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Speech Synthesis
SPEECH SYNTHESIS is the artificial production of human speech . A computer system used for this purpose is called a SPEECH COMPUTER or SPEECH SYNTHESIZER, and can be implemented in software or hardware products. A TEXT-TO-SPEECH (TTS) system converts normal language text into speech; other systems render symbolic linguistic representations like phonetic transcriptions into speech. Synthesized speech can be created by concatenating pieces of recorded speech that are stored in a database . Systems differ in the size of the stored speech units; a system that stores phones or diphones provides the largest output range, but may lack clarity. For specific usage domains, the storage of entire words or sentences allows for high-quality output. Alternatively, a synthesizer can incorporate a model of the vocal tract and other human voice characteristics to create a completely "synthetic" voice output
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Silvester II
POPE SYLVESTER II or SILVESTER II (c. 946 – 12 May 1003) was Pope from 2 April 999 to his death in 1003. Originally known as GERBERT OF AURILLAC (Latin : Gerbertus Aureliacensis or de Aurillac; French : Gerbert d'Aurillac), he was a prolific scholar and teacher. He endorsed and promoted study of Arab and Greco-Roman
Greco-Roman
arithmetic, mathematics, and astronomy, reintroducing to Europe the abacus and armillary sphere , which had been lost to Latin (though not Byzantine ) Europe since the end of the Greco-Roman
Greco-Roman
era. He is said to be the first to introduce in Europe the decimal numeral system using Arabic numerals. He was the first French Pope
Pope

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Albertus Magnus
Catholicism portal Philosophy portal * v * t * e ALBERTUS MAGNUS, O.P. (c. 1200 – November 15, 1280), also known as SAINT ALBERT THE GREAT and ALBERT OF COLOGNE, was a German Dominican friar and Catholic bishop . Later canonised as a Catholic saint , he was known during his lifetime as doctor universalis and doctor expertus and, late in his life, the term magnus was appended to his name. Scholars such as James A. Weisheipl and Joachim R. Söder have referred to him as the greatest German philosopher and theologian of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
distinguishes him as one of the 36 Doctors of the Church . For Erdmann he is definitely greater and more original than his pupil Aquinas
Aquinas

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Roger Bacon
ROGER BACON OFM ( Latin
Latin
: Rogerus or Rogerius Baconus, also Frater Rogerus; c. 1219/20 – c. 1292), also known by the scholastic accolade DOCTOR MIRABILIS , was an English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed considerable emphasis on the study of nature through empiricism . In the early modern era , he was regarded as a wizard and particularly famed for the story of his mechanical or necromantic brazen head . He is sometimes credited (mainly since the 19th century) as one of the earliest European advocates of the modern scientific method inspired by Aristotle
Aristotle
and by later scholars such as the Arab scientist Alhazen . His linguistic work has been heralded for its early exposition of a universal grammar . However, more recent re-evaluations emphasise that Bacon was essentially a medieval thinker, with much of his "experimental" knowledge obtained from books in the scholastic tradition
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Brazen Head
A BRAZEN HEAD, BRASS, or BRONZE HEAD was a legendary automaton in the early modern period whose ownership was ascribed to late medieval scholars who had developed a reputation as wizards , such as Roger Bacon . Made of brass or bronze , the male head was variously mechanical or magical . Like Odin
Odin
's head of Mimir in Norse paganism , it was reputed to be able to correctly answer any question put to it, although it was sometimes restricted to "yes" or "no" answers. Thomas Browne considered them to be misunderstanding of the scholars' alchemical work, while Borlik argues that they came to serve as "a metonymy for the hubris of Renaissance
Renaissance
intellectuals and artists"
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Electronics
ELECTRONICS is the science of controlling electrical energy electrically, in which the electrons have a fundamental role. Electronics
Electronics
deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes , transistors , diodes , integrated circuits , optoelectronics , sensors etc. associated passive electrical components, and interconnection technologies. Commonly, electronic devices contain circuitry consisting primarily or exclusively of active semiconductors supplemented with passive elements; such a circuit is described as an electronic circuit . The science of electronics is also considered to be a branch of physics and electrical engineering . The nonlinear behaviour of active components and their ability to control electron flows makes amplification of weak signals possible, and electronics is widely used in information processing , telecommunication , and signal processing
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Clause
In grammar , a CLAUSE is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete proposition . A typical clause consists of a subject and a predicate , the latter typically a verb phrase , a verb with any objects and other modifiers. However, the subject is sometimes not said or explicit, often the case in null-subject languages if the subject is retrievable from context, but it sometimes also occurs in other languages such as English (as in imperative sentences and non-finite clauses ). A simple sentence usually consists of a single finite clause with a finite verb that is independent. More complex sentences may contain multiple clauses. Main clauses (matrix clauses, independent clauses ) are those that can stand alone as a sentence. Subordinate clauses (embedded clauses, dependent clauses ) are those that would be awkward or incomplete if they were alone
