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Spinal Cord
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column. The brain and spinal cord together make up the central nervous system (CNS). In humans, the spinal cord begins at the occipital bone where it passes through the foramen magnum, and meets and enters the spinal canal at the beginning of the cervical vertebrae. The spinal cord extends down to between the first and second lumbar vertebrae where it ends. The enclosing bony vertebral column protects the relatively shorter spinal cord. It is around 45 cm (18 in) in men and around 43 cm (17 in) long in women
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Sensory Cortex
The sensory cortex can refer informally to the primary somatosensory cortex, or it can be used as a term for the primary and secondary cortices of the different senses (two cortices each, on left and right hemisphere): the visual cortex on the occipital lobes, the auditory cortex on the temporal lobes, the primary olfactory cortex on the uncus of the piriform region of the temporal lobes, the gustatory cortex on the insular lobe (also referred to as the insular cortex), and the primary somatosensory cortex on the anterior parietal lobes. Just posterior to the primary somatosensory cortex lies the somatosensory association cortex, which integrates sensory information from the primary somatosensory cortex (temperature, pressure, etc.) to construct an understanding of the object being felt. Inferior to the frontal lobes are found the olfactory bulbs, which receive sensory input from the olfactory nerves and route those signals throughout the brain
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Human
Homo
Homo
sapiens idaltu White et al., 2003 Homo
Homo
sapiens sapiens Homo
Homo
sapiens population densitySynonyms Species
Species
synonymy[1]aethiopicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 americanus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 arabicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 aurignacensis Klaatsch & Hauser, 1910 australasicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 cafer Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 capensis Broom, 1917 columbicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 cro-magnonensis Gregory, 1921 drennani Kleinschmidt, 1931 eurafricanus (Sergi, 1911) grimaldiensis Gregory, 1921 grimaldii Lapouge, 1906 hottentotus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 hyperboreus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 indicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 japeticus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 melaninus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 monstrosus Linnaeus, 1758 neptunianus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 palestinus McCown & Keith, 1932 patagonus Bory de St
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Efferent
Efferent is an anatomical term with the following meanings:Conveying away from a center, for example the efferent arterioles conveying blood away from the Bowman's capsule in the kidney, in the opposite direction to the afferent arterioles Something that so conducts, see efferent nerve fiber Efferent lymph vesselSee also[edit] Efferent ducts Efferent arteriole Afferen
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Nerve Fascicle
A nerve fascicle or fasciculus is a bundle of one or more funiculus.[1][2] A nerve fascicle refers to nerves in the peripheral nervous system; in the central nervous system this is known as a tract. See also[edit]Perineurium Epineurium Endoneurium Nerve Nervous tissue Medial longitudinal fasciculusReferences[edit]^ Gray, Henry; Lewis, Warren Harmon (1918). Anatomy of the human body. Harold B. Lee Library. Philadelphia : Lea & Febiger.  ^ Siegel, A. & Sapru, H. (2011)
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Ganglion
A ganglion is a nerve cell cluster[1] or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the autonomic nervous system and sensory system.[2][3] Ganglia house the cell bodies of afferent nerves and efferent nerves. A pseudoganglion looks like a ganglion, but only has nerve fibers and has no nerve cell bodies.Contents1 Structure1.1 Basal ganglia 1.2 Pseudoganglion2 See also 3 References 4 External linksStructure[edit] Ganglia are primarily made up of somata and dendritic structures which are bundled or connected. Ganglia often interconnect with other ganglia to form a complex system of ganglia known as a plexus
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Adipose Tissue
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.[1] In addition to adipocytes, adipose tissue contains the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of cells including preadipocytes, fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells and a variety of immune cells such as adipose tissue macrophages. Adipose tissue
Adipose tissue
is derived from preadipocytes. Its main role is to store energy in the form of lipids, although it also cushions and insulates the body. Far from being hormonally inert, adipose tissue has, in recent years, been recognized as a major endocrine organ,[2] as it produces hormones such as leptin, estrogen, resistin, and the cytokine TNFα. The two types of adipose tissue are white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores energy, and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which generates body heat. The formation of adipose tissue appears to be controlled in part by the adipose gene
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Oval
An oval (from Latin ovum, "egg") is a closed curve in a plane which "loosely" resembles the outline of an egg. The term is not very specific, but in some areas (projective geometry, technical drawing, etc.) it is given a more precise definition, which may include either one or two axes of symmetry. In common English, the term is used in a broader sense: any shape which reminds one of an egg. The three-dimensional version of an oval is called an ovoid.Contents1 Oval
Oval
