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Spectrum
A spectrum (plural spectra or spectrums)[1] is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary, without steps, across a continuum. The word was first used scientifically in optics to describe the rainbow of colors in visible light after passing through a prism. As scientific understanding of light advanced, it came to apply to the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Spectrum
Spectrum
has since been applied by analogy to topics outside optics. Thus, one might talk about the "spectrum of political opinion", or the "spectrum of activity" of a drug, or the "autism spectrum". In these uses, values within a spectrum may not be associated with precisely quantifiable numbers or definitions. Such uses imply a broad range of conditions or behaviors grouped together and studied under a single title for ease of discussion. Nonscientific uses of the term spectrum are sometimes misleading
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Microwave
Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between 300 MHz (100 cm) and 300 GHz (0.1 cm).[1][2][3][4][5] Different sources define different frequency ranges as microwaves; the above broad definition includes both UHF and EHF (millimeter wave) bands. A more common definition in radio engineering is the range between 1 and 100 GHz (wavelengths between 300 and 3 mm).[2] In all cases, microwaves include the entire SHF band (3 to 30 GHz, or 10 to 1 cm) at minimum. Frequencies in the microwave range are often referred to by their IEEE radar band designations: S, C, X, Ku, K, or Ka band, or by similar NATO or EU designations. The prefix micro- in microwave is not meant to suggest a wavelength in the micrometer range. It indicates that microwaves are "small", compared to the radio waves used prior to microwave technology, in that they have shorter wavelengths
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Witchcraft
Witchcraft
Witchcraft
or witchery broadly means the practice of and belief in magical skills and abilities exercised by solitary practitioners and groups. Witchcraft
Witchcraft
is a broad term that varies culturally and societally, and thus can be difficult to define with precision,[1] therefore cross-cultural assumptions about the meaning or significance of the term should be applied with caution
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Wave
In physics, a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport. Waves consist, instead, of oscillations or vibrations of a physical medium or a field, around relatively fixed locations. There are two main types of waves: mechanical and electromagnetic. Mechanical waves propagate through a physical matter, whose substance is being deformed. Restoring forces then reverse the deformation. For example, sound waves propagate via air molecules colliding with their neighbors. When the molecules collide, they also bounce away from each other (a restoring force). This keeps the molecules from continuing to travel in the direction of the wave. Electromagnetic waves
Electromagnetic waves
do not require a medium. Instead, they consist of periodic oscillations of electrical and magnetic fields originally generated by charged particles, and can therefore travel through a vacuum
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Frequency
Frequency
Frequency
is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.[1] It is also referred to as temporal frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency. The period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency.[2] For example, if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second (that is, 60 seconds divided by 120 beats)
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Power (physics)
In physics, power is the rate of doing work, the amount of energy transferred per unit time. Having no direction, it is a scalar quantity. In the International System of Units, the unit of power is the joule per second (J/s), known as the watt in honour of James Watt, the eighteenth-century developer of the steam engine condenser. Another common and traditional measure is horsepower (comparing to the power of a horse). Being the rate of work, the equation for power can be written: power = work time displaystyle text power = frac text work text time The integral of power over time defines the work performed. Because this integral depends on the trajectory of the point of application of the force and torque, this calculation of work is said to be path dependent. As a physical concept, power requires both a change in the physical universe and a specified time in which the change occurs
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Intensity (physics)
In physics, intensity is the power transferred per unit area, where the area is measured on the plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the energy.[1] In the SI system, it has units watts per square metre (W/m2). It is used most frequently with waves (e.g. sound or light), in which case the average power transfer over one period of the wave is used. Intensity can be applied to other circumstances where energy is transferred. For example, one could calculate the intensity of the kinetic energy carried by drops of water from a garden sprinkler. The word "intensity" as used here is not synonymous with "strength", "amplitude", "magnitude", or "level", as it sometimes is in colloquial speech. Intensity can be found by taking the energy density (energy per unit volume) at a point in space and multiplying it by the velocity at which the energy is moving
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Spectrograph
