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Sports Sedan
A SPORTS SEDAN or a SPORTS SALOON is a sedan automobile (US) or saloon car (UK) that is designed to look and feel "sporty", offering the motorist more connection with the driving experience, while providing the comfort and amenities expected of a luxury sedan . A wider definition that includes related coupé , convertibles , crossovers is known as SPORT LUXURY. Most vehicles in this category overlap with the compact executive car and executive car classifications, while the sporty small family sedans are called sport compacts (mostly used in North America ). In the United Kingdom the term Super saloon is also used for high performance four-door cars. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Concept * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORY 1964 Renault R8 Gordini was a sportive compact car for a public consumption price. The term was originally introduced in the 1930s and applied to lighter, more streamlined closed body coachwork fitted by car makers. Rover , for example, had Sports Saloon versions of several of their models. It was later applied by manufacturers to special versions of their vehicles that allowed them to enter production cars in motor races with extra modifications not normally permitted by the regulations. Such regulations required cars to be homologated typically by selling them in minimum numbers to the public
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Hot Hatch
HOT HATCH (shortened from HOT HATCHBACK) is a high-performance derivative of a car body style consisting of a three- or five-door hatchback automobile . The performance upgrades of a hot hatch are sometimes available for the estate variant of the car, often called sportwagons. Vehicles of this class are based on family-oriented automobiles, and are equipped with an uprated more powerful internal combustion engine , improved suspension , and may also include additional "aerodynamic" body parts and larger wheels and tyres. Front-mounted petrol engines , together with front-wheel drive , is the most common powertrain layout, although some can be specified as diesel-powered . Rear and four-wheel drive hot hatches are also available. CONTENTS * 1 Origination of the term * 2 Development of the hot hatch * 2.1 The 1980s and 1990s * 2.2 Post-2000 * 3 The hot hatch in North America * 4 The hot hatch in Australia and Asia * 5 Warm hatch * 6 See also * 7 References ORIGINATION OF THE TERMThe term hot hatch gained widespread use during the 1980s in the UK, first as 'hot hatchback' by 1983 and then shortened to 'hot hatch' in the motoring press in 1984, and first appeared in _The Times_ in 1985, and is now commonly and widely accepted as a mainstream, if still informal term. It is retrospectively applied to cars from the late 1970s but was not a phrase used at the time
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Australian Sports Sedan Championship
The NATIONAL SERIES FOR SPORTS SEDANS , formerly the AUSTRALIAN SPORTS SEDAN CHAMPIONSHIP, is a CAMS sanctioned national motor racing title for drivers of cars complying with Australian Sports Sedan regulations. This class, essentially a silhouette racing car class , caters for cars of essentially free construction but utilising some of the bodywork of a closed, series production vehicle. The category emerged following the replacement of Appendix J Touring Cars by the more restricted Group C Improved Production Touring Cars at the end of 1964. Promoters of circuits such as Winton and Oran Park then allowed the redundant Appendix J cars to run with Sports Cars under the name Sports Racing Closed. By 1966 cars were competing with extensive modifications, often including engine swaps. By 1971 restrictions were placed on bodywork modifications ensuring that the original silhouette of the car had to be maintained. The term Sports Sedans had been in common usage for the cars and in 1973 CAMS gave the name official recognition when it introduced GROUP B SPORTS SEDANS as a new racing classification. The category officially became GROUP 2D SPORTS SEDANS in 1988, and GROUP 3D SPORTS SEDANS in 2000
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Talk
TALK may refer to: * Conversation , interactive communication between two or more people * Speech , the production of a spoken language * Interaction , face to face conversations * Compulsive talking , beyond the bounds of what is considered to be a socially acceptable amount of talking * Communication , the encoding and decoding of exchanged messages between peopleCONTENTS * 1 Software * 2 Books * 3 Film and TV * 4 Music * 4.1 Albums * 4.2 Songs SOFTWARE * Google Talk , a Windows- and web-based instant messaging program * talk (software) , a Unix messaging program * AppleTalk , an early networking protocol designed by Apple for their Macintosh computersBOOKS * _Talk_ (play) , a play by Carl Hancock Rux * _Talk_ (magazine) , an American magazineFILM AND TV * _Talk_ (film) , a 1994 Australian film * Talk show , a broadcast program format * Talk radio , a radio formatMUSIC * Talk Talk , a British rock group active from 1981 to 1991ALBUMS * _Talk_ (Yes album) , 1994 * _Talk_ (Paul Kelly album) , 1981SONGS * "Talk" (Coldplay song) * "Talk" (DJ Snake song) * "Talk", by Kreesha Turner on the album _Passion _ * "Talk", by Tracy Bonham on the album _ The Liverpool Sessions _ * "Talk", by M.I.A
