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Special Operations Executive
The SPECIAL OPERATIONS EXECUTIVE (SOE) was a British World War II organisation. Following Cabinet approval, Minister of Economic Warfare Hugh Dalton officially formed it on 22 July 1940. Its purpose was to conduct espionage, sabotage and reconnaissance in occupied Europe (and later, also in occupied Southeast Asia ) against the Axis powers
Axis powers
, and to aid local resistance movements . One of the organisations from which SOE was created was also involved in the formation of the Auxiliary Units
Auxiliary Units
, a top secret "stay-behind " resistance organisation which would have been activated in the event of a German invasion of Britain . Few people were aware of SOE's existence. Those who were part of it or liaised with it sometimes referred to as "the Baker Street Irregulars ", after the location of its London headquarters
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Anschluss
ANSCHLUSS (German: ( listen )), "joining", is the term used to describe the annexation of Austria
Austria
into Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
on 12 March 1938. German spelling, until the German orthography reform of 1996 , was ANSCHLUß and it was also known as the ANSCHLUSS ÖSTERREICHS ( pronunciation (help ·info ), German : Austrian Annexation)
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Foreign Office
The FOREIGN AND COMMONWEALTH OFFICE (FCO), commonly called the FOREIGN OFFICE, is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom . It is responsible for protecting and promoting British interests worldwide. It was created in 1968 by merging the Foreign Office and the Commonwealth Office . The head of the FCO is the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs , commonly abbreviated to "Foreign Secretary" (currently Boris Johnson
Boris Johnson
). This position is regarded as one of the four most prestigious appointments in the Cabinet , alongside those of Chancellor of the Exchequer
Chancellor of the Exchequer
and Home Secretary
Home Secretary
. Together with the Prime Minister , these are the Great Offices of State
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Magnate
MAGNATE, from the Late Latin
Late Latin
magnas, a great man, itself from Latin magnus, 'great', designates a noble or other man in a high social position, by birth, wealth or other qualities. In reference to the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, the term is often used to distinguish higher territorial landowners and warlords such as counts , earls , dukes , and territorial-princes from the baronage . CONTENTS * 1 England * 2 Hungary * 3 Poland
Poland
and Lithuania * 4 Serbia * 5 Spain * 6 Sweden * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Sources * 10 External links ENGLANDIn England , the magnate class went through a change in the later Middle Ages. It had previously consisted of all tenants-in-chief of the crown, a group of more than a hundred families. The emergence of Parliament led to the establishment of a parliamentary peerage that received personal summons, rarely more than sixty families
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Royal Engineers
The CORPS OF ROYAL ENGINEERS, usually just called the ROYAL ENGINEERS (RE), and commonly known as the Sappers , is one of the corps of the British Army
British Army
. It is highly regarded throughout the military , and especially the Army. It provides military engineering and other technical support to the British Armed Forces and is headed by the Chief Royal Engineer . The Regimental Headquarters and the Royal School of Military Engineering are in Chatham in Kent, England. The corps is divided into several regiments, barracked at various places in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and around the world
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Austria
Coordinates : 47°20′N 13°20′E / 47.333°N 13.333°E / 47.333; 13.333 Republic
Republic
of Austria Republik Österreich (German ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: * Land der Berge, Land am Strome (German ) * Land of Mountains, Land by the River * Location of <
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Annexation
ANNEXATION ( Latin
Latin
ad, to, and nexus, joining) is the administrative action and concept in international law relating to the forcible transition of one state's territory by another state. It is generally held to be an illegal act. It is distinct from conquest , which refers to the acquisition of control over a territory involving a change of sovereignty . It usually follows military occupation of a territory. Annexation differs from cession , because unlike cession where territory is given or sold through treaty, annexation is a unilateral act where territory is seized and held by one state. Annexation can be legitimized via general recognition by international bodies (i.e. other countries and intergovernmental organisations)
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War Office
The WAR OFFICE was a department of the British Government responsible for the administration of the British Army
British Army
between 1857 and 1964, when its functions were transferred to the Ministry of Defence . Until 1855 a number of independent offices and individuals were responsible for various aspects of Army administration. The four most important were the Commander-in-Chief of the Forces , the Secretary at War and the Secretary of State for War . Others who performed specialist functions were the controller of army accounts, the Army Medical Board , the Commissariat Department, the Board of General Officers , the Judge Advocate General of the Armed Forces , the Commissary General of Muster , the Paymaster General and the Home Office (before 1782 the twin secretaries of state)
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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the UK includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
