Elephant Pass Rivikirana Bandaranaikev t eSri Lankan Civil WarMain topicsEelam War I Indian intervention Eelam War II Eelam War III Eelam War IV Battles and operations Bombings and terrorist attacks Other military attacksMass gravesChemmani Duraiappa Mirusuvil SooriyakandaMassacresBlack July 1985 Valvettiturai Kumudini Akkaraipattu Prawn farm Eastern University 1990 Batticaloa 1991 Kokkadichcholai Jaffna lagoon Naval
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