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Sport
SPORT ( British English ) or SPORTS ( American English ) includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, and in some cases, entertainment for spectators. Usually the contest or game is between two sides, each attempting to exceed the other. Some sports allow a tie game; others provide tie-breaking methods , to ensure one winner and one loser. A number of such two-sided contests may be arranged in a tournament producing a champion . Many sports leagues make an annual champion by arranging games in a regular sports season , followed in some cases by playoffs . Hundreds of sports exist, from those between single contestants, through to those with hundreds of simultaneous participants, either in teams or competing as individuals
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British English
BRITISH ENGLISH is the English language
English language
as spoken and written in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective wee is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland
Ireland
, and occasionally Yorkshire , whereas little is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken, so a uniform concept of British English
British English
is more difficult to apply to the spoken language
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Xiangqi
XIANGQI (Chinese : 象棋; pinyin : xiàngqí), also called CHINESE CHESS, is a strategy board game for two players. It is one of the most popular board games in China, and is in the same family as Western (or international) chess , chaturanga , shogi , Indian chess and janggi . Besides China and areas with significant ethnic Chinese communities, xiangqi (cờ tướng) is also a popular pastime in Vietnam
Vietnam
. The game represents a battle between two armies, with the object of capturing the enemy's general (king). Distinctive features of xiangqi include the cannon (pao), which must jump to capture; a rule prohibiting the generals from facing each other directly; areas on the board called the river and palace, which restrict the movement of some pieces (but enhance that of others); and placement of the pieces on the intersections of the board lines, rather than within the squares
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Tradition
A TRADITION is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past. Common examples include holidays or impractical but socially meaningful clothes (like lawyers\' wigs or military officers' spurs ), but the idea has also been applied to social norms such as greetings. Traditions can persist and evolve for thousands of years—the word "tradition" itself derives from the Latin
Latin
tradere literally meaning to transmit, to hand over, to give for safekeeping. While it is commonly assumed that traditions have ancient history, many traditions have been invented on purpose, whether that be political or cultural, over short periods of time. Various academic disciplines also use the word in a variety of ways. One way tradition is used more simply, often in academic work but elsewhere also, is to indicate the quality of a piece of information being discussed
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Old French
OLD FRENCH (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France
France
from the 8th century to the 14th century. In the 14th century, these dialects came to be collectively known as the langue d\'oïl , contrasting with the langue d\'oc or Occitan language
Occitan language
in the south of France. The mid-14th century is taken as the transitional period to Middle French , the language of the French Renaissance
French Renaissance
, specifically based on the dialect of the Île-de-France
Île-de-France
region
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Social Actions
In sociology , SOCIAL ACTION, also known as "WEBERIAN SOCIAL ACTION", refers to an act which takes into account the actions and reactions of individuals (or 'agents '). According to Max Weber , "an Action is 'social' if the acting individual takes account of the behavior of others and is thereby oriented in its course" (Secher 1962 ). CONTENTS * 1 Max Weber * 2 Types * 3 See also * 4 Further reading * 5 References MAX WEBERThe basic concept was primarily developed in the non-positivist theory of Max Weber to observe how human behaviors relate to cause and effect in the social realm. For Weber, sociology is the study of society and behavior and must therefore look at the heart of interaction
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Dexterity
FINE MOTOR SKILL (or DEXTERITY) is the coordination of small muscles, in movements—usually involving the synchronization of hands and fingers—with the eyes. The complex levels of manual dexterity that humans exhibit can be attributed to and demonstrated in tasks controlled by the nervous system . Fine motor skills aid in the growth of intelligence and develop continuously throughout the stages of human development . CONTENTS * 1 Types of motor skills * 2 Developmental stages * 2.1 Infancy * 2.2 Toddlerhood * 2.3 Preschool
Preschool
* 2.4 School age * 3 Common problems * 4 Assessment * 5 References * 6 External links TYPES OF MOTOR SKILLSMotor skills are movements and actions of the muscles . Typically, they are categorized into two groups: gross motor skills and fine motor skills. GROSS MOTOR SKILLS are involved in movement and coordination of the arms, legs, and other large body parts and movements
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Childhood
CHILDHOOD is the age span ranging from birth to adolescence . According to Piaget\'s theory of cognitive development , childhood consists of two stages: preoperational stage and concrete operational stage. In developmental psychology , childhood is divided up into the developmental stages of toddlerhood (learning to walk), early childhood (play age), middle childhood (school age), and adolescence (puberty through post-puberty). Various childhood factors could affect a person's attitude formation. The concept of childhood emerged during the 17th and 18th centuries, particularly through the educational theories of the philosopher John Locke and the growth of books for and about children
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Go (game)
GO (traditional Chinese : 圍棋; simplified Chinese : 围棋; pinyin : wéiqí ; Japanese : 囲碁; rōmaji : igo ; Korean : 바둑; romaja : baduk ; literally: "encircling game") is an abstract strategy board game for two players, in which the aim is to surround more territory than the opponent. The game was invented in ancient China more than 2,500 years ago, and is therefore believed to be the oldest board game continuously played today. It was considered one of the four essential arts of the cultured aristocratic Chinese scholar caste in antiquity. The earliest written reference to the game is generally recognized as the historical annal Zuo Zhuan
