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Sputnik 1
Sputnik 1
Sputnik 1
(/ˈspʊtnɪk/ or /ˈspʌtnɪk/; "Satellite-1", or "PS-1", Простейший Спутник-1 or Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1, "Elementary Satellite
Satellite
1")[5] was the first artificial Earth satellite. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
launched it into an elliptical low Earth orbit on 4 October 1957. It was a 58 cm (23 in) diameter polished metal sphere, with four external radio antennas to broadcast radio pulses. Its radio signal was easily detectable even by radio amateurs,[6] and the 65° inclination and duration of its orbit made its flight path cover virtually the entire inhabited Earth. This surprise success precipitated the American Sputnik crisis
Sputnik crisis
and triggered the Space Race, a part of the Cold War
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Ruble
The ruble or rouble (/ˈruːbəl/; Russian: рубль, IPA: [rublʲ]) is or was a currency unit of a number of countries in Eastern Europe closely associated with the economy of Russia. Originally, the ruble was the currency unit of Imperial Russia
Imperial Russia
and then the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(as Soviet ruble), and it is currently the currency unit of Russia
Russia
(as Russian ruble) and Belarus
Belarus
(as Belarussian ruble). The Russian ruble
Russian ruble
is also used in the partially recognised states of Abkhazia
Abkhazia
and South Ossetia. In the past, several other countries influenced by Russia
Russia
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
had currency units that were also named rubles. One ruble is divided into 100 kopeks (Russian: копе́йка, tr
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Smithsonian Institution
The Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
(/smɪθˈsoʊniən/ smith-SOH-nee-ən), established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.[1] The institution is named after its founding donor, British scientist James Smithson.[2] Originally organized as the "United States National Museum," that name ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967.[3] Termed "the nation's attic"[4] for its eclectic holdings of 154 million items,[2] the Institution's nineteen museums, nine research centers, and zoo include historical and architectural landmarks, mostly located in the District of Columbia.[5] Additional facilities are located in Arizona, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York City, Pittsburgh, Texas, Virginia, and Panama
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Kazakh SSR
The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic[2] was one of the transcontinental constituent republics of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1936-1991 in northern Central Asia. It was created on December 5, 1936 from the Kazakh ASSR, an autonomous republic of the Russian SFSR. At 2,717,300 square kilometres (1,049,200 sq mi) in area, it was the second-largest republic in the USSR, after the Russian SFSR. Its capital was Alma-Ata (today known as Almaty). Today it is the independent nation of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
in Central Asia. During its existence as a Soviet Socialist Republic, it was ruled by the Communist Party of the Kazakh SSR. On October 25, 1990, the Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh SSR declared its sovereignty on its soil
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MHz
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.[1] It is named for Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, the first person to provide conclusive proof of the existence of electromagnetic waves. Hertz
Hertz
are commonly expressed in multiples: kilohertz (103 Hz, kHz), megahertz (106 Hz, MHz), gigahertz (109 Hz, GHz), and terahertz (1012 Hz, THz). Some of the unit's most common uses are in the description of sine waves and musical tones, particularly those used in radio- and audio-related applications
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Earth's Atmosphere
The atmosphere of Earth
Earth
is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth
Earth
and is retained by Earth's gravity. The atmosphere of Earth
Earth
protects life on Earth
Earth
by creating pressure allowing for liquid water to exist on the Earth's surface, absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation). By volume, dry air contains 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen,[2] 0.93% argon, 0.04% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases. Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor, on average around 1% at sea level, and 0.4% over the entire atmosphere
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Dimitri Ustinov
Dmitriy Fyodorovich Ustinov 30 October 1908 – 20 December 1984) was Minister of Defence of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1976 until his death.Contents1 Early life 2 War service 3 Post war3.1 Brezhnev years 3.2 Minister of Defense 3.3 Minister Ustinov and KAL 0074 Death and legacy 5 Personality and family 6 In popular culture 7 Honours and awards7.1 Foreign8 References 9 Bibliography 10 External linksEarly life[edit] Dimitry Feodorovich Ustinov was born in a working-class family in Samara. During the civil war, when hunger became intolerable, his sick father went to Samarkand, leaving Dimitry as head of the family. Shortly after that, in 1922, his father died. In 1923, he and his mother, Yevrosinya Martinovna, moved to the city of Makarev (near Ivanovo-Voznesensk) where he worked as a fitter in a paper mill. Shortly after that, in 1925, his mother died. Ustinov joined the communist party in 1927
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Mikhail Klavdievich Tikhonravov
Mikhail Klavdievich Tikhonravov (July 29, 1900, Vladimir – March 3, 1974) was a Soviet aerospace engineer and scientist who was a pioneer of spacecraft design and rocketry. Mikhail Tikhonravov
Mikhail Tikhonravov
was born in Vladimir, USSR. Attended the Zhukovsky Air Force Academy from 1922 to 1925, where he was exposed to Konstantin Tsiolkovsky's ideas of spaceflight. After graduation and until 1931 worked in several aircraft industries and was engaged in developing gliders. From 1931 and on, devoted himself to the development of the field of rocketry. In 1932, he joined Group for the Study of Reactive Motion, as one of the four brigade leaders. His brigade built the GIRD-09 rocket, fueled by liquid oxygen and jellied gasoline, and launched on August 17, 1933. From 1938 Tikhonravov researched rocket engines with liquid fuel and developed rockets for the purpose of upper atmosphere layers’ research
