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Sport Compact
A SPORT COMPACT is a high-performance version of a compact car or a subcompact car . According to Motor Trend
Motor Trend
in a comparison entitled "Small, Fast, Fun", the sports compact car has to accomplish the multiple duties of a "family car" and a "daily driver" - thus having more than two doors and seating at least four passengers - while also being "fun to drive" on all roads and in town. CONTENTS * 1 Characteristics * 2 Market trends * 3 Tuning * 4 Motorsport * 5 References CHARACTERISTICSThere is no precise definition and the description is applied for marketing purposes to a wide variety of models, but typical "sport compacts" are front engined , front-wheel drive or all-wheel drive coupés, sedans, or hatchbacks driven by a straight-4 gasoline engine . In most cases, they are versions of mass-market cars that are factory produced with additional features and upgrades. Performance-oriented sport compacts generally focus on improving handling and increasing performance by engine efficiency, rather than increasing engine size. Sport compacts often feature external body modifications to improve aerodynamics or house larger wheels. "Econosport" is a rarely used term for a sport version of a small economy car. A partial list of some of the sport compact cars is here
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Hot Hatch
HOT HATCH (shortened from HOT HATCHBACK) is a high-performance derivative of a car body style consisting of a three- or five-door hatchback automobile . The performance upgrades of a hot hatch are sometimes available for the estate variant of the car, often called sportwagons. Vehicles of this class are based on family-oriented automobiles, and are equipped with an uprated more powerful internal combustion engine , improved suspension , and may also include additional "aerodynamic" body parts and larger wheels and tyres. Front-mounted petrol engines , together with front-wheel drive , is the most common powertrain layout, although some can be specified as diesel-powered . Rear and four-wheel drive hot hatches are also available. CONTENTS * 1 Origination of the term * 2 Development of the hot hatch * 2.1 The 1980s and 1990s * 2.2 Post-2000 * 3 The hot hatch in North America * 4 The hot hatch in Australia and Asia * 5 Warm hatch * 6 See also * 7 References ORIGINATION OF THE TERMThe term hot hatch gained widespread use during the 1980s in the UK, first as 'hot hatchback' by 1983 and then shortened to 'hot hatch' in the motoring press in 1984, and first appeared in _The Times_ in 1985, and is now commonly and widely accepted as a mainstream, if still informal term. It is retrospectively applied to cars from the late 1970s but was not a phrase used at the time
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Renault R8 Gordini
Small family car ( C-segment ) BODY STYLE 4-door saloon LAYOUT Rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive POWERTRAIN ENGINE Renault
Renault
956 cc I4 1100 cc I4 1255 cc I4 1289 cc I4 TRANSMISSION 3-speed manual 4-speed manual 5-speed manual DIMENSIONS WHEELBASE 2,270 mm (89.4 in) LENGTH 4,000 mm (157.5 in) ( Renault
Renault
8) 4,200 mm (165.4 in) ( Renault
Renault
10) WIDTH 1,490 mm (58.7 in) HEIGHT 1,375 mm (54.1 in) CHRONOLOGY PREDECESSOR Renault
Renault
Dauphine SUCCESSOR Renault
Renault
12 The RENAULT 8 (RENAULT R8 until 1964) and RENAULT 10 are two rear-engined , rear-wheel drive small family cars produced by the French manufacturer Renault
Renault
in the 1960s and early 1970s. The 8 was launched in 1962, and the 10, a more upmarket version of the 8, was launched in 1965. The Renault
Renault
8 ceased production and sales in France in 1973. By then the Renault
Renault
10 had already been replaced, two years earlier, by the front wheel drive Renault
Renault
12 . They were produced in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
until 1970 (see Bulgarrenault
Bulgarrenault
), and an adapted version of the Renault
Renault
8 continued to be produced in Spain until 1976
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Compact Car
A COMPACT CAR (North America), or SMALL FAMILY CAR in British acceptation, is a classification of cars that are larger than a subcompact car but smaller than a mid-size car , equating roughly to the C-segment in Europe. CONTENTS * 1 Definitions * 2 American market * 2.1 History of compact cars in the United States * 3 European market * 3.1 Upmarket Options * 3.2 Alternative Body Styles * 4 Japanese market * 5 UK market * 5.1 1970s * 5.2 1980s * 5.3 1990s * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links DEFINITIONSCurrent compact car size, as defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), for the US and for international models respectively, is approximately 4,100 mm (161 in) and 4,450 mm (175 in) long for hatchbacks , or 4,400 mm (173 in) and 4,750 mm (187 in) long for convertibles , sedans (saloon) or station wagons (estate car) . Multi-purpose vehicles and sport utility vehicles based on small family cars (often called compact MPVs and compact SUVs ) have similar sizes, ranging from 4,200 mm (165 in) to 4,500 mm (177 in) in the U.S., and from 4,400 mm (173 in) to 4,700 mm (185 in) in international-based models
