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Spinettone
The SPINETTONE (Italian: "big spinet") was a kind of harpsichord invented in the late 17th century by Bartolomeo Cristofori , who was later the inventor of the piano . Other names for this instrument were SPINETTONE DA TEATRO ("of the theater"), spinetta traversa ("transverse spinet"). CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 History * 3 Notes * 4 References * 5 External links DESCRIPTIONThe spinettone was a kind of spinet , which means specifically that its strings were placed in pairs along a diagonal relative to the position of the keyboard (see spinet ). The jacks that plucked the strings were placed in opposite-facing pairs within the larger gaps between strings. Most spinets are smaller than regular harpsichords. The spinettone was very long, but narrower than a regular harpsichord. The novelty of Cristofori's spinettone was that unlike any other spinet, it deployed multiple choirs of strings
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Museum Of Musical Instruments Of Leipzig University
The MUSEUM OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF LEIPZIG (German : Museum für Musikinstrumente der Universität Leipzig) is a museum in Leipzig
Leipzig
, Germany
Germany
. It is located on Johannisplatz, near the city centre. The museum belongs to the University of Leipzig
Leipzig
and is also part of the Grassi Museum
Grassi Museum
, whose other members are the Museum of Ethnography and the Museum of Applied Arts . It is one of the largest music instrument museums in Europe, alongside those of Brussels and of Paris . Its collection of around 10,000 objects includes valuable instruments from Europe and beyond, as well as music-related items from the Renaissance , the Baroque , and Bach 's Leipzig
Leipzig
period
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Medici
The HOUSE OF MEDICI (/ˈmɛdᵻtʃi/ MED-i-chee ; Italian pronunciation: ) was an Italian banking family, political dynasty and later royal house that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de\' Medici
Medici
in the Republic of Florence
Florence
during the first half of the 15th century. The family originated in the Mugello region of the Tuscan countryside, gradually rising until they were able to fund the Medici Bank . The bank was the largest in Europe
Europe
during the 15th century, seeing the Medici
Medici
gain political power in Florence
Florence
— though officially they remained citizens rather than monarchs
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Cosimo III De' Medici, Grand Duke Of Tuscany
COSIMO III DE\' MEDICI (14 August 1642 – 31 October 1723) was the penultimate (sixth) Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany
Grand Duke of Tuscany
. He reigned from 1670 to 1723, and was the elder son of Grand Duke Ferdinando II . Cosimo's 53-year-long reign, the longest in Tuscan history, was marked by a series of ultra-reactionary laws which regulated prostitution and banned May celebrations. His reign also witnessed Tuscany's deterioration to previously unknown economic lows. He was succeeded by his elder surviving son, Gian Gastone, when he died, in 1723. He married Marguerite Louise d\'Orléans , a cousin of Louis XIV . The marriage was solemnized by proxy in the King's Chapel at the Louvre, on Sunday, 17 April 1661. It was a marriage fraught with tribulation. Marguerite Louise eventually abandoned Tuscany for the Convent of Montmartre
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Grand Duchy Of Tuscany
Coordinates : 43°N 11°E / 43°N 11°E / 43; 11 Grand Duchy of Tuscany Granducato di Toscana 1569–1801 1815–1859 Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM "La Leopolda" The Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Tuscany
at its greatest extent in 1796
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Figured Bass
FIGURED BASS, or THOROUGHBASS, is a kind of musical notation in which numerals and symbols (often accidentals ) indicate intervals , chords , and non-chord tones that a musician playing piano , harpsichord , organ , lute (or other instruments capable of playing chords) play in relation to the bass note that these numbers and symbols appear above or below. Figured bass
Figured bass
is closely associated with BASSO CONTINUO , a historically improvised accompaniment used in almost all genres of music in the Baroque period of Classical music
Classical music
(c.1600–1750), though rarely in modern music
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Pratolino
The VILLA DI PRATOLINO was a Renaissance patrician villa in Vaglia , Tuscany
Tuscany
, Italy
Italy
. It was mostly demolished in 1820. Its remains are now part of the VILLA DEMIDOFF, 12 km north of Florence
Florence
, reached from the main road to Bologna
Bologna
. HISTORYThe villa was built by Francesco de\' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Tuscany
, in part to please his Venetian mistress, the celebrated Bianca Cappello . Villa and gardens were designed by his court architect, designer and engineer Bernardo Buontalenti
Bernardo Buontalenti
, who completed the construction from 1569 to 1581. It was sufficiently finished to provide the setting for Francesco's public wedding to Bianca Cappello in 1579. In its time it was a splendid example of the Mannerist garden