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Dwight D. Eisenhower
World War II Supreme Allied Commander in EuropeD-Day Operation OverlordSurrender of Germany VE-DayCrusade in EuropePresident of the United StatesPresidencyFirst TermDraft movement1952 CampaignElection1st InaugurationKorean War Atoms for PeaceCold WarNew Look Domino theoryInterstate Highway SystemSecond Term1956 campaignElection2nd InaugurationEisenhower Doctrine Sputnik
Sputnik
crisis Missile gapNDEA NASA DARPACivil Rights Act of 1957 Little Rock NineU-2 incident Farewell AddressPost-PresidencyLegacy Presidential library and museum Tributes and memorialsv t eDwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (/ˈaɪzənhaʊ.ər/ EYE-zən-how-ər; October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961
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Politburo Of The Communist Party Of The Soviet Union
The Politburo
Politburo
(Russian: Политбюро, IPA: [pəlʲɪtbʲʊˈro], full: Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, abbreviated Политбюро ЦК КПСС, Politbyuro TsK KPSS) was the highest policy-making government authority under the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.[3] It was founded in October 1917, and refounded in March 1919, at the 8th Congress of the Bolshevik Party. It was known as the Presidium from 1952 to 1966
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National Air And Space Museum
The National Air and Space Museum
National Air and Space Museum
of the Smithsonian Institution, also called the NASM, is a museum in Washington, D.C.. It was established in 1946 as the National Air Museum and opened its main building on the National Mall
National Mall
near L'Enfant Plaza
L'Enfant Plaza
in 1976. In 2016, the museum saw approximately 7.5 million visitors, making it the second most visited museum in the world, and the most visited museum in the United States. [2] The museum contains the Apollo 11
Apollo 11
command module, the Friendship 7 capsule which was flown by John Glenn, Charles Lindbergh's Spirit of St
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Aerodynamic Drag
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.[1] This can exist between two fluid layers (or surfaces) or a fluid and a solid surface. Unlike other resistive forces, such as dry friction, which are nearly independent of velocity, drag forces depend on velocity.[2][3] Drag force is proportional to the velocity for a laminar flow and the squared velocity for a turbulent flow
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Council Of Ministers (Soviet Union)
The Council of Ministers of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сове́т мини́стров СССР, tr. Sovet Ministrov SSSR, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt mʲɪˈnʲistrəf ɛsɛsɛˈsɛr]; sometimes abbreviated to Sovmin or referred to as the Soviet of Ministers), was the de jure government comprising the highest executive and administrative body of the Soviet Union from 1946 until 1991. In 1946 the Council of People's Commissars was transformed into the Council of Ministers, with People's Commissariats turned into Ministries. The council issued declarations and instructions based on and in accordance with applicable laws, which had obligatory jurisdictional power over the territories of all republics within the Union. However, the most important state issues were handled through joint declarations with the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Soviet Union (CPSU), which was de facto more powerful than the Council of Ministers
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Telemetry
Telemetry
Telemetry
is an automated communications process by which measurements and other data are collected at remote or inaccessible points and transmitted to receiving equipment for monitoring.[1] The word is derived from Greek roots: tele = remote, and metron = measure. Systems that need external instructions and data to operate require the counterpart of telemetry, telecommand.[2] Although the term commonly refers to wireless data transfer mechanisms (e.g., using radio, ultrasonic, or infrared systems), it also encompasses data transferred over other media such as a telephone or computer network, optical link or other wired communications like power line carriers. Many modern telemetry systems take advantage of the low cost and ubiquity of GSM
GSM
networks by using SMS
SMS
to receive and transmit telemetry data. A telemeter is a device used to remotely measure any quantity
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Gyroscope
A gyroscope (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
γῦρος gûros, "circle" and σκοπέω skopéō, "to look") is a device used for measuring or maintaining orientation and angular velocity.[1][2] It is a spinning wheel or disc in which the axis of rotation is free to assume any orientation by itself. When rotating, the orientation of this axis is unaffected by tilting or rotation of the mounting, according to the conservation of angular momentum. Gyroscopes based on other operating principles also exist, such as the microchip-packaged MEMS gyroscopes found in electronic devices, solid-state ring lasers, fibre optic gyroscopes, and the extremely sensitive quantum gyroscope. [3] Applications of gyroscopes include inertial navigation systems, such as in the Hubble telescope, or inside the steel hull of a submerged submarine
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Ion
An ion (/ˈaɪən, -ɒn/)[1] is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons). A cation is a positively-charged ion, while an anion is negatively charged. Because of their opposite electric charges, cations and anions attract each other and readily form ionic compounds, such as salts. Ions can be created by chemical means, such as the dissolution of a salt into water, or by physical means, such as passing a direct current through a conducting solution, which will dissolve the anode via ionization. Ions consisting of only a single atom are atomic or monatomic ions
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