in geometry 2 Projective geometry 3 Egg shape 4 Technical drawing 5 In common speech 6 See also 7 Notes Oval
Oval
in geometry[edit]This oval, with only one axis of symmetry, resembles a chicken egg.The term oval when used to describe curves in geometry is not well-defined, except in the context of projective geometry. Many distinct curves are commonly called ovals or are said to have an "oval shape"
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Blood Vessel
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.[1] There are three major types of blood vessels: the arteries, which carry the blood away from the heart; the capillaries, which enable the actual exchange of water and chemicals between the blood and the tissues; and the veins, which carry blood from the capillaries back toward the heart. The word vascular, meaning relating to the blood vessels, is derived from the Latin
Latin
vas, meaning vessel. A few structures (such as cartilage and the lens of the eye) do not contain blood vessels and are labeled.Contents1 Structure1.1 Types2 Function2.1 Vessel size 2.2 Blood
Blood
flow3 Disease 4 ReferencesStructure[edit] The arteries and veins have three layers. The middle layer is thicker in the arteries than it is in the veins:The inner layer, Tunica intima, is the thinnest layer
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Reflex
A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus.[1][2] A reflex is made possible by neural pathways called reflex arcs which can act on an impulse before that impulse reaches the brain. The reflex is then an automatic response to a stimulus that does not receive or need conscious thought.[3]Contents1 Human reflexes1.1 Tendon reflex 1.2 Reflexes involving cranial nerves 1.3 Reflexes usually only observed in human infants 1.4 Other reflexes 1.5 Grading2 See also 3 ReferencesHuman reflexes[edit] Myotatic reflexes The myotatic reflexes (also known as deep tendon reflexes), provide information on the integrity of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Motor Cortex
The motor cortex is the region of the cerebral cortex involved in the planning, control, and execution of voluntary movements. Classically the motor cortex is an area of the frontal lobe located in the posterior precentral gyrus immediately anterior to the central sulcus.Contents1 Components of the motor cortex1.1 The premotor cortex 1.2 The supplementary motor cortex2 History 3 The motor cortex map 4 Evolution of the motor cortex 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksComponents of the motor cortex[edit] The motor cortex can be divided into three areas: 1. the primary motor cortex is the main contributor to generating neural impulses that pass down to the spinal cord and control the execution of movement. However, some of the other motor areas in the brain also play a role in this function. It is located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface 2
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Action Potential
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls:[1] this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise. Action potentials occur in several types of animal cells, called excitable cells, which include neurons, muscle cells, endocrine cells, and in some plant cells. In neurons, action potentials play a central role in cell-to-cell communication by providing for—or, with regard to saltatory conduction, assisting—the propagation of signals along the neuron's axon towards synaptic boutons situated at the ends of an axon; these signals can then connect with other neurons at synapses, or to motor cells or glands. In other types of cells, their main function is to activate intracellular processes. In muscle cells, for example, an action potential is the first step in the chain of events leading to contraction
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Cervical Vertebrae
In vertebrates, cervical vertebrae (singular: vertebra) are the vertebrae of the neck, immediately below the skull. Thoracic vertebrae
Thoracic vertebrae
in all mammalian species are those vertebrae that also carry a pair of ribs, and lie caudal to the cervical vertebrae. Further caudally follow the lumbar vertebrae, which also belong to the trunk, but do not carry ribs. In reptiles, all trunk vertebrae carry ribs and are called dorsal vertebrae. In many species, though not in mammals, the cervical vertebrae bear ribs. In many other groups, such as lizards and saurischian dinosaurs, the cervical ribs are large; in birds, they are small and completely fused to the vertebrae
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Thoracic Vertebrae
In vertebrates, thoracic vertebrae compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae.[1] In humans, there are twelve thoracic vertebrae and they are intermediate in size between the cervical and lumbar vertebrae; they increase in size going towards the lumbar vertebrae, with the lower ones being a lot larger than the upper.[citation needed] They are distinguished by the presence of facets on the sides of the bodies for articulation with the heads of the ribs, as well as facets on the transverse processes of all, except the eleventh and twelfth, for articulation with the tubercles of the ribs
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Medical Subject Headings
Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it serves as a thesaurus that facilitates searching. Created and updated by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), it is used by the MEDLINE/ PubMed
PubMed
article database and by NLM's catalog of book holdings. MeSH is also used by ClinicalTrials.gov
ClinicalTrials.gov
registry to classify which diseases are studied by trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. MeSH was introduced in 1960, with the NLM's own index catalogue and the subject headings of the Quarterly Cumulative Index Medicus (1940 edition) as precursors. The yearly printed version of MeSH was discontinued in 2007 and MeSH is now available online only.[2] It can be browsed and downloaded free of charge through PubMed
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