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Spider Web
A spider web, spiderweb, spider's web, or cobweb (from the archaic word coppe, meaning "spider")[1] is a device created by a spider out of proteinaceous spider silk extruded from its spinnerets, generally meant to catch its prey. Spider
Spider
webs have existed for at least 100 million years, as witnessed in a rare find of Early Cretaceous amber from Sussex, southern England.[2] Insects can get trapped in spider webs, providing nutrition to the spider; however, not all spiders build webs to catch prey, and some do not build webs at all. " Spider
Spider
web" is typically used to refer to a web that is apparently still in use (i.e. clean), whereas "cobweb" refers to abandoned (i.e. dusty) webs.[3] However, "cobweb" is used to describe the tangled three-dimensional web[4] of some spiders of the Theridiidae
Theridiidae
family
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Vitamin K
Vitamin
Vitamin
K is a group of structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamins that the human body requires for complete synthesis of certain proteins that are prerequisites for blood coagulation (K from Koagulation, Danish for "coagulation") and which the body also needs for controlling binding of calcium in bones and other tissues.[1] The vitamin K-related modification of the proteins allows them to bind calcium ions, which they cannot do otherwise. Without vitamin K, blood coagulation is seriously impaired, and uncontrolled bleeding occurs. Preliminary clinical research indicates that deficiency of vitamin K may weaken bones, potentially leading to osteoporosis, and may promote calcification of arteries and other soft tissues.[1] Chemically, the vitamin K family comprises 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (3-) derivatives
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Araneus
A. alsine A. angulatus A. asiaticus A. bradleyi A. cavaticus A. cinnabarinus A. diadematus A. gemma A. gemmoides A. illaudatus A. marmoreus A. mitificus A. quadratus A. viridiventris hundreds of others, see listDiversityc. 650 species Araneus
Araneus
is a genus of common orb-weaving spiders. It includes about 650 species, among which are the European garden spider
European garden spider
and the barn spider.Contents1 Description 2 Taxonomic history 3 Venom 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksDescription[edit]Marbled orb-weaver ( Araneus
Araneus
marmoreus), Temagami, OntarioSpiders of this genus present perhaps the most obvious case of sexual dimorphism among all of the orb-weaver family, with males being normally ​1⁄3 to ​1⁄4 the size of females. In A
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Tendons
A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension. Tendons are similar to ligaments; both are made of collagen. Ligaments join one bone to another bone, while tendons connect muscle to bone.Contents1 Structure 2 Functions2.1 Mechanics 2.2 Healing2.2.1 Effects of activity on healing3 Society and culture3.1 Culinary uses4 Clinical significance4.1 Injury5 Other animals 6 See also 7 ReferencesStructure[edit] Histologically, tendons consist of dense regular connective tissue fascicles encased in dense irregular connective tissue sheaths. Normal healthy tendons are composed mostly of parallel arrays of collagen fibers closely packed together. They are anchored to bone by Sharpey's fibres
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Cobweb (other)
A cobweb is a spider web. Cobweb may also refer to:Contents1 Animals 2 Literature 3 Music 4 Other uses 5 See alsoAnimals[edit]Cobweb (horse) (1821–1848), a racehorse Cobwebbing, a pattern of fine lines on the face of a horse, zebra or other equidLiterature[edit]Cobweb (comics), a comic book heroine The Cobweb (novel), a 1996 novel by Neal Stephenson and J
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Mammals
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (/məˈmeɪliə/ from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands. Females of all mammal species nurse their young with milk, secreted from the mammary glands. Mammals include the largest animal on the planet, the blue whale. The basic body type is a terrestrial quadruped, but some mammals are adapted for life at sea, in the air, in trees, underground or on two legs. The largest group of mammals, the placentals, have a placenta, which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm (1.2–1.6 in) bumblebee bat to the 30-meter (98 ft) blue whale. With the exception of the five species of monotreme (egg-laying mammals), all modern mammals give birth to live young
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Proteins
Proteins (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ɪnz/) are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes oligopeptides. The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues
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Agelenidae
See text.Diversity[1]70 genera, 1168 speciesThe Agelenidae
Agelenidae
are a large family of spiders in the suborder Araneomorphae. Well-known examples include the common "grass spiders" of the genus Agelenopsis. Nearly all Agelenidae
Agelenidae
are harmless to humans, but the bite of the hobo spider ( Eratigena
Eratigena
agrestis) may be medically significant, and some evidence suggests it might cause necrotic lesions.[2] However, the matter remains subject to debate.[3] The most widely accepted common name for members of the family is funnel weaver.[4]Contents1 Description 2 Biology2.1 Parasocial species3 Medical significance 4 Taxonomy4.1 Genera5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksDescription[edit] Eratigena
Eratigena
agrestis, the hobo spiderE
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Bird
Birds (Aves) are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton. Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich. They rank as the world’s most numerically-successful class of tetrapods, with approximately ten thousand living species, more than half of these being passerines, sometimes known as perching birds. Birds have wings which are more or less developed depending on the species; the only known groups without wings are the extinct moa and elephant birds. Wings, which evolved from forelimbs, gave birds the ability to fly, although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in flightless birds, including ratites, penguins, and diverse endemic island species of birds
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Wasp