Zuo Zhuan
(c. 4th century BCE). Despite its relatively simple rules , Go is very complex, even more so than chess , and possesses more possibilities than the total number of atoms in the visible universe
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Champion
A CHAMPION (from the late Latin campio) is the victor in a challenge, contest or competition . There can be a territorial pyramid of championships, e.g. local, regional / provincial, state, national, continental and world championships, and even further (artificial) divisions at one or more of these levels, as in soccer . Their champions can be accordingly styled, e.g. national champion, world champion. CONTENTS * 1 Meaning * 2 World champion * 3 References * 4 External links MEANINGIn certain disciplines, there are specific titles for champions, either descriptive, as the baspehlivan in Turkish oil wrestling, yokozuna in Japanese sumo wrestling ; or copied from real life, such as the koning and keizer ('king' and 'emperor') in traditional archery competitions (not just national, also at lower levels) in the Low Countries. Final Day of the 2009 season, Fitzroy celebrate their first championship in nine years
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Tie-breaking Methods
To DRAW or TIE is to finish a competition with identical or inconclusive results. Draw is usually used in the United Kingdom, Ireland and the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
(except in Canada) and it is usually used for sports such as association football and Australian rules football . In cricket , a draw and a tie are two different things. Ties or draws are possible in some, but not all, sports and games. Such an outcome, sometimes referred to as deadlock, can occur in politics, business, and wherever there are different factions regarding an issue
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American English
AMERICAN ENGLISH (AME, AE, AMENG, USENG, EN-US ), sometimes called UNITED STATES ENGLISH or U.S. ENGLISH, is the set of varieties of the English language
English language
native to the United States . English is the most widely spoken language in the United States and is the common language used by the federal government, considered the de facto language of the country because of its widespread use. English has been given official status by 32 of the 50 state governments. As an example, while both Spanish and English have equivalent status in the local courts of Puerto Rico , under federal law, English is the official language for any matters being referred to the United States district court for the territory. The use of English in the United States is a result of British colonization of the Americas
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Draughts
DRAUGHTS ( British English
British English
) or CHECKERS ( American English
American English
) is a group of strategy board games for two players which involve diagonal moves of uniform game pieces and mandatory captures by jumping over opponent pieces. Draughts
Draughts
developed from alquerque . The name derives from the verb to draw or to move. The most popular forms are English draughts , also called AMERICAN CHECKERS, played on an 8×8 checkerboard ; Russian draughts , also played on an 8×8; and international draughts , played on a 10×10 board. There are many other variants played on an 8×8, and Canadian checkers is played on a 12×12 board. The 8×8 variant of draughts was weakly solved in 2007 by the team of Canadian computer scientist Jonathan Schaeffer . From the standard starting position, both players can guarantee a draw with perfect play
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Tournament
A TOURNAMENT is a competition involving a relatively large number of competitors, all participating in a sport or game . More specifically, the term may be used in either of two overlapping senses: * One or more competitions held at a single venue and concentrated into a relatively short time interval. * A competition involving multiple matches, each involving a subset of the competitors, with the overall tournament winner determined based on the combined results of these individual matches. These are common in those sports and games where each match must involve a small number of competitors: often precisely two, as in most team sports , racket sports and combat sports , many card games and board games , and many forms of competitive debating . Such tournaments allow large numbers to compete against each other in spite of the restriction on numbers in a single match.These two senses are distinct
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Council Of Europe
The COUNCIL OF EUROPE (COE; French : Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights , democracy , rule of law in Europe
Europe
and promote European culture . Founded in 1949, it has 47 member states, covers approximately 820 million people and operates with an annual budget of approximately half a billion euros . The organisation is distinct from the 28-nation European Union
European Union
(EU), although it is sometimes confused with it, partly because the EU has adopted the original European Flag which was created by the Council of Europe
Europe
in 1955, as well as the European Anthem . No country has ever joined the EU without first belonging to the Council of Europe. The Council of Europe
Europe
is an official United Nations
United Nations
Observer
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Playoffs
The PLAYOFFS, PLAY-OFFS, POSTSEASON and/or FINALS of a sports league are a competition played after the regular season by the top competitors to determine the league champion or a similar accolade. Depending on the league, the playoffs may be either a single game, a series of games, or a tournament , and may use a single-elimination system or one of several other different playoff formats . Playoff, in regard to international fixtures, is to qualify or progress to the next round of a competition or tournament. In team sports in the U.S. and Canada, the vast distances and consequent burdens on cross-country travel have led to regional divisions of teams. Generally, during the regular season, teams play more games in their division than outside it, but the league's best teams might not play against each other in the regular season. Therefore, in the postseason a playoff series is organized
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