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Spinet
A spinet is a smaller type of harpsichord or other keyboard instrument, such as a piano or organ.Contents1 Spinets as harpsichords1.1 History 1.2 Other uses of "spinet" for harpsichords 1.3 Nomenclature2 Spinets as pianos2.1 History3 Spinets as organs 4 Notes 5 References5.1 Harpsichord
Harpsichord
spinet 5.2 Piano
Piano
spinet6 External linksSpinets as harpsichords[edit]Domenico Scarlatti: Sonata in F Minor K.69Performed on a spinet by Ulrich MetznerProblems playing this file? See media help.When the term spinet is used to designate a harpsichord, typically what is meant is the bentside spinet, described in this section. For other uses, see below. The bentside spinet shares most of its characteristics with the full-size instrument, including action, soundboard, and case construction
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Medici
The House of Medici
Medici
(/ˈmɛdɪtʃi/ MED-i-chee; Italian pronunciation: [ˈmɛːditʃi]) was an Italian banking family and political dynasty that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici
Medici
in the Republic of Florence
Republic of Florence
during the first half of the 15th century
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Frank Hubbard
Frank Twombly Hubbard (May 15, 1920 – February 25, 1976) was an American harpsichord maker, a pioneer in the revival of historical methods of harpsichord building.Contents1 Student days 2 Historical harpsichords 3 Hubbard's thoughts on the harpsichord 4 Books 5 See also 6 Sources 7 External linksStudent days[edit] Born in New York, Hubbard studied English literature
English literature
at Harvard, graduating with AB, 1942 and AM, 1947. One of his friends was William Dowd, who had an interest in early instruments, and together they constructed a clavichord. This connection, with his interest as an amateur violinist in violin making and the location of his library reading stall near the stacks holding books on musical instruments, led to Hubbard's interest in the historic harpsichord. While pursuing graduate study at Harvard, Hubbard and Dowd both decided to leave to pursue instrument-making
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Eisenach
Eisenach
Eisenach
is a town in Thuringia, Germany
Germany
with 42,000 inhabitants, located 50 kilometres (31 miles) west of Erfurt, 70 km (43 miles) southeast of Kassel
Kassel
and 150 km (93 miles) northeast of Frankfurt. It is the main urban centre of western Thuringia
Thuringia
and bordering northeastern Hessian regions, situated near the former Inner German border. A major attraction is Wartburg
Wartburg
castle, which has been a UNESCO world heritage site since 1999. Eisenach
Eisenach
was an early capital of Thuringia
Thuringia
in the 12th and 13th centuries. St. Elizabeth lived at the court of the Ludowingians here between 1211 and 1228. Later, Martin Luther
Martin Luther
came to Eisenach
Eisenach
and translated the Bible into German
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Webster's Dictionary
Webster's Dictionary
Dictionary
is any of the dictionaries edited by Noah Webster in the early nineteenth century, and numerous unrelated dictionaries that have adopted the Webster's name. "Webster's" has become a genericized trademark in the U.S
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Disposition (harpsichord)
The disposition of a harpsichord is the set of choirs of strings it contains. This article describes various dispositions and gives the standard notation for describing them. If a harpsichord contains just one set of strings at normal concert pitch, its disposition is called 1 x 8'. Here, the 8' means eight foot pitch, which designates normal pitch. Harpsichord
Harpsichord
makers sometimes produced ottavini, which were little harpsichords that sounded one octave above normal pitch. The disposition of an ottavino would be called 1 x 4', meaning it has one set of strings at four foot pitch. More substantial harpsichords contain more than one choir of strings. Their dispositions are described as above, using digits to count each type of choir
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Baldwin Piano Company
The Baldwin Piano
Piano
Company is an American piano brand. It was once the largest US-based manufacturer of pianos and other keyboard instruments known by the slogan, "America's Favorite Piano". It ceased most domestic production in December 2008, moving production to China. Baldwin is currently a subsidiary of the Gibson Guitar Corporation, the largest American manufacturer of musical instruments. [2][3]Contents1 History 2 Notable performers 3 See also 4 General references 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] The company traces its origins back to 1857, when Dwight Hamilton Baldwin began teaching piano, organ, and violin in Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1862, Baldwin started a Decker Brothers
Decker Brothers
piano dealership and, in 1866, hired Lucien Wulsin as a clerk. Wulsin became a partner in the dealership, by then known as D.H
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Larry Fine (pianos)
Larry Fine (born 1950) is an American piano technician,[1] consultant, and author. He is best known as the author of The Piano
Piano
Book. The Piano
Piano
Book, as of 2001[update] in its fourth edition, describes how pianos work, discusses and reviews many brands of pianos, tracks changes in the piano industry worldwide, describes the retail piano industry in America with hints for the buyer on how best to deal with piano stores. It also documents innovations in piano building
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Great Depression
The Great Depression
Great Depression