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Sentence (linguistics)
In non-functional linguistics , a SENTENCE is a textual unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked. In functional linguistics, a SENTENCE is a unit of written texts delimited by graphological features such as upper case letters and markers such as periods, question marks, and exclamation marks. This notion contrasts with a CURVE, which is delimited by phonologic features such as pitch and loudness and markers such as pauses; and with a CLAUSE, which is a sequence of words that represents some process going on throughout time. This entry is mainly about sentence in its non-functional sense, though much work in functional linguistics is indirectly cited or considered such as the categories of Speech Act Theory. A sentence can include words grouped meaningfully to express a statement, question , exclamation, request, command or suggestion
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Grapheme
In linguistics , a GRAPHEME is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language. An individual grapheme may or may not carry meaning by itself, and may or may not correspond to a single phoneme of the spoken language. Graphemes include alphabetic letters , typographic ligatures , Chinese characters
Chinese characters
, numerical digits , punctuation marks, and other individual symbols. It can also be construed as a graphical sign that independently represents a portion of linguistic material. The word grapheme, coined in analogy with phoneme, is derived from Ancient Greek γράφω (gráphō), meaning 'write', and the suffix -eme, by analogy with phoneme and other names of emic units . The study of graphemes is called graphemics . The concept of graphemes is an abstract one and similar to the notion in computing of a character . By comparison, a specific shape that represents any particular grapheme in a specific typeface is called a glyph
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Denmark
DENMARK (/ˈdɛnmɑːrk/ ( listen ); Danish : Danmark ( listen )), officially the KINGDOM OF DENMARK, is a Scandinavian country in Europe
Europe
and a sovereign state . The southernmost of the Nordic countries , it is south-west of Sweden
Sweden
and south of Norway
Norway
, and bordered to the south by Germany
Germany
. The Kingdom of Denmark also comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean : the Faroe Islands and Greenland
Greenland
. Denmark
Denmark
itself has a total area of 42,924 square kilometres (16,573 sq mi),; total area including Greenland
Greenland
and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 square kilometres (853,509 sq mi), and a population of 5.75 million
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Russian Academy Of Sciences
The RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (RAS; Russian : Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk) consists of the national academy of Russia
Russia
; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals. Headquartered in Moscow
Moscow
, the Academy (RAS) is considered a civil, self-governed, non-commercial organization chartered by the Government of Russia
Russia
. It combines the members of RAS (see below) and scientists employed by institutions. The Academy currently includes around 650 institutions and 55,000 scientific researchers
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Charles Wheatstone
SIR CHARLES WHEATSTONE /ˈwiːtstən/ FRS (6 February 1802 – 19 October 1875), was an English scientist and inventor of many scientific breakthroughs of the Victorian era
Victorian era
, including the English concertina , the stereoscope (a device for displaying three-dimensional images), and the Playfair cipher (an encryption technique). However, Wheatstone is best known for his contributions in the development of the Wheatstone bridge , originally invented by Samuel Hunter Christie , which is used to measure an unknown electrical resistance, and as a major figure in the development of telegraphy
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Homer Dudley
HOMER W. DUDLEY (14 November 1896– 18 September 1980) was a pioneering electronic and acoustic engineer who created the first electronic voice synthesizer for Bell Labs
Bell Labs
in the 1930s and led the development of a method of sending secure voice transmissions during World War Two. His awards include the Franklin Institute's Stuart Ballantine Medal (1965). CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Sound theory * 3 The VOCODER and VODER * 4 SIGSALY
SIGSALY
and wartime projects * 5 Later projects * 6 Notes * 7 Further reading * 8 External links EARLY LIFEBorn in Virginia
Virginia
, Dudley's family moved to Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
when he was a schoolboy. His father was a preacher, and his parents also gave lessons to students, in classical and religious subjects. Dudley trained to be a grade school and high school teacher
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1939 New York World's Fair
The 1939–40 NEW YORK WORLD\'S FAIR, which covered the 1,216 acres (492 ha) of Flushing Meadows-Corona Park (also the location of the 1964–1965 New York World\'s Fair ), was the second most expansive American world\'s fair of all time , exceeded only by St. Louis's Louisiana Purchase Exposition