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Edward Kottick
EDWARD (LEON) KOTTICK is a leading expert on the harpsichord , the author of three widely read books on the subject. He is a retired musicology professor at the University of Iowa
University of Iowa
in Iowa City and is an experienced builder of harpsichords. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Harpsichord
Harpsichord
scholarship * 3 Honors * 4 Bibliography * 5 External links * 6 Notes BIOGRAPHYKottick gives the outline facts of his life thus: I was born in Jersey City, NJ, in 1930, and was brought up in Brooklyn, NY, where I studied the trombone. I later became a music major at NYU . Following two years in the army, where I conducted a band, I went to New Orleans, LA, to play in the symphony; but after a few years of that I decided to go to graduate school at Tulane University , where I was introduced to musicology and renaissance music
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Disposition (harpsichord)
The DISPOSITION of a harpsichord is the set of choirs of strings it contains. This article describes various dispositions and gives the standard notation for describing them. If a harpsichord contains just one set of strings at normal concert pitch, its disposition is called 1 X 8\'. Here, the 8' means eight foot pitch , which designates normal pitch. Harpsichord
Harpsichord
makers sometimes produced ottavini, which were little harpsichords that sounded one octave above normal pitch. The disposition of an ottavino would be called 1 X 4\', meaning it has one set of strings at four foot pitch . More substantial harpsichords contain more than one choir of strings. Their dispositions are described as above, using digits to count each type of choir. Thus, for example, many historical Italian harpsichords had the disposition 2 x 8'
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Harpsichord
A HARPSICHORD is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard , a row of levers which the player presses. When the player presses one or more keys, this triggers a mechanism, which plucks one or more strings with a small quill. "Harpsichord" designates the whole family of similar plucked keyboard instruments, including the smaller virginals , muselar , and spinet . The harpsichord was widely used in Renaissance and Baroque music
Baroque music
. During the late 18th century, it gradually disappeared from the musical scene, with the rise of the piano
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Leipzig
LEIPZIG (/ˈlaɪpsɪɡ/ ; German: ( listen ), Lower Sorbian : Lipsk, Polish : Lipsk, Czech : Lipsko) is the largest city in the federal state of Saxony
Saxony
, Germany. With a population of 582,277 inhabitants (1.1 million residents in the larger urban zone ) it is Germany's tenth most populous city . Leipzig
Leipzig
is located about 160 kilometres (99 mi) southwest of Berlin
Berlin
at the confluence of the White Elster , Pleisse
Pleisse
, and Parthe
Parthe
rivers at the southern end of the North German Plain . Leipzig
Leipzig
has been a trade city since at least the time of the Holy Roman Empire . The city sits at the intersection of the Via Regia
Via Regia
and Via Imperii
Via Imperii
, two important medieval trade routes
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Piano
The PIANO is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented around the year 1700 (the exact year is uncertain), in which the strings are struck by hammers. It is played using a keyboard , which is a row of keys (small levers) that the performer presses down or strikes with the fingers and thumbs of both hands to cause the hammers to strike the strings. The word piano is a shortened form of pianoforte, the Italian term for the early 1700s versions of the instrument, which in turn derives from gravicembalo col piano e forte and fortepiano . The Italian musical terms piano and forte indicate "soft" and "loud" respectively, in this context referring to the variations in volume (i.e., loudness) produced in response to a pianist's touch or pressure on the keys: the greater the velocity of a key press, the greater the force of the hammer hitting the strings, and the louder the sound of the note produced and the stronger the attack
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Theorbo
The THEORBO is a plucked string instrument of the lute family, with an extended neck and a second pegbox . Like a lute, a theorbo has a curved-back sound box (a hollow box) with a wooden top, typically with a sound hole, and a neck extending out from the soundbox. As with the lute, the player plucks or strums the strings with one hand while "fretting" (pressing down) the strings with the other hand; pressing the strings in different places on the neck produces different pitches (notes), thus enabling the performer to play chords , basslines and melodies . It is related to the liuto attiorbato, the French théorbe des pièces, the archlute , the German baroque lute, and the angélique or angelica. A theorbo differs from a regular lute in that the theorbo has a much longer neck which extends beyond the regular fingerboard/neck and a second pegbox at the end of the extended neck. Low-register bass strings are added on the extended neck
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