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Speech Synthesis
Speech
Speech
synthesis is the artificial production of human speech. A computer system used for this purpose is called a speech computer or speech synthesizer, and can be implemented in software or hardware products. A text-to-speech (TTS) system converts normal language text into speech; other systems render symbolic linguistic representations like phonetic transcriptions into speech.[1] Synthesized speech can be created by concatenating pieces of recorded speech that are stored in a database. Systems differ in the size of the stored speech units; a system that stores phones or diphones provides the largest output range, but may lack clarity. For specific usage domains, the storage of entire words or sentences allows for high-quality output
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Signal Processing
Signal
Signal
processing concerns the analysis, synthesis, and modification of signals, which are broadly defined as functions conveying "information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon",[1] such as sound, images, and biological measurements.[2] For example, signal processing techniques are used to improve signal transmission fidelity, storage efficiency, and subjective quality, and to emphasize or detect components of interest in a measured signal.[3]Contents1 History 2 Application fields 3 Typical devices 4 Mathematical methods applied 5 Categories5.1 Analog signal processing 5.2 Continuous-time signal processing 5.3 Discrete-time signal
Discrete-time signal
processing 5.4 Digital signal processing 5.5 Nonlinear signal processing6 See also 7 Notes and references 8 External linksHistory[edit] According to Alan V. Oppenheim and Ronald W
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Russian Academy Of Sciences
The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS; Russian: Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk) consists of the national academy of Russia; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals. Headquartered in Moscow, the Academy (RAS) is considered a civil, self-governed, non-commercial organization[2] chartered by the Government of Russia. It combines the members of RAS (see below) and scientists employed by institutions
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Grapheme
In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language.[1] An individual grapheme may or may not carry meaning by itself, and may or may not correspond to a single phoneme of the spoken language. Graphemes include alphabetic letters, typographic ligatures, Chinese characters, numerical digits, punctuation marks, and other individual symbols. A grapheme can also be construed as a graphical sign that independently represents a portion of linguistic material.[2] The word grapheme, coined in analogy with phoneme, is derived from Ancient Greek γράφω (gráphō), meaning 'write', and the suffix -eme, by analogy with phoneme and other names of emic units. The study of graphemes is called graphemics. The concept of graphemes is an abstract one and similar to the notion in computing of a character. By comparison, a specific shape that represents any particular grapheme in a specific typeface is called a glyph
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Brazen Head
A brazen head, brass, or bronze head was a legendary automaton in the early modern period whose ownership was ascribed to late medieval scholars who had developed a reputation as wizards, such as Roger Bacon. Made of brass or bronze, the male head was variously mechanical or magical. Like Odin's head of Mimir in Norse paganism,[n 1] it was reputed to be able to correctly answer any question put to it, although it was sometimes restricted to "yes" or "no" answers
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Silvester II
Pope Sylvester II or Silvester II (c.  946 – 12 May 1003) was Pope from 2 April 999 to his death in 1003. Originally known as Gerbert of Aurillac (Latin: Gerbertus Aureliacensis or de Aurillac; French: Gerbert d'Aurillac),[n 1] he was a prolific scholar and teacher. He endorsed and promoted study of Arab and Greco-Roman arithmetic, mathematics, and astronomy, reintroducing to Europe the abacus and armillary sphere, which had been lost to Latin (though not Byzantine) Europe since the end of the Greco-Roman era.[2][3][4][5] He is said to be the first to introduce in Europe the decimal numeral system using Arabic numerals
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Albertus Magnus
Catholicism portal Philosophy portalv t eAlbertus Magnus,[3] O.P. (c. 1200 – November 15, 1280), also known as Saint
Saint
Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a German Catholic Dominican friar and bishop. Later canonised as a Catholic
Catholic
saint, he was known during his lifetime as Doctor universalis and Doctor expertus and, late in his life, the sobriquet Magnus was appended to his name.[4] Scholars such as James A. Weisheipl and Joachim R
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Roger Bacon
Roger Bacon
Roger Bacon
OFM (/ˈbeɪkən/;[6] Latin: Rogerus or Rogerius Baconus, Baconis, also Frater Rogerus; c. 1219/20 – c. 1292), also known by the scholastic accolade Doctor Mirabilis, was an English philosopher and Franciscan
Franciscan
friar who placed considerable emphasis on the study of nature through empiricism. In the early modern era, he was regarded as a wizard and particularly famed for the story of his mechanical or necromantic brazen head. He is sometimes credited (mainly since the 19th century) as one of the earliest European advocates of the modern scientific method inspired by Aristotle
Aristotle
and by Arab scientist Alhazen.[7] His linguistic work has been heralded for its early exposition of a universal grammar
