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Special Operations Executive
The SPECIAL OPERATIONS EXECUTIVE (SOE) was a British World War II organisation. Following Cabinet approval, it was officially formed by Minister of Economic Warfare Hugh Dalton on 22 July 1940, to conduct espionage, sabotage and reconnaissance in occupied Europe (and later, also in occupied Southeast Asia ) against the Axis powers , and to aid local resistance movements . One of the organisations from which SOE was created was also involved in the formation of the Auxiliary Units , a top secret "stay-behind " resistance organisation which would have been activated in the event of a German invasion of Britain . Few people were aware of SOE's existence. To those who were part of it or liaised with it, it was sometimes referred to as "the Baker Street Irregulars ", after the location of its London headquarters. It was also known as "Churchill's Secret Army" or the "Ministry of Ungentlemanly Warfare". Its various branches, and sometimes the organisation as a whole, were concealed for security purposes behind names such as the "Joint Technical Board" or the "Inter-Service Research Bureau", or fictitious branches of the Air Ministry , Admiralty or War Office . SOE operated in all countries or former countries occupied by or attacked by the Axis forces, except where demarcation lines were agreed with Britain's principal Allies (the Soviet Union and the United States)
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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, with the North Sea to its east, the English Channel to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world . The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe
Europe
. It is also the 21st-most populous country , with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants
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Allies Of World War II
The ALLIES OF WORLD WAR II, called the UNITED NATIONS from the 1 January 1942 declaration , were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945). The Allies promoted the alliance as seeking to stop German, Japanese and Italian aggression. At the start of the war on 1 September 1939, the Allies consisted of France , Poland and the United Kingdom , and dependent states , such as the British India . Within days they were joined by the independent Dominions of the British Commonwealth : Australia , Canada , New Zealand and South Africa . After the start of the German invasion of North Europe till the Balkan Campaign , Netherlands , Belgium , Greece and Yugoslavia joined the Allies. After first having cooperated with Germany in invading Poland whilst remaining neutral in the Allied-Axis conflict, the Soviet Union perforce joined the Allies in June 1941 after being invaded by Germany . The United States provided war materiel and money all along, and officially joined in December 1941 after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor . China had already been in a prolonged war with Japan since the Lugou Bridge Incident of 1937, but officially joined the Allies in 1941
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Irregular Warfare
IRREGULAR WARFARE is warfare in which one or more combatants are irregular military rather than regular forces. Guerrilla warfare and asymmetric warfare are both forms of irregular warfare. The overuse of the term 'warfare' in contemporary military terminology to describe both a specific type of engagement and the type of forces participating in it can lead to false conclusions. A guerrilla unit that is made of commandos is a regular unit conducting asymmetric warfare whereas an irregular band of fighters can engage combat in a tactical infantry firefight if well led and well equipped, fighting like a conventional unit. Irregular warfare favors indirect and asymmetric warfare approaches, though it may employ the full range of military and other capabilities, in order to erode the adversary’s power, influence, and will. It is inherently a protracted struggle that will test the resolve of a state and its strategic partners. Concepts associated with irregular warfare are older than the term itself. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Regular vs. irregular forces * 1.2 Early use * 1.3 US DoD use * 1.4 US CIA
CIA
use * 2 Activities * 3 Irregular wars * 4 Wargames and exercises * 5 Modeling and simulation * 6 Other definitions * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links HISTORYREGULAR VS
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Sabotage
SABOTAGE is a deliberate action aimed at weakening a polity or corporation through subversion, obstruction, disruption or destruction. In a workplace setting, sabotage is the conscious withdrawal of efficiency generally directed at causing some change in workplace conditions. One who engages in sabotage is a saboteur . Saboteurs typically try to conceal their identities because of the consequences of their actions. Any unexplained adverse condition might be sabotage. Sabotage is sometimes called tampering, meddling, tinkering, malicious pranks, malicious hacking, a practical joke or the like to avoid needing to invoke legal and organizational requirements for addressing sabotage. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 As industrial action * 3 As environmental action * 4 As war tactic * 4.1 Value of simple sabotage in wartime * 4.2 In World War I * 4.3 Post World War I * 4.4 In World War II * 4.5 After World War II * 4.6 In Vietnam * 4.7 During the Cold War * 5 As crime * 6 As political action * 6.1 In a coup d\'etat * 7 Derivative usages * 7.1 Sabotage radio * 7.2 Cybotage * 7.3 Counter-sabotage * 7.3.1 In World War II * 7.4 Borrowed into Japanese * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word "sabotage" appears in the beginning of the 19th century from the French word "sabotage"
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Raid (military)
RAID, also known as DEPREDATION, is a military tactic or operational warfare mission which has a specific purpose and is not normally intended to capture and hold terrain, but instead finish with the raiding force quickly retreating to a previous defended position prior to enemy forces being able to respond in a co-ordinated manner or formulate a counter-attack. A raiding group may consist of combatants specially trained in this tactic, such as commandos , or as a special mission assigned to any general troops . Raids are often a standard tactic in irregular warfare , employed by warriors , guerrilla fighters , or other irregular military forces. The purposes of a raid may include: * to demoralize , confuse, or exhaust the enemy * to ransack , pillage, or plunder * to destroy specific goods or installations of military or economic value * to free POWs * to capture enemy soldiers for interrogation * to kill or capture specific key persons * to gather intelligence .CONTENTS* 1 Land * 1.1 Arabia during Muhammad\'s era * 2 Seaborne * 3 Air * 3.1 Air landed * 3.2 Aerial bombardment * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Sources LANDAmong many tribal societies, raiding was the most common and lethal form of warfare. Taking place at night, the goal was to catch the enemy sleeping to avoid casualties to the raiding party
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Special Reconnaissance
SPECIAL RECONNAISSANCE (SR) is conducted by small units of highly trained military personnel , usually from special forces units or military intelligence organizations, who operate behind enemy lines, avoiding direct combat and detection by the enemy. As a role, SR is distinct from commando operations, but both are often carried out by the same units. The SR role frequently includes covert direction of air and missile attacks, in areas deep behind enemy lines, placement of remotely monitored sensors and preparations for other special forces. Like other special forces, SR units may also carry out direct action (DA) and unconventional warfare (UW), including guerrilla operations. SR was recognized as a key special operations capability by a former US Secretary of Defense William J. Perry : " Special Reconnaissance is the conduct of environmental reconnaissance, target acquisition, area assessment, post-strike assessment, emplacement and recovery of sensors, or support of Human Intelligence ( HUMINT ) and Signals Intelligence (SIGINT ) operations." In international law, SR is not regarded as espionage if combatants are in proper uniforms, regardless of formation, according to the Hague Convention of 1907 , or the Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949
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Baker Street Irregulars
The BAKER STREET IRREGULARS are fictional characters who appear in various Sherlock Holmes stories, as street boys who are employed by Holmes as intelligence agents. The name has subsequently been adopted by other organizations, most notably a prestigious and exclusive literary society founded in the United States by Christopher Morley in 1934. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Literary society * 2.1 Notable members * 3 Cultural references * 4 References * 5 External links BACKGROUNDThe original Baker Street Irregulars are fictional characters featured in the Sherlock Holmes stories of Arthur Conan Doyle . The group of street urchins is led by an older boy called Wiggins , whom Holmes paid a shilling per day (plus expenses), with a guinea prize (worth one pound and one shilling) for a vital clue, to