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Mercedes-Benz C-Class
The MERCEDES-BENZ C-CLASS is a line of compact executive cars produced by Daimler AG . Introduced in 1993 as a replacement for the 190 (W201) range, the C-Class was the smallest model in the marque's line-up until the A-Class arrived in 1997. The C-Class is built at Mercedes-Benz factories in Sindelfingen and Bremen , Germany as well as numerous satellite factories in other countries. The first C-Class (W202) sedan was produced on 1 June 1993, and the first of the second generation (W203) rolled off the assembly line on 18 July 2000. The C-Class has been available with a 4Matic
4Matic
(i.e. four-wheel drive ) option since 2002. The third generation (W204) was launched in 2007. The latest generation C-Class (W205) came out in 2014. Though originally available as a sedan and a station wagon, the W203 series in 2000 debuted a fastback coupé (SportCoupé) version that, when facelifted, became the Mercedes-Benz CLC-Class . The CLC-Class remained in production until 2011 when it was replaced by a new W204 C-Class coupé for the 2012 model year
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Sedan (automobile)
A SEDAN /sᵻˈdæn/ (American , Canadian , Australian , and New Zealand English ) or SALOON (British , Irish and Indian English ) is a passenger car in a three-box configuration with A, B max-width:224px"> 1962 Rambler Classic
Rambler Classic
2- and 4-door sedans The primary purpose of the sedan is to transport people and their baggage on ordinary roads. Sedan versions of the automobile body style have a central pillar (B-pillar) that supports the roof and come in two- and four-door versions. Sedans usually have a two-box or three-box body. In the U.S., the term sedan has been used to denote a car with fixed window frames, as opposed to the hardtop style without a "B" pillar and where the sash or window frame, if any, winds down with the glass. Popular in the U.S. from the 1950s through the 1970s, true hardtop body designs have become increasingly rare. The shape and position of the automobile greenhouse on both two- and four-door sedans may be identical, with only the center B-pillar positioned further back to accommodate the longer doors on the two-door versions. For example, 1962 Rambler Classic
Rambler Classic
sedans feature identical windshield, A-pillar, roof, C-pillar, and rear window
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Automobile
A CAR (or AUTOMOBILE) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation . Most definitions of _car_ say they run primarily on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires , and mainly transport people rather than goods. Cars came into global use during the 20th century, and developed economies depend on them. The year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car, when German inventor Karl Benz built his Benz Patent-Motorwagen . Cars did not become widely available until the early 20th century. One of the first cars that was accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T , an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company . Cars were rapidly adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world. Cars have controls for driving, parking, passenger comfort and safety, and controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex. Examples include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning , navigation systems , and in car entertainment . Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal combustion engine , fueled by the combustion of fossil fuels . This causes air pollution and are also blamed for contributing to climate change and global warming
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Luxury Vehicle
LUXURY VEHICLE is a marketing term for a vehicle that provides luxury — pleasant or desirable features beyond strict necessity — at increased expense. The term suggests a vehicle with higher quality equipment, better performance, more precise construction, comfort, higher design, technologically innovative modern, or features that convey an image, brand , status , or prestige, or any other 'discretionary' feature or combination of them. The term is also broad, highly variable and relative. It is a perceptual, conditional and subjective attribute that may be comprehended differently by different people; "What is a luxury car to some... may be 'ordinary' to others." In contemporary usage, the term may be applied to any vehicle type— including sedan , coupe , hatchback , station wagon , and convertible body styles, as well as to minivans , crossovers , or sport utility vehicles and to any size vehicle, from small to large—in any price range. Moreover, there is a convergence in the markets and a resulting confusion of luxury with high price: where there may have been a clear difference in price between luxury and others, there is no longer an absolute separation between premium and luxury, with what may be premium brands now more expensive than the equivalent so-called luxury ones