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Germany
Coordinates: 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German)[a]FlagCoat of armsMotto:  "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" (de facto) "Unity and Justice and Freedom"Anthem: "Deutschlandlied" (third verse only)[b] "Song of Germany"Location of  Germany  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Location of
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Denmark
Denmark
Denmark
(/ˈdɛnmɑːrk/ ( listen); Danish: Danmark, pronounced [ˈdanmɑɡ] ( listen)), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,[N 9] is a Nordic country and a sovereign state. The southernmost of the Scandinavian nations, it is south-west of Sweden
Sweden
and south of Norway,[N 10] and bordered to the south by Germany. The Kingdom of Denmark
Denmark
also comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark
Denmark
proper consists of a peninsula, Jutland, and an archipelago of 443 named islands,[N 2][10] with the largest being Zealand, Funen
Funen
and the North Jutlandic Island. The islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate
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Vowel
Paired vowels are: unrounded • roundedManners of articulationObstruent    Stop     Affricate     Fricative        Strident            SibilantSonorant    Nasal     Approximant        Semivowel    Vowel     Vibrant        Flap/Tap         TrillLiquid    Rhotic     LateralOcclusive ContinuantAirstreamsEgressive Ingressive Ejective Implosive Nonexplosive Lingual (clicks) Linguo-pulmonic Linguo-ejective PercussiveSee alsoArticulatory phonetics Aspirated consonant No au
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Clause
In grammar, a clause is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete proposition.[1] A typical clause consists of a subject and a predicate,[2] the latter typically a verb phrase, a verb with any objects and other modifiers. However, the subject is sometimes not said or explicit, often the case in null-subject languages if the subject is retrievable from context, but it sometimes also occurs in other languages such as English (as in imperative sentences and non-finite clauses). A simple sentence usually consists of a single finite clause with a finite verb that is independent. More complex sentences may contain multiple clauses. Main clauses (matrix clauses, independent clauses) are those that can stand alone as a sentence
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Bellows
A bellows or pair of bellows is a device constructed to furnish a strong blast of air. The simplest type consists of a flexible bag comprising a pair of rigid boards with handles joined by flexible leather sides enclosing an approximately airtight cavity which can be expanded and contracted by operating the handles, and fitted with a valve allowing air to fill the cavity when expanded, and with a tube through which the air is forced out in a stream when the cavity is compressed.[1] It has many applications, in particular blowing on a fire to supply it with air.Hand-made English fireplace bellowsThe term "bellows" is used by extension for a flexible bag whose volume can be changed by compression or expansion, but not used to deliver air
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Wolfgang Von Kempelen
Wolfgang is a German male given name traditionally popular in Germany and Austria. The name is a combination of the Old High German word wolf, meaning "wolf" and gang, meaning "path, journey". Besides the regular "wolf", the first element also occurs in Old High German as the combining form "-olf". "Wolf" (in Old High German) or "wulf" (in most other Germanic languages) is a popular element of the common dithematic Germanic names. The word is present in hundreds of German names. Some Germanic names with this element include Adolf, Aethelwulf, Beowulf, Cynewulf, Rudolf, Wulfstan, Ulfilas, and Wulf. "Gang" is found in such names as Gangperht, Gangulf, Bertegang, Druhtgang, Hildigang, Hrodegang, and Wiligang. The earliest reference of the name being used was in the 8th century.[1] The name was also attested as "Vulfgang" in the Reichenauer Verbrüderungsbuch in the 9th century,[2] The earliest recorded famous bearer of the name was a tenth-century Saint Wolfgang of Regensburg
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Pressburg
Bratislava
Bratislava
(/ˌbrætɪˈslɑːvə, ˌbrɑː-/;[2][3] Slovak pronunciation: [ˈbracislaʋa] ( listen), German: Preßburg or Pressburg IPA: [ˈpʁɛsˌbʊɐ̯k], Hungarian: Pozsony) is the capital of Slovakia. With a population of about 450,000, it is one of the smaller capitals of Europe but still the country's largest city.[1] The greater metropolitan area is home to more than 650,000 people. Bratislava
Bratislava
is in southwestern Slovakia, occupying both banks of the River Danube
Danube
and the left bank of the River Morava
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Hungary
Coordinates: 47°N 20°E / 47°N 20°E / 47; 20Hungary Magyarország  (Hungarian)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Himnusz" (Hungarian)[1] "Hymn"Location of  Hungary  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Budapest 47°26′N 19°15′E / 47.433°N 19.250°E / 47.433; 19.250Official language and national language Hungarian[2]Ethnic groups (2011)80.7% Hungarians 14.7% not declared 3.1% Roma 1.3% Germans[3]Religion52.9% Christianity –38.9% Catholicism –13.7% Protestantism –0.1% Orthodox Church 0.1% Judaism 1.7% other 18.2% not religious 27.2% unanswered[4]Demonym HungarianGovernment Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic• PresidentJános Áder• Prime MinisterViktor O
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