was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression
Great Depression
varied across nations; in most countries it started in 1929 and lasted until the late-1930s.[1] It was the longest, deepest, and most widespread depression of the 20th century.[2] In the 21st century, the Great Depression
Great Depression
is commonly used as an example of how far the world's economy can decline.[3] The Great Depression
Great Depression
started in the United States
United States
after a major fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, and became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929 (known as Black Tuesday). Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide gross domestic product (GDP) fell by an estimated 15%
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Harmonic
A harmonic is any member of the harmonic series, a divergent infinite series. Its name derives from the concept of overtones, or harmonics in musical instruments: the wavelengths of the overtones of a vibrating string or a column of air (as with a tuba) are derived from the string's (or air column's) fundamental wavelength. Every term of the series (i.e., the higher harmonics) after the first is the "harmonic mean" of the neighboring terms. The phrase "harmonic mean" likewise derives from music. The term is employed in various disciplines, including music, physics, acoustics, electronic power transmission, radio technology, and other fields. It is typically applied to repeating signals, such as sinusoidal waves. A harmonic of such a wave is a wave with a frequency that is a positive integer multiple of the frequency of the original wave, known as the fundamental frequency. The original wave is also called the 1st harmonic, the following harmonics are known as higher harmonics
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Jacobean English
Early Modern English, Early New English (sometimes abbreviated to EModE,[1] EMnE or EME) is the stage of the English language used from the beginning of the Tudor period until the English Interregnum and Restoration, or from the transition from Middle English in the late 15th century to the transition to Modern English during the mid-to-late 17th century.[2] Prior to and following the accession of James I to the English throne in 1603, the emerging English standard began to influence the spoken and written Middle Scots of Scotland. The grammatical and orthographical conventions of the literary English language of the late 16th to 17th centuries have been very influential on Modern Standard English, notably via the language of the King James Bible and William Shakespeare, so that modern readers of English are generally able to understand texts written in the late phase of the Early Modern English period
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Eight-foot Pitch
An organ pipe, or a harpsichord string, designated as eight-foot pitch is sounded at standard, ordinary pitch.[1] For example, the A above middle C in eight-foot pitch would be sounded at 440 Hz (or at some similar value, depending on how concert pitch was set at the time and place the organ or harpsichord was made).Contents1 Similar terms 2 Choice of length 3 See also 4 ReferencesSimilar terms[edit] Eight-foot pitch may be contrasted with four-foot pitch (one octave above the standard), two-foot pitch (two octaves above the standard), and sixteen-foot pitch (one octave below the standard).[2] The latter three pitches were often sounded (by extra pipes or strings) along with an eight-foot pitch pipe or string, as a way of enriching the tonal quality
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Sound Board (music)
A sound board, or soundboard, is the surface of a string instrument that the strings vibrate against, usually via some sort of bridge. Pianos, guitars, banjos, and many other stringed instruments incorporate soundboards. The resonant properties of the sound board and the interior of the instrument greatly increase the loudness of the vibrating strings.[1] The sound board operates by the principle of forced vibration. The string gently vibrates the board, and despite their differences in size and composition, makes the board vibrate at exactly the same frequency. This produces the same sound as the string alone, differing only in timbre. The string would produce the same amount of energy without the board present, but the greater surface area of the sound board moves a greater volume of air, which produces a louder sound. Sound boards are traditionally made of wood (see tonewood), though other materials are used, such as skin or plastic on instruments in the banjo family
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Action (music)
The action of an instrument plucked by hand is the distance between the fingerboard and the string. In keyboard instruments, the action is the mechanism that translates the motion of the keys into the creation of sound (by plucking or striking the strings).Contents1 Keyboard instruments 2 Instruments plucked by hand2.1 Adjusting the action3 ReferencesKeyboard instruments[edit] In a harpsichord, the main part of the action is a jack, a vertical strip of wood seated on the far end of the key. At the top of the jack is mounted a hinged tongue bearing a plectrum. When the key is pressed and the jack rises, the plectrum plucks the string. When the key is released and the jack falls back down, the tongue permits the plectrum to retract slightly, so that it can return to its rest position without getting stuck or plucking the string again on the way down. The jack also bears a damper, whose purpose is to stop the vibration of the string when the key is released
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