A spectrograph is an instrument that separates light into a frequency spectrum and records the signal using a camera.[2] There are several kinds of machines referred to as spectrographs, depending on the precise nature of the waves. The term was first used in July, 1876 by Dr
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Human Eye
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure. As a sense organ, the mammalian eye allows vision. Human eyes help to provide a three dimensional, moving image, normally coloured in daylight. Rod and cone cells in the retina allow conscious light perception and vision including color differentiation and the perception of depth
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Chemical Analysis
Analytical chemistry
Analytical chemistry
studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.[1] In practice separation, identification or quantification may constitute the entire analysis or be combined with another method. Separation isolates analytes. Qualitative analysis identifies analytes, while quantitative analysis determines the numerical amount or concentration. Analytical chemistry
Analytical chemistry
consists of classical, wet chemical methods and modern, instrumental methods.[2] Classical qualitative methods use separations such as precipitation, extraction, and distillation. Identification may be based on differences in color, odor, melting point, boiling point, radioactivity or reactivity. Classical quantitative analysis uses mass or volume changes to quantify amount. Instrumental methods may be used to separate samples using chromatography, electrophoresis or field flow fractionation
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Arthur Schopenhauer
Arthur Schopenhauer
Arthur Schopenhauer
(/ˈʃoʊpənhaʊ.ər/ SHOH-pən-how-ər; German: [ˈaɐ̯tʊɐ̯ ˈʃoːpm̩ˌhaʊ̯ɐ]; 22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher
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1 E-7 M
The following are examples of orders of magnitude for different lengths.Objects of sizes in different order of magnitude.Contents1 Overview 2 Detailed list2.1 Subatomic 2.2 Atomic to cellular 2.3 Cellular to human scale 2.4 Human
Human
to astronomical scale 2.5 Astronomical3 1 yoctometre 4 10 yoctometres 5 100 yoctometres 6 1 zeptometre 7 10 zeptometres 8 100 zeptometres 9 1 attometre 10 10 attometres 11 100 attometres 12 1 femtometre 13 10 femtometres 14 100 femtometres 15 1 picometre 16 10 picometres 17 100 picometres 18 1 nanometre 19 10 nanometres 20 100 nanometres
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Electron Spectroscopy
Electron
Electron
spectroscopy is an analytical technique to study the electronic structure and its dynamics in atoms and molecules. In general an excitation source such as x-rays, electrons or synchrotron radiation will eject an electron from an inner-shell orbital of an atom. Detecting photoelectrons that are ejected by x-rays is called x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) or electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). Detecting electrons that are ejected from higher orbitals to conserve energy during electron transitions is called Auger electron spectroscopy
Auger electron spectroscopy
(AES). Experimental applications include high-resolution measurements on the intensity and angular distributions of emitted electrons as well as on the total and partial ion yields. Ejected electrons can escape only from a depth of approximately 3 nanometers or less, making electron spectroscopy most useful to study surfaces of solid materials
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Salem, Massachusetts
Salem is a historic, coastal city in Essex County, Massachusetts, in the United States, located on Massachusetts' North Shore. It is a New England bedrock of history and is considered one of the most significant seaports in Puritan
Puritan
American history. The city's reported population was 41,340 at the 2010 census.[2] Salem and Lawrence were the county seats of Essex County, though the county government was abolished in 1999.[3] The city is home to the House of the Seven Gables, Salem State University, Salem Willows
Salem Willows
Park, Pioneer Village, Salem Maritime National Historic Site, and the Peabody Essex Museum
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Afterimage
An afterimage is an image that continues to appear in one's vision after the exposure to the original image has ceased. An afterimage may be a normal phenomenon (physiological afterimage) or may be pathological (palinopsia). Illusory palinopsia may be a pathological exaggeration of physiological afterimages. Afterimages occur because photochemical activity in the retina continues even when you are no longer experiencing the original stimulus.[1][2] The remainder of this article refers to physiological afterimages
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Satan
Satan[a] is an entity in the Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions
that seduces humans into sin. In Christianity
Christianity
and Islam, he is usually seen as a fallen angel, or a jinni, who used to possess great piety and beauty, but rebelled against God, who nevertheless allows him temporary power over the fallen world and a host of demons. A figure known as "the satan" first appears in the Tanakh
Tanakh
as a heavenly prosecutor, a member of the sons of God
God
subordinate to Yahweh, who prosecutes the nation of Judah in the heavenly court and tests the loyalty of Yahweh's followers by forcing them to suffer. During the intertestamental period, possibly due to influence from the Zoroastrian figure of Angra Mainyu, the satan developed into a malevolent entity with abhorrent qualities in dualistic opposition to God
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