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Spelling In Gwoyeu Romatzyh
The spelling of Gwoyeu Romatzyh
Gwoyeu Romatzyh
(GR) can be divided into its treatment of initials, finals and tones. GR uses contrasting unvoiced/voiced pairs of consonants to represent aspirated and unaspirated initials in Chinese: for example b and p represent IPA
IPA
[p] and [pʰ]. The letters j, ch and sh represent two different series of initials: the alveolo-palatal and the retroflex sounds. Although these spellings create no ambiguity in practice, readers more familiar with Pinyin should pay particular attention to them: GR ju, for example, corresponds to Pinyin
Pinyin
zhu, not ju (which is spelled jiu in GR). Many of the finals in GR are similar to those used in other romanizations. Distinctive features of GR include the use of iu for the close front rounded vowel spelled ü or simply u in Pinyin
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Fuzhou Dialect
The Fuzhou
Fuzhou
dialect, (simplified Chinese: 福州话; traditional Chinese: 福州話; pinyin: Fúzhōuhuà; FR:  Hók-ciŭ-uâ (help·info)) also Fuzhounese, Foochow or Hok-chiu, is the prestige variety of the Eastern Min
Eastern Min
branch of Min Chinese spoken mainly in eastern Fujian
Fujian
province. Like many other varieties of Chinese, the Fuzhou
Fuzhou
dialect is dominated by monosyllabic morphemes which carry lexical tones,[3] and has a mainly analytic syntax
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Amoy Dialect
The Amoy
Amoy
dialect or Xiamen
Xiamen
dialect (Chinese: 廈門話; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Ē-mn̂g-ōe), also known as Amoynese, Amoy
Amoy
Hokkien, Xiamenese or Xiamen
Xiamen
Hokkien, is a dialect of Hokkien
Hokkien
spoken in the city of Xiamen (historically known as "Amoy") and its surrounding metropolitan area, in the southern part of Fujian
Fujian
province
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Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin (/ˈmændərɪn, -drɪn/ ( listen); simplified Chinese: 官话; traditional Chinese: 官話; pinyin: Guānhuà; literally: "speech of officials") is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. The group includes the Beijing
Beijing
dialect, the basis of Standard Mandarin or Standard Chinese. Because most Mandarin dialects are found in the north, the group is sometimes referred to as the Northern dialects (北方话; běifānghuà). Many local Mandarin varieties are not mutually intelligible
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Cantonese
Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese, is a variety of the Chinese language spoken within Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(historically known as Canton) and its vicinity in southeastern China. It is the traditional prestige variety of Yue, one of the major subdivisions of Chinese. In mainland China, it is the lingua franca of the province of Guangdong, being the majority language of the Pearl River Delta, and neighbouring areas such as Guangxi. It is the dominant and official language of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
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Yue Chinese
Yue or Yueh (English: /ˈjuːeɪ/ or /juːˈeɪ/; Cantonese pronunciation: [jyːt̚²])[3] is one of the primary branches of Chinese spoken in southern China, particularly the provinces of Guangdong
Guangdong
and Guangxi, collectively known as Liangguang. The name Cantonese
Cantonese
is often used for the whole branch, but linguists prefer to reserve that name for the variety of Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(Canton), Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau, which is the prestige dialect. Taishanese, from the coastal area of Jiangmen
Jiangmen
located southwest of Guangzhou, was the language of most of the 19th-century emigrants from Guangdong
Guangdong
to Southeast Asia and North America
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Wenzhounese
Wenzhounese (simplified Chinese: 温州话; traditional Chinese: 溫州話; pinyin: wēnzhōuhuà), also known as Oujiang (simplified Chinese: 瓯江话; traditional Chinese: 甌江話; pinyin: ōujiānghuà), Tong Au (simplified Chinese: 东瓯片; traditional Chinese: 東甌片; pinyin: dōngōupiàn) or Auish (simplified Chinese: 瓯语; traditional Chinese: 甌語; pinyin: ōuyŭ), is the language spoken in Wenzhou, the southern prefecture of Zhejiang, China. Nicknamed the "Devil's Language" for its complexity and difficulty, it is the most divergent division of Wu Chinese, with little to no mutual intelligibility with other Wu dialects or any other variety of Chinese. It features noticeable elements in common with Min Chinese, which is spoken to the south in Fujian
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Wu Chinese
Wu (Shanghainese: [ɦu˨˨ ɲy˦˦]; Suzhou
Suzhou
dialect: [ɦəu˨˨ ɲy˦˦]; Wuxi
Wuxi
dialect: [ŋ˨˨˧ nʲy˨˨]) is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese primarily spoken in the whole city of Shanghai, Zhejiang
Zhejiang
province and the southern half of Jiangsu
Jiangsu