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Subcompact Car
A SUBCOMPACT CAR is the American term for an automobile with a class size smaller than a compact car usually not exceeding 165 inches (4,191 mm) in length, but larger than a microcar . According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a passenger car is classified as subcompact if it has between 85 cubic feet (2,407 L) and 99 cu ft (2,803 L) of interior volume. The subcompact segment equates roughly to A-segment and B-segment in Europe, or city car and supermini in British terminology. In 2012, the New York Times described the differences, saying "today’s small cars actually span three main segments in the global vehicle market. The tiny A-segment cars include the Chevrolet Spark and Smart Fortwo . They are short and light. Slightly larger are B-segment cars like the Ford Fiesta and Chevrolet Sonic . The A- and B-cars are known as subcompacts." CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORYIn North America, the term "subcompact" is noted by the Merriam-Webster dictionary have been first used in 1960 , but this description came into popular use in the early 1970s with the introduction of new domestic-built models produced by North American automakers that saw popularity in the marketplace
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Motor Trend
MOTOR TREND is an American automobile magazine. It first appeared in September 1949, issued by Petersen Publishing Company in Los Angeles , and bearing the tagline "The Magazine
Magazine
for a Motoring World". Petersen Publishing was sold to British publisher EMAP in 1998, who sold the former Petersen magazines to Primedia in 2001. As of 2017, it is published by TEN: The Enthusiast Network (formerly Source Interlink Media). It has a monthly circulation of over one million readers. CONTENTS* 1 Contents and Sections * 1.1 Road Tests * 1.2 Vehicle Comparisons * 1.3 The Trend * 1.4 Motor Trend
Motor Trend
Garage * 1.5 Other Features * 2 Car of the Year (COTY) * 3 New Car Guides * 4 Offshoots * 4.1 Truck Trend * 4.2 Motor Trend
Motor Trend
Classic * 4.3 Motor Trend
Motor Trend
On Demand * 5 Used car warranty * 6 References * 7 External links CONTENTS AND SECTIONSThe contents of Motor Trend
Motor Trend
magazines are divided up into sections, or departments. ROAD TESTS Motor Trend
Motor Trend
magazine provides its readers with written "road tests" of vehicles. These road tests are published monthly, and are meant to give readers information about the featured vehicle, certain aspects of the vehicle, and what the readers can expect if the featured vehicle is purchased
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Front Engine
In automotive design , an FWD, or FRONT-ENGINE, FRONT-WHEEL-DRIVE LAYOUT places both the internal combustion engine and driven roadwheels at the front of the vehicle. CONTENTS * 1 Usage implications * 2 Historical arrangements * 2.1 Mid-engine / Front-wheel drive * 2.2 Longitudinally mounted front-engine and front-wheel drive * 2.3 Front-engine transversely mounted / Front-wheel drive * 2.3.1 Front-wheel drive design characteristics * 2.3.2 Front-wheel drive shafts * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading USAGE IMPLICATIONS Further information: Automobile layout and Front-wheel-drive
Front-wheel-drive
Front-engine position Historically, this designation was used regardless of whether the entire engine was behind the front axle line. In recent times, the manufactures of some cars have added to the designation with the term front-mid which describes a car where the engine is in front of the passenger compartment but behind the front axle. Most pre-World War II front engine cars would qualify as front-mid engine, using the front-mid designation, or on the front axle . This layout is the most traditional form, and remains a popular, practical design
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Front-wheel Drive
FRONT-WHEEL DRIVE (FWD) is a form of engine and transmission layout used in motor vehicles , where the engine drives the front wheels only. Most modern front-wheel-drive vehicles feature a transverse engine , rather than the conventional longitudinal engine arrangement generally found in rear-wheel-drive and four-wheel drive vehicles. CONTENTS * 1 Front-wheel-drive arrangements * 2 History * 2.1 Prior to 1900 * 2.2 Société Parisienne - Victoria Combination * 2.3 1900 – 1920 * 2.4 1920 – 1930 * 2.5 1930 – 1945 * 2.6 1945 – 1960 * 2.7 1960 – 1975 * 2.7.1 Giacosa innovation * 2.8 1975 – 1990 * 2.9 1990 – present * 3 Records * 4 See also * 5 References FRONT-WHEEL-DRIVE ARRANGEMENTSMost FWD layouts are front-engined. Rear-engined layouts are possible, but rare. Historically they fall into three categories: * Front-engine transversely mounted/ Front-wheel drive * Front-engine longitudinally mounted/ Front-wheel drive * Front Mid-engine/ Front-wheel drive HISTORY _ This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2007)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_PRIOR TO 1900Experiments with front-wheel-drive cars date to the early days of the automobile
