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Specialty (medicine)
A SPECIALTY, or SPECIALITY, in medicine is a branch of medical practice. After completing medical school , physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency to become a MEDICAL SPECIALIST. CONTENTS * 1 History of medical specialization * 2 Classification of medical specialization * 3 Specialties that are common worldwide * 4 List of specialties recognized in the European Union and European Economic Area * 5 List of North American medical specialties and others * 6 Physician compensation * 7 Specialties by country * 7.1 Australia and New Zealand * 7.2 Canada * 7.3 Germany * 7.4 India * 7.5 United States
United States
* 8 Other uses * 9 Training * 10 Satisfaction * 11 See also * 12 Notes * 13 References HISTORY OF MEDICAL SPECIALIZATIONTo a certain extent, medical practitioners have always been specialized
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Hospice And Palliative Medicine
HOSPICE AND PALLIATIVE MEDICINE is a formal subspecialty of medicine in the United States that focuses on symptom management, relief of suffering and end-of-life care. In 2006, hospice and palliative medicine was officially recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties , and is co-sponsored by * the American Boards of Internal Medicine * Anesthesiology * Family Medicine * Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation * Psychiatry
Psychiatry
and Neurology * Surgery
Surgery
* Pediatrics
Pediatrics
* Emergency Medicine * Radiology * Obstetrics and Gynecology .Physicians who complete a residency in one of the co-sponsoring specialties are then eligible for further training in an ACGME -approved Hospice and Palliative Medicine fellowship program, after which they must pass the official examination to be board-certified in the subspecialty
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Anaesthesiologist
An ANESTHESIOLOGIST or ANAESTHETIST is a physician trained in anesthesia and perioperative medicine . The title of the role varies between countries. In countries following the practice of North America, those specialising in the field are termed anesthesiologists, but in the United Kingdom and current or former member countries of the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
, such physicians use the title anaesthetist instead (in North America, "anesthetist" would refer to a non-physician who is involved in the provision of anesthesia). The length and format of specialist anaesthesiologist training programmes varies from country to country, but can range from four to ten years, on top of initial medical school training to be awarded a medical degree. Anesthesiologists in training spend this time gaining experience in various different subspecialties of anesthesiology and undertake various advanced postgraduate examinations and skill assessments
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Otorhinolaryngology
OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY /oʊtoʊˌraɪnoʊˌlærənˈɡɒlədʒi/ (also called OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD AND NECK SURGERY) is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with conditions of the EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT (ENT) and related structures of the head and neck. Doctors who specialize in this area are called otorhinolaryngologists, otolaryngologists, ENT doctors, ENT surgeons, or head and neck surgeons
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Orthodontics
ORTHODONTIA, also known as ORTHODONTICS and DENTOFACIAL ORTHOPEDICS, is a specialty field of dentistry . An orthodontist is a specialist who has undergone special training in a dental school or college after they have graduated in dentistry. It was established by the efforts of pioneering orthodontists such as Edward Angle and Norman William Kingsley . The specialty deals primarily with the diagnosis, prevention and correction of malpositioned teeth and the jaws. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Methods * 4 Diagnosis and treatment planning * 5 Training * 5.1 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
* 5.2 Canada
Canada
* 5.3 Europe * 5.4 Pakistan * 5.5 United States
United States
* 6 See also * 7 References ETYMOLOGY"Orthodontics" is derived from the Greek orthos ("correct", "straight") and -odont- ("tooth")
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Microbiology
MICROBIOLOGY (from Greek μῑκρος, _mīkros_, "small"; βίος, _bios_, "life "; and -λογία, _-logia _) is the study of microscopic organisms , those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells). Microbiology
Microbiology
encompasses numerous sub-disciplines including virology , mycology , parasitology , and bacteriology . Eukaryotic micro-organisms possess membrane-bound cell organelles and include fungi and protists , whereas prokaryotic organisms—all of which are microorganisms—are conventionally classified as lacking membrane-bound organelles and include eubacteria and archaebacteria . Microbiologists traditionally relied on culture, staining, and microscopy. However, less than 1% of the microorganisms present in common environments can be cultured in isolation using current means. Microbiologists often rely on extraction or detection of nucleic acid , either DNA or RNA sequences
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General Practice
GENERAL PRACTICE is the name given in the United Kingdom to the service provided by General practitioners . In other countries similar services may be described as family medicine or primary care . The term Primary Care in the UK may also include services provided by community pharmacy, optometrist, dental surgery and community hearing care providers. The balance of care between primary care and secondary care - which usually refers to hospital based services - varies from place to place, and with time. In many countries there are initiatives to move services out of hospitals into the community, in the expectation that this will save money and be more convenient
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Adolescent Medicine
ADOLESCENT MEDICINE or HEBIATRICS is a medical subspecialty that focuses on care of patients who are in the adolescent period of development, generally ranging from the last years of elementary school until graduation from high school (some doctors in this subspecialty treat young adults attending college at area clinics, in the subfield of college health ). Patients have generally entered puberty , which typically begins between the ages of 11 and 13 for boys. In developed nations, the period of adolescence is extended both by an earlier start, as onset of puberty is beginning earlier, and a later end, requiring more years of education or training before economic independence from parents. Issues with a high prevalence during adolescence are frequently addressed by providers