A wasp is any insect of the order Hymenoptera
Hymenoptera
and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant. The Apocrita
Apocrita
have a common evolutionary ancestor and form a clade; wasps as a group do not form a clade, but are paraphyletic with respect to bees and ants. The most commonly known wasps, such as yellowjackets and hornets, are in the family Vespidae
Vespidae
and are eusocial, living together in a nest with an egg-laying queen and non-reproducing workers. Eusociality
Eusociality
is favoured by the unusual haplodiploid system of sex determination in Hymenoptera, as it makes sisters exceptionally closely related to each other. However, the majority of wasp species are solitary, with each adult female living and breeding independently. Wasps play many ecological roles. Some are predators or pollinators, whether to feed themselves or to provision their nests
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Australian Garden Orb Weaver Spider
Epeira transmarina Epeira viridis Epeira producta Epeira thyridota Epeira capitalis Araneus productus Aranea producta Araneus capitalis Araneus transmarinusThe Australian garden orb weaver spider
Australian garden orb weaver spider
( Eriophora
Eriophora
transmarina) is a very common species of spider with many variants in size, shape, and colour across the coastal regions of the eastern states of Australia. They have very large abdomens when well-fed and exhibit a tremendous colour-range from off-white through tan, brown to almost black. They have a roughly leaf-shaped pattern on the top of their abdomen with a complex outline that is darker than the surrounding area. There may also be several whitish spots or one or more stripes. The spiders' cephalothoraxes (heads) and proximal (closer to the body) leg segments are usually darker, mostly reddish or reddish brown
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Elasticity (physics)
In physics, elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed. Solid objects will deform when adequate forces are applied on them. If the material is elastic, the object will return to its initial shape and size when these forces are removed. The physical reasons for elastic behavior can be quite different for different materials. In metals, the atomic lattice changes size and shape when forces are applied (energy is added to the system). When forces are removed, the lattice goes back to the original lower energy state. For rubbers and other polymers, elasticity is caused by the stretching of polymer chains when forces are applied. Perfect elasticity is an approximation of the real world. The most elastic body in modern science found is quartz fibre[citation needed] which is not even a perfect elastic body
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List Of Trapdoor Spiders
Trapdoor spider is a common name that is sometimes used to refer to different spiders, or rather several different groups. Several families that contain trapdoor spiders within the lineage Mygalomorphae:Actinopodidae, a family otherwise known as 'mouse-spiders', in South America and Australia Barychelidae, a family of 'brush-footed trapdoor spiders' with Pantropical distribution Ctenizidae, a family of 'cork-lid trapdoor spiders' in Tropical and subtropical regions Cyrtaucheniidae, a family of 'wafer-lid trapdoor spiders, with wide distribution except cooler regions. Euctenizidae, a family of spiders that make wafer-like or cork-like trapdoors Idiopidae, a family of 'spurred-trapdoor spiders' or 'armoured trapdoors' mostly in Southern Hemisphere Migidae, also known as 'ridge fanged trapdoor spiders' or 'tree trapdoor spiders', in the Southern Hemisphere Nemesiidae, a family of 'tube trapdoor spiders', with both tropical and temperate species worldwide Theraphosidae, a family of
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Wolf Spider
Acantholycosa Adelocosa Allocosa Alopecosa Anoteropsis Arctosa Geolycosa Hogna Lycosa Mongolicosa Ovia Pardosa Pirata Sibirocosa Sosippus Tigrosa Trochosa many moreDiversity> 100 genera, c. 2,300 speciesWolf spiders are members of the family Lycosidae, from the Ancient Greek word "λύκος" meaning "wolf". They are robust and agile hunters with excellent eyesight. They live mostly in solitude and hunt alone, and do not spin webs. Some are opportunistic hunters pouncing upon prey as they find it or even chasing it over short distances. Some will wait for passing prey in or near the mouth of a burrow. Wolf spiders resemble nursery web spiders (family Pisauridae), but wolf spiders carry their egg sacs by attaching them to their spinnerets. ( Pisauridae
Pisauridae
carry their egg sacs with their chelicerae and pedipalps)
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Deinopidae
The spider family Deinopidae
Deinopidae
consists of stick-like elongate spiders that build unusual webs that they suspend between the front legs. When prey approaches, the spider will stretch the net to two or three times its relaxed size and propel itself onto the prey, entangling it in the web. Because of this, they are also called net-casting spiders. Their excellent night-vision adapted posterior median eyes allow them to cast this net over potential prey items. These eyes are so large in comparison to the other six eyes that the spider seems to have only two eyes. The genus Deinopis
Deinopis
is the best known in this family. Spiders in this genus are also called ogre-faced spiders, due to the imagined similarity between their appearance and that of the mythological creature, the ogre
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Surface Tension
At liquid–air interfaces, surface tension results from the greater attraction of liquid molecules to each other (due to cohesion) than to the molecules in the air (due to adhesion). The net effect is an inward force at its surface that causes the liquid to behave as if its surface were covered with a stretched elastic membrane. Thus, the surface becomes under tension from the imbalanced forces, which is probably where the term "surface tension" came from.[1] Because of the relatively high attraction of water molecules for each other through a web of hydrogen bonds, water has a higher surface tension (72.8 millinewtons per meter at 20 °C) compared to that of most other liquids. Surface tension
Surface tension
is an important factor in the phenomenon of capillarity. Surface tension
Surface tension
has the dimension of force per unit length, or of energy per unit area
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