. Apart from this land border, the UK is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea
North Sea
to its east, the English Channel
English Channel
to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world
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Albert Embankment
Coordinates : 51°29′28″N 0°07′21″W / 51.4910°N 0.1225°W / 51.4910; -0.1225 Albert Embankment, including the SIS Building
SIS Building
(right), pictured from Millbank
Millbank
in 2008. Sturgeon lamp standards line the embankment. ALBERT EMBANKMENT is part of the river bank on the south side of the River Thames
River Thames
in Central London
Central London
. It stretches approximately one mile (1.6 km) northward from Vauxhall Bridge
Vauxhall Bridge
to Westminster Bridge
Westminster Bridge
, and is located in the London Borough of Lambeth
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Lambeth Palace
Coordinates : 51°29′44″N 0°7′11″W / 51.49556°N 0.11972°W / 51.49556; -0.11972 Lambeth
Lambeth
Palace, photographed looking east across the River Thames
River Thames
. The Great Hall, St Mary-at-Lambeth, and the Tudor gatehouse (from inside), with the river on the right. LAMBETH PALACE is the official London
London
residence of the Archbishop of Canterbury in England, in north Lambeth
Lambeth
, on the south bank of the River Thames
River Thames
, 400 yards south-east of the Palace of Westminster
Palace of Westminster
, which houses the Houses of Parliament, on the opposite bank
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Guerrilla Warfare
GUERRILLA WARFARE is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians , or irregulars use military tactics including ambushes , sabotage , raids , petty warfare , hit-and-run tactics , and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Strategy, tactics and organization * 3 History * 4 Counter-guerrilla warfare * 4.1 Scholarship * 4.1.1 Classic guidelines * 4.1.2 Variants * 5 Foco theory * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links ETYMOLOGYThe term, the diminutive form of "war" in Spanish , is usually translated as "little war", and the word, guerrilla (Spanish pronunciation: ), has been used to refer to the concept since the 18th century, and perhaps earlier. In correct Spanish usage, a person who is a member of a guerrilla is a guerrillero ( ) if male, or a guerrillera if female
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St Ermin's Hotel
A HOTEL is an establishment that provides paid lodging on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a modest-quality mattress in a small room to large suites with bigger, higher-quality beds, a dresser, a refrigerator and other kitchen facilities, upholstered chairs, a flatscreen television and en-suite bathrooms . Small, lower-priced hotels may offer only the most basic guest services and facilities. Larger, higher-priced hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre (with computers, printers and other office equipment), childcare, conference and event facilities, tennis or basketball courts, gymnasium, restaurants, day spa and social function services
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Axis Powers
The AXIS POWERS (German : Achsenmächte, Japanese : 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku, Italian : Potenze dell'Asse), also known as the AXIS and the ROME–BERLIN–TOKYO AXIS, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces. The Axis powers
Axis powers
agreed on their opposition to the Allies, but did not completely coordinate their activity. The Axis grew out of the diplomatic efforts of Germany, Italy, and Japan to secure their own specific expansionist interests in the mid-1930s. The first step was the treaty signed by Germany and Italy in October 1936. Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
declared on 1 November that all other European countries would from then on rotate on the Rome– Berlin
Berlin
axis, thus creating the term "Axis". The almost simultaneous second step was the signing in November 1936 of the Anti-Comintern Pact , an anti-communist treaty between Germany and Japan
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Maurice Hankey, 1st Baron Hankey
MAURICE PASCAL ALERS HANKEY, 1ST BARON HANKEY, GCB , GCMG , GCVO , PC , FRS (1 April 1877 – 26 January 1963) was a British civil servant who gained prominence as the first Cabinet Secretary and who later made the rare transition from the civil service to ministerial office. He is best known as the highly efficient top aide to Prime Minister David Lloyd George
David Lloyd George
and the War Cabinet that directed Britain in the First World War. In the estimation of biographer John F. Naylor, Hankey held to the "certainties of a late Victorian imperialist, whose policies sought to maintain British domination abroad and to avoid as far as possible British entanglement within Europe. His patriotism stands inviolable, but his sensitivity to processes of historical change proved limited." Naylor finds that "Hankey did not altogether grasp the virulence of fascism ..
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Chancellor Of The Duchy Of Lancaster
The CHANCELLOR OF THE DUCHY OF LANCASTER is a ministerial office in Her Majesty\'s Government that includes as part of its duties, the administration of the estates and rents of the Duchy of Lancaster . The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster is appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister. The Chancellor is answerable to Parliament for the governance of the Duchy. However, the involvement of the Chancellor in the running of the day-to-day affairs of the Duchy is slight, and the office is held by a senior politician whose main role is usually quite different. The position is currently held by Patrick McLoughlin
Patrick McLoughlin

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