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Aviation Medicine
AVIATION MEDICINE, also called FLIGHT MEDICINE or AEROSPACE MEDICINE, is a preventive or occupational medicine in which the patients/subjects are pilots, aircrews, or astronauts. The specialty strives to treat or prevent conditions to which aircrews are particularly susceptible, applies medical knowledge to the human factors in aviation and is thus a critical component of aviation safety . A military practitioner of aviation medicine may be called a flight surgeon and a civilian practitioner is an aviation medical examiner . One of the biggest differences between the military and civilian flight doctors is the military flight surgeon's requirement to log flight hours. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Additional reading * 5 External links OVERVIEWBroadly defined, this subdiscipline endeavors to discover and prevent various adverse physiological responses to hostile biologic and physical stresses encountered in the aerospace environment
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Public Health
PUBLIC HEALTH refers to "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals." It is concerned with threats to health based on population health analysis. The population in question can be as small as a handful of people, or as large as all the inhabitants of several continents (for instance, in the case of a pandemic ). The dimensions of health can encompass "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity," as defined by the United Nations' World Health Organization
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Surgeon
In medicine , a SURGEON is a doctor who performs surgical operations . Surgeons may be physicians , podiatrists , dentists , or veterinarians . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Titles in the Commonwealth * 3 Military titles * 4 Specialties * 5 Pioneer surgeons * 6 Organizations and fellowships * 7 References HISTORY Al-Zahrawi , the Islamic Golden Age physician widely considered the '"Father of Modern Surgery" The first person to document a surgery was the 6th Century BC Indian physician-surgeon, Sushruta . He specialised in cosmetic plastic surgery and had documented even an operation of open rhinoplasty . His magnum opus _Suśruta-saṃhitā_ is one of the most important surviving ancient treatises on medicine and is considered a foundational text of Ayurveda and surgery. The treatise addresses all aspects of general medicine, but the translator G. D
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Radiation Oncology
RADIATION THERAPY or RADIOTHERAPY, often abbreviated RT, RTX, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation , generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator . Radiation
Radiation
therapy may be curative in a number of types of cancer if they are localized to one area of the body. It may also be used as part of adjuvant therapy , to prevent tumor recurrence after surgery to remove a primary malignant tumor (for example, early stages of breast cancer). Radiation
Radiation
therapy is synergistic with chemotherapy , and has been used before, during, and after chemotherapy in susceptible cancers. The subspecialty of oncology concerned with radiotherapy is called RADIATION ONCOLOGY. Radiation
Radiation
therapy is commonly applied to the cancerous tumor because of its ability to control cell growth
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Galen
AELIUS GALENUS or CLAUDIUS GALENUS (/ɡəˈliːnəs/ ; Greek : Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – c. 200/c. 216), often Anglicized as GALEN and better known as GALEN OF PERGAMON (/ˈɡeɪlən/ ), was a prominent Greek physician , surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. Arguably the most accomplished of all medical researchers of antiquity , Galen influenced the development of various scientific disciplines, including anatomy , physiology , pathology , pharmacology , and neurology , as well as philosophy and logic . The son of Aelius Nicon , a wealthy architect with scholarly interests, Galen
Galen
received a comprehensive education that prepared him for a successful career as a physician and philosopher
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Residency (medicine)
RESIDENCY is a stage of graduate medical training . A RESIDENT or HOUSE OFFICER is a physician (one who holds the degree of M.D. , D.O. , or MBBS, MBChB, or BMed ) who practices medicine usually in a hospital or clinic under the direct or indirect supervision of an attending physician . Successful completion of a residency program is a requirement to obtaining an unrestricted license to practice medicine in many jurisdictions. Residency training may be followed by fellowship or "sub-specialty" training. Whereas medical school teaches physicians a broad range of medical knowledge, basic clinical skills, and supervised experience practicing medicine in a variety of fields, medical residency gives in-depth training within a specific branch of medicine
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General Surgery
GENERAL SURGERY is a surgical specialty that focuses on abdominal contents including esophagus , stomach , small bowel , colon , liver , pancreas , gallbladder and bile ducts , and often the thyroid gland (depending on local reference patterns). They also deal with diseases involving the skin , breast , soft tissue , trauma , peripheral vascular surgery and hernias
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Internal Medicine
INTERNAL MEDICINE or GENERAL MEDICINE (in Commonwealth nations) is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis , and treatment of adult diseases. Physicians specializing in internal medicine are called INTERNISTS, or PHYSICIANS (without a modifier) in Commonwealth nations. Internists are skilled in the management of patients who have undifferentiated or multi-system disease processes. Internists care for hospitalized and ambulatory patients and may play a major role in teaching and research. Because internal medicine patients are often seriously ill or require complex investigations, internists do much of their work in hospitals . Internists often have subspecialty interests in diseases affecting particular organs or organ systems. Internal medicine is also a specialty within clinical pharmacy and veterinary medicine
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