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Coupé
A COUPé (_/coo-pay/_, or US COUPE, _/coop/_) (from the French past participle _coupé_, of the infinitive _couper_, to cut) is a car with a fixed-roof body style that is shorter than a sedan or saloon (British and Irish English) of the same model. The precise definition of the term varies between manufacturers and over time. but generally, a coupe will only seat two people and have two doors, though it may have rear seating and rear doors for additional passengers. The term was first applied to 19th-century carriages, where the rear-facing seats had been eliminated, or cut out. CONTENTS * 1 Pronunciation * 2 History * 3 Definitions and descriptions * 4 Current usage * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links PRONUNCIATIONIn most English-speaking countries, the French spelling _coupé_ and anglicized pronunciation /kuːˈpeɪ/ _koo-PAY_ are used. The stress may be equal or on either the first or second syllable; stressing the first syllable is the more anglicized variant. Most speakers of North American English spell the word without the acute accent and pronounce it as one syllable: /ˈkuːp/ _KOOP_ . This change occurred gradually and before World War II
World War II
. A North American example of usage is the hot rodders ' term Deuce Coupe (_DEWS KOOP_ ) used to refer to a 1932 Ford; this pronunciation is used in the Beach Boys' 1963 hit song, " Little Deuce Coupe
Little Deuce Coupe
"
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Convertible (car)
A CONVERTIBLE or CABRIOLET (/ˌkæbriːoʊˈleɪ/ ; _KA-bree-oh-LAY_ ) is an automobile body style that can convert between an open-air mode and an enclosed one, varying in degree and means by model. Convertibles evolved from the earlier phaeton , an open vehicle without glass side windows that sometimes had removable panels of fabric or other material for protection from the elements. Historically, a retractable roof consisted of an articulated frame covered with a folding, textile-based fabric similar to that on an open carriage evolved into the most common form. A lesser seen DETACHABLE HARDTOP provided a more weatherproof and secure alternative. As technology improved, a retractable hardtop which removes and stows its own rigid roof in its trunk appeared, increasingly becoming the most popular form. A semiconvertible also known as a cabrio coach has a retractable or removable top which retains fully framed windows on its doors and side glass. A landaulet is a semienclosed convertible with a fully enclosed front cabin and an open rear, typically with a folding fabric top and roll-down glass all round
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Crossover (automobile)
A CROSSOVER or CROSSOVER UTILITY VEHICLE (CUV) is a vehicle built on a car platform and combining, in highly variable degrees, features of a sport utility vehicle (SUV) with features from a passenger vehicle, especially those of a station wagon or hatchback . Using the unibody construction typical of passenger vehicles instead of the body-on-frame platform used in light trucks and the original SUVs, the crossover combines SUV design features such as tall interior packaging, high H-point seating, high center of gravity, high ground-clearance or all-wheel-drive capability – with design features from an automobile such as a passenger vehicle's platform, independent rear suspension , car-like handling, lighter weight and better fuel economy than trucks or truck-based vehicles. A crossover may borrow features from a station wagon or hatchback, such as the two-box design of a shared passenger and cargo volume with rear access via a third or fifth door, a liftgate – and flexibility to allow configurations that favor either passenger or cargo volume, e.g., fold-down rear seats. Crossovers are offered with front wheel drive , rear wheel drive or all-wheel drive configurations. Crossovers are typically designed for only light off-road capability, if any at all
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Compact Executive Car
A COMPACT EXECUTIVE CAR is a premium car smaller than an executive car . In European classification , compact executive cars are part of the D-segment . In North American terms, close equivalents are "compact premium car", "compact luxury car", "entry-level luxury car" and "near-luxury car". Compact executive cars are usually available in saloon , estate , coupé , and cabriolet body styles. Most entry-level luxury cars are part of D-segment , but some cars like the Lincoln MKZ , Buick LaCrosse , Hyundai Azera , Acura TL and Toyota Avalon are part of E and F-segments despite the prices of D-segment premium and V6 mid-size cars . CONTENTS * 1 History in the United States * 2 History in Europe * 2.1 United Kingdom * 2.2 Italy * 2.3 Germany * 2.4 France * 2.5 Sweden * 3 History in Japan * 4 Characteristics * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORY IN THE UNITED STATESThe modern version of this market segment was successfully established in 1950 when "the Nash Rambler was deliberately conceived as a luxury compact rather than an austerity model" and available only as a convertible, with hardtop (no "B-pillar") and station wagon and models added in 1951
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Executive Car
EXECUTIVE CAR is a British term for an automobile larger than a large family car . In official use, the term is adopted by Euro NCAP , a European organization founded to test car safety. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 History in Europe * 2.1 France * 2.2 Germany * 2.3 Italy * 2.4 Sweden * 2.5 United Kingdom * 3 Overview * 3.1 Body styles * 3.2 Market situation * 4 Other corresponding classes * 5 Cars bigger than executive in Europe * 6 Compact executive cars * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links BACKGROUNDThe term was coined in the 1960s to describe cars targeted at successful professionals and middle-to-senior managers. It was often a company car but retained enough performance and comfort to be desirable to private motorists. The executive car was seen as aspirational , hence the emphasis on good performance and premium features - but it was also a business tool enabling its users to exploit Britain and Europe's evolving motorway networks. Early executive cars typically offered engines of between 2.0 and 3.5 litres in size, compared with 1.6 to 2.4 litres of a large family car
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Compact Car
A COMPACT CAR (North America), or SMALL FAMILY CAR in British acceptation, is a classification of cars that are larger than a subcompact car but smaller than a mid-size car , equating roughly to the C-segment in Europe. CONTENTS * 1 Definitions * 2 American market * 2.1 History of compact cars in the United States * 3 European market * 3.1 Upmarket Options * 3.2 Alternative Body Styles * 4 Japanese market * 5 UK market * 5.1 1970s * 5.2 1980s * 5.3 1990s * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links DEFINITIONSCurrent compact car size, as defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), for the US and for international models respectively, is approximately 4,100 mm (161 in) and 4,450 mm (175 in) long for hatchbacks , or 4,400 mm (173 in) and 4,750 mm (187 in) long for convertibles , sedans (saloon) or station wagons (estate car) . Multi-purpose vehicles and sport utility vehicles based on small family cars (often called compact MPVs and compact SUVs ) have similar sizes, ranging from 4,200 mm (165 in) to 4,500 mm (177 in) in the U.S., and from 4,400 mm (173 in) to 4,700 mm (185 in) in international-based models
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Sport Compact
A SPORT COMPACT is a high-performance version of a compact car or a subcompact car . According to Motor Trend
Motor Trend
in a comparison entitled "Small, Fast, Fun", the sports compact car has to accomplish the multiple duties of a "family car" and a "daily driver" - thus having more than two doors and seating at least four passengers - while also being "fun to drive" on all roads and in town. CONTENTS * 1 Characteristics * 2 Market trends * 3 Tuning * 4 Motorsport * 5 References CHARACTERISTICSThere is no precise definition and the description is applied for marketing purposes to a wide variety of models, but typical "sport compacts" are front engined , front-wheel drive or all-wheel drive coupés, sedans, or hatchbacks driven by a straight-4 gasoline engine . In most cases, they are versions of mass-market cars that are factory produced with additional features and upgrades. Performance-oriented sport compacts generally focus on improving handling and increasing performance by engine efficiency, rather than increasing engine size. Sport compacts often feature external body modifications to improve aerodynamics or house larger wheels. "Econosport" is a rarely used term for a sport version of a small economy car. A partial list of some of the sport compact cars is here
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North America
NORTH AMERICA is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere . It can also be considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas . It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean , to the east by the Atlantic Ocean , to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean , and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea . North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa , and the fourth by population after Asia, Africa, and Europe . In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 565 million people in 23 independent states , or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands (most nota