province, as well as bordering areas. Major Wu varieties include those of Shanghai, Suzhou, Ningbo, Wuxi, Wenzhou/Oujiang, Hangzhou, Shaoxing, Jinhua
Jinhua
and Yongkang. Wu speakers, such as Chiang Kai-shek, Lu Xun
Lu Xun
and Cai Yuanpei, occupied positions of great importance in modern Chinese culture and politics
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Sichuanese Dialect
Sichuanese (simplified Chinese: 四川话; traditional Chinese: 四川話; Sichuanese Pinyin: Si4cuan1hua4; pinyin: Sìchuānhuà; Wade–Giles: Szŭ4-ch'uan1-hua4), or Sichuanese/Szechwanese Mandarin, (simplified Chinese: 四川官话; traditional Chinese: 四川官話; pinyin: Sìchuān Guānhuà) commonly known as Sichuanese, or Szechwanese is a branch of Southwestern Mandarin, spoken mainly in Sichuan
Sichuan
and Chongqing, which was part of Sichuan
Sichuan
Province until 1997, and the adjacent regions of their neighboring provinces, such as Hubei, Guizhou, Yunnan, Hunan
Hunan
and Shaanxi. Although "Sichuanese" is often synonymous with the Chengdu- Chongqing
Chongqing
dialect, there is still a great amount of diversity among the Sichuanese dialects, some of which are mutually unintelligible with each other
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Southern Min
Southern Min, or Minnan (simplified Chinese: 闽南语; traditional Chinese: 閩南語), is a branch of Min Chinese
Min Chinese
spoken in Taiwan
Taiwan
and in certain parts of China
China
including Fujian
Fujian
(especially the Minnan region), eastern Guangdong, Hainan, and southern Zhejiang.[4] The Minnan dialects are also spoken by descendants of emigrants from these areas in diaspora, most notably the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. It is the largest Min Chinese
Min Chinese
branch and the most widely distributed Min Chinese
Min Chinese
subgroup. In common parlance and in the narrower sense, Southern Min
Southern Min
refers to the Quanzhang or Hokkien-Taiwanese variety of Southern Min
Southern Min
originating from Southern Fujian
Fujian
in Mainland China
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Taiwanese Hokkien
[tai˧˩ g̃i˥˩] / [tai˧˩ g̃u˥˩] (coastal) [tai˧˧ g̃i˥˩] / [tai˧˧ g̃u˥˩] (inland)Native to TaiwanNative speakers15 million (1997)[1]Language familySino-TibetanChineseMinSouthern MinQuanzhangTaiwanese HokkienWriting systemLatin (pe̍h-ōe-jī), Han characters
Han characters
(traditional)Official statusOfficial language inNone, de facto status in
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Teochew Dialect
Teochew (Chinese: 潮州話 or 潮汕話; pinyin: Cháozhōuhuà or Cháoshànhuà, Chaozhou
Chaozhou
dialect: Diê⁵ziu¹ uê⁷; Shantou dialect: Dio⁵ziu¹ uê⁷) is a variant of Southern Min
Southern Min
spoken mainly by the Teochew people
Teochew people
in the Chaoshan
Chaoshan
region of eastern Guangdong
Guangdong
and by their diaspora around the world
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Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin Chinese
(MSMC), or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is one of the official languages of China. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing
Beijing
dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. The similar Taiwanese Mandarin
Taiwanese Mandarin
is a national language of Taiwan. Standard Singaporean Mandarin
Singaporean Mandarin
is one of the four official languages of Singapore. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties
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Taiwanese Language Phonetic Alphabet
Taiwanese may refer to:Something from or related to Taiwan
Taiwan
(Formosa) Taiwanese aborigines, the indigenous people of Taiwan Han Taiwanese, the Han people of Taiwan
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Eastern Min
Eastern Min, or Min Dong (simplified Chinese: 闽东语; traditional Chinese: 閩東語; pinyin: Mǐndōngyǔ; Foochow Romanized: Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄), is a branch of the Min group of varieties of Chinese. The prestige form and most-cited representative form is the Fuzhou
Fuzhou
dialect, the speech of the capital and largest city of Fujian.[4]Contents1 Geographic distribution1.1 China
China
and Taiwan 1.2 America 1.3 Europe 1.4 Japan
Japan
and Malaysia2 Classification2.1 Branches and influences3 References 4 Further readingGeographic distribution[edit] China
China
and Taiwan[edit] Eastern Min
Eastern Min
varieties are mainly spoken in the eastern part of Fujian Province in People's Republic of China, in and near the cities of Fuzhou
Fuzhou
and Ningde
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Barnett–Chao
The Cantonese
Cantonese
Romanisation system known as Barnett–Chao (abbreviated here as B–C) is based on the principles of the Gwoyeu Romatzyh system (GR) developed by Chao Yuenren in the 1920s, which he modified in 1947.[1] The B-C system is a modification in 1950 by K M A Barnett[2] (an Administrative Officer of the Hong Kong Government)[3] which was adopted by the School of Oriental and African Studies, L
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