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Spheres Of Influence
In the field of international relations, a zone of influence (SOI) is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, economic, military, or political exclusivity, accommodating to the interests of powers outside the borders of the state that controls it. While there may be a formal alliance or other treaty obligations between the influenced and influence, such formal arrangements are not necessary and the influence can often be more of an example of soft power. Similarly, a formal alliance does not necessarily mean that one country lies within another's sphere of influence. High levels of exclusivity have historically been associated with higher levels of conflict. In more extreme cases, a country within the "sphere of influence" of another may become a subsidiary of that state and serve in effect as a satellite state or de facto colony
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Sphere Of Influence (other)
Sphere of influence
Sphere of influence
may refer to: Sphere of influence
Sphere of influence
(astrodynamics), the area, typically spherical, around a celestial body, e.g. a star, in which that body is the biggest gravitational influence Sphere of influence
Sphere of influence
(black hole), a region around a black hole in which the gravitation of the black hole dominates that of the host bulge Sphere of influence, an area or region over which a state or organization has significant cultural, economic, military or political influence Sphere of influence
Sphere of influence
is also a legal term in family law. A child can only be emancipated in some states when he or she goes outside of the sphere of influence of the parents, e.g
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Francophonie
Francophonie, sometimes also spelt Francophonia in English, is the quality of speaking French. It is not to be confused with the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, sometimes also informally called "la Francophonie". The term designates the ensemble of people, organisations and governments that share the use of French on a daily basis or/and as administrative language, teaching language or chosen language. Denominations[edit] Francophonie, francophonie and francophone space are syntagmatic expressions that are sometimes misunderstood or misused
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Germany
Coordinates: 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9Federal Republic
Republic
of GermanyBundesrepublik Deutschland (German)[a] Flag Coat of arms Motto: "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" (de facto)(English: "Unity and Justice and Freedom")Anthem: "Deutschlandlied"[b](English: "Song of Germany")Show globeShow map of EuropeLocation of Germany (dark green)– in Europe (green & dark grey)– in the European Union (green)Capitaland largest cityBerlin[c]52
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West Germany
West Germany
Germany
was the informal name for the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland), a country in Central Europe, in the period between its formation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990. During this Cold War
Cold War
period, the western portion of Germany
Germany
was part of the Western Bloc. The Federal Republic was created during the Allied occupation of Germany
Germany
after World War II, established from eleven states formed in the three Allied zones of occupation held by the United States, the United Kingdom and France. Its (provisional) capital was the city of Bonn. The Cold War
Cold War
era West Germany
Germany
is unofficially historically designated the Bonn
Bonn
Republic.[3] At the onset of the Cold War, Europe was divided among the Western and Eastern blocs
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East Germany
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic
Republic
(GDR; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik [ˈdɔʏtʃə demoˈkʁaːtɪʃə ʁepuˈbliːk], DDR), was a state that existed from 1949 to 1990, when the eastern portion of Germany
Germany
was part of the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
during the Cold War. Commonly described as a communist state in English usage, it described itself as a socialist "workers' and peasants' state."[1] It consisted of territory that was administered and occupied by Soviet forces at the end of World War II
World War II
— the Soviet occupation zone of the Potsdam
Potsdam
Agreement, bounded on the east by the Oder–Neisse line
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Warsaw Pact
The Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance,[1] was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland between the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and seven Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe
Central and Eastern Europe
in May 1955, during the Cold War. The Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact was the military complement to the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
(CoMEcon), the regional economic organization for the socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe
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Shopping Mall
A shopping mall is a modern, chiefly North American, term for a form of shopping precinct or shopping center, in which one or more buildings form a complex of shops representing merchandisers with interconnecting walkways that enable customers to walk from unit to unit. A shopping arcade is a specific type of shopping precinct which is usually distinguished in English for mall shopping by the fact that connecting walkways are not owned by a single proprietor and are in open air. Shopping malls in 2017 accounted for 8% of retailing space in the United States.[1] Many early shopping arcades such as the Burlington Arcade
Burlington Arcade
in London, the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II
Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II
in Milan, and numerous arcades in Paris
Paris
are famous and still trading. However, many smaller arcades have been demolished, replaced with large centers or "malls", often accessible by vehicle
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Retail Trade
Retail
Retail
is the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit. Retailers satisfy demand identified through a supply chain. The term "retailer" is typically applied where a service provider fills the small orders of a large number of individuals, who are end-users, rather than large orders of a small number of wholesale, corporate or government clientele. Shopping
Shopping
generally refers to the act of buying products. Sometimes this is done to obtain final goods, including necessities such as food and clothing; sometimes it takes place as a recreational activity. Recreational shopping often involves window shopping and browsing: it does not always result in a purchase. Retail
Retail
markets and shops have a very ancient history, dating back to antiquity
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Anglosphere
The Anglosphere
Anglosphere
is a set of English-speaking nations which share common roots in British culture and history,[1][2] which today maintain close cultural, political, diplomatic and military cooperation. While the nations included in different sources vary, the Anglosphere
Anglosphere
is usually not considered to include all countries where English is an official language, although the nations that are commonly included were all once part of the British Empire.[3] The term covers the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand
New Zealand
and the United Kingdom,[4][5][6][7] countries which in the post-British Empire era maintain a close affinity of cultural, diplomatic and military links with one another
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Arab World
The Arab world
Arab world
(Arabic: العالم العربي‎ al-ʿālam al-ʿarabī; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي al-waṭan al-ʿarabī),[7][8][9] also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية al-ummah al-ʿarabīyyah), the Arabsphere or the Arab states,[10] currently consists of the 22 Arabic-speaking countries that make up the members of the Arab League.[6] These countries occupy the Middle East,
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Eurosphere
The Eurosphere
Eurosphere
or the European Empire[1] is a concept associated with the public intellectual Mark Leonard,[citation needed][2] Oxford University academic Jan Zielonka,[1] the European Union Director-General for Politico-Military Affairs Robert Cooper;[3] and the European Commission
European Commission
President José Manuel Barroso.[4] Over the past 50 years, the European Union
European Union
has expanded from the 6 founding members to 28; additionally there are 8 candidate and potential candidate countries waiting to join. A number of western European countries are integrated economically, as part of the Union's single market or using its single currency
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Françafrique
Françafrique
Françafrique
(French pronunciation: ​[fʁɑ̃safʁik]) is France's relationship[1][2] with its former African colonies.[3][4][5] It was first used in a positive sense by President Félix Houphouët-Boigny of Côte d'Ivoire, in allusion to that country's economic growth and political stability under its alliance with France. However, the term is now often used to criticise the allegedly neocolonial relationship France
France
has with its former colonies in Africa
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America Flag Coat of arms Motto: "In God
God
We Trust"[1] .mw-parser-output .nobold f
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Germanic Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordi
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Greater India
The Indian cultural sphere or Indosphere is an area that is composed of the many countries and regions in South and Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
that were historically influenced by Indian culture
Indian culture
and the Sanskrit language. The term Greater India
India
is used to encompass the historical and geographic extent of all political entities of the Indian subcontinent, and the regions which are culturally linked to India
India
or received significant Sanskritization and Indian cultural influence. These countries have varying degrees been transformed by the acceptance and induction of cultural and institutional elements of India
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