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All-wheel Drive
An ALL-WHEEL DRIVE VEHICLE (AWD VEHICLE) is one with a powertrain capable of providing power to all its wheels, whether full-time or on-demand. The most common forms of all-wheel drive are: 4×4 (also, four-wheel drive and 4WD) Reflecting two axles with both wheels on each capable of being powered. 6×6 (also, six-wheel drive and 6WD) Reflecting three axles with both wheels on each capable of being powered. 8×8 (also, eight-wheel drive and 8WD) Reflecting four axles with both wheels on each capable of being powered. Vehicles may be either part-time all-wheel drive or full-time: On-demand (also, part-time) One axle is permanently connected to the drive, the other is being connected as needed Full-time (also, permanent) All axles are permanently connected, with or without a differential . CONTENTS * 1 Usage of the terminology * 2 Characteristics * 3 See also * 4 References USAGE OF THE TERMINOLOGYToday, the designation AWD is becoming narrowed, particularly in North America, to apply to vehicles with drive train systems that have permanent drive and usually include a differential between the front and rear drive shafts. However, the designations AWD and all-wheel drive long predated the trend, with Associated Equipment Company (AEC) building AWD trucks in conjunction with FWD (UK) in 1929, and General Motors
General Motors
manufacturing a line as "all-wheel drive" as early as the late 1930s
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Straight-4
The INLINE-FOUR ENGINE or STRAIGHT-FOUR ENGINE is a type of inline internal combustion four-cylinder engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase . The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or an inclined plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft . Where it is inclined, it is sometimes called a SLANT-FOUR. In a specification chart or when an abbreviation is used, an inline-four engine is listed either as I4 or L4 (for _longitudinal_, to avoid confusion between the digit 1 and the letter I). The inline-four layout is in perfect primary balance and confers a degree of mechanical simplicity which makes it popular for economy cars . However, despite its simplicity, it suffers from a secondary imbalance which causes minor vibrations in smaller engines. These vibrations become more powerful as engine size and power increase, so the more powerful engines used in larger cars generally are more complex designs with more than four cylinders. Today almost all manufacturers of four-cylinder engines for automobiles produce the inline-four layout, with Subaru and Porsche 718 flat-four engines being notable exceptions, and so FOUR-CYLINDER is usually synonymous with and a more widely used term than inline-four. The inline-four is the most common engine configuration in modern cars, while the V6 engine is the second most popular
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Gasoline Engine
A PETROL ENGINE (known as a GASOLINE ENGINE in American English ) is an internal combustion engine with spark-ignition , designed to run on petrol (gasoline ) and similar volatile fuels. In most petrol engines, the fuel and air are usually pre-mixed before compression (although some modern petrol engines now use cylinder-direct petrol injection). The pre-mixing was formerly done in a carburetor , but now it is done by electronically controlled fuel injection , except in small engines where the cost/complication of electronics does not justify the added engine efficiency. The process differs from a diesel engine in the method of mixing the fuel and air, and in using spark plugs to initiate the combustion process. In a diesel engine, only air is compressed (and therefore heated), and the fuel is injected into very hot air at the end of the compression stroke, and self-ignites
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Subaru Impreza WRX STI
The SUBARU IMPREZA (スバル・インプレッサ) is a compact family car that has been manufactured since 1992 by Subaru
Subaru
, introduced as a replacement for the Leone , with the predecessor's EA series engines replaced by the new EJ series . Now in its fifth generation, Subaru
Subaru
has offered four-door sedan and five-door body variants since 1992; the firm also offered a coupe from 1995 until 2000, and a wagon from the Impreza's introduction until 2007, when a five-door hatchback replaced it. Mainstream versions have received naturally aspirated "boxer" flat-four engines ranging from 1.5- to 2.5-liters, with the performance-oriented Impreza WRX and WRX STI models uprated with the addition of turbochargers . Since the third generation series, some markets have adopted the abbreviated SUBARU WRX name for these high-performance variants. The first three generations of Impreza in North America were also available with an off-road appearance package called the OUTBACK SPORT. For the fourth generation, this appearance package was renamed the XV (CROSSTREK in North America), and, unlike the Outback Sport (which was exclusive to the North American market), is sold internationally. The Impreza (also Impreza WRX and Impreza WRX STI) is a major rival to the Mitsubishi Lancer
Mitsubishi Lancer
(and Mitsubishi Lancer
Mitsubishi Lancer
Evolution )
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Honda
HONDA MOTOR CO., LTD. (本田技研工業株式会社, _ Honda
Honda
Giken Kōgyō KK _, IPA: ( listen ); /ˈhɒndə/ ) is a Japanese public multinational conglomerate corporation primarily known as a manufacturer of automobiles, aircraft , motorcycles, and power equipment. Honda
Honda
has been the world's largest motorcycle manufacturer since 1959, as well as the world's largest manufacturer of internal combustion engines measured by volume, producing more than 14 million internal combustion engines each year. Honda
Honda
became the second-largest Japanese automobile manufacturer in 2001. Honda
Honda
was the eighth largest automobile manufacturer in the world behind Toyota , Volkswagen Group
Volkswagen Group
, Hyundai Motor Group , General Motors
General Motors
, Ford , Nissan
Nissan
, and FIAT
FIAT
in 2015. Honda
Honda
was the first Japanese automobile manufacturer to release a dedicated luxury brand, Acura
Acura
, in 1986. Aside from their core automobile and motorcycle businesses, Honda
Honda
also manufactures garden equipment, marine engines, personal watercraft and power generators, and other products
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Mazda
Coordinates : 34°22′37″N 132°30′03″E / 34.3770577°N 132.5008222°E / 34.3770577; 132.5008222 Mazda
Mazda
Motor Corporation マツダ株式会社 Mazda's headquarters in Fuchū, Hiroshima
Hiroshima
NATIVE NAME マツダ株式会社 ROMANIZED NAME Matsuda Kabushiki-gaisha TYPE Public (K.K. ) TRADED AS TYO : 7261 INDUSTRY Automotive FOUNDED 30 January 1920; 97 years ago (1920-01-30) FOUNDER Jujiro Matsuda HEADQUARTERS 3-1 Shinchi, Fuchū , Aki, Hiroshima
Hiroshima
, Japan AREA SERVED Worldwide KEY PEOPLE Seita Kanai (Chairman) Masamichi Kogai (President and CEO) PRODUCTS 1,202,489 units (2016) Automobiles Light Trucks Engines REVENUE ¥ 3.4 trillion (FY 2016) OPERATING INCOME ¥22.6 billion (FY 2016) NET INCOME ¥13.4 billion (FY 2016) OWNER Japan Trustee Services Bank (6.3%) The Master Trust Bank of Japan (4.7%) Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation (2.2%) NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 46,398 (2016) WEBSITE mazda.comMAZDA MOTOR CORPORATION (マツダ株式会社, _Matsuda Kabushiki-gaisha_), commonly referred to as simply MAZDA, is a Japanese multinational automaker based in Fuchū , Aki District , Hiroshima Prefecture , Japan
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Mitsubishi
The MITSUBISHI GROUP (三菱グループ, _ Mitsubishi Gurūpu_, also known as the MITSUBISHI GROUP OF COMPANIES or MITSUBISHI COMPANIES, and informally as the MITSUBISHI _KEIRETSU _) is a group of autonomous Japanese multinational companies in a variety of industries. Its total revenue is about 1.4% percent of Japan's GDP. It is historically descended from the MITSUBISHI _zaibatsu _, a unified company which existed from 1870 , founded by Yataro Iwasaki , to 1947 and was disbanded during the occupation of Japan following World War II . The former constituents of the company continue to share the Mitsubishi brand , trademark , and legacy. Although the group companies participate in limited business cooperation, most famously through monthly "Friday Conference" executive meetings, they are formally independent and are not under common control. The three main companies in the group are The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ (the largest bank in Japan), Mitsubishi Corporation (a general trading company ) and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (a diversified manufacturing company)
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Nissan
Coordinates : 35°27′39″N 139°37′45″E / 35.460883°N 139.6291854°E / 35.460883; 139.6291854 Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. _ Nissan global headquarters in Yokohama, Japan NATIVE NAME 日産自動車株式会社 ROMANIZED NAME Nissan Jidōsha Kabushiki-gaisha TYPE Public (K.K. ) TRADED AS * TYO : 7201 * TOPIX Core 30 Component INDUSTRY * Automotive * Financial services FOUNDED 26 December 1933; 83 years ago (1933-12-26) (under Nissan Group ) FOUNDER * Masujiro Hashimoto * Kenjiro Den * Rokuro Aoyama * Meitaro Takeuchi * Yoshisuke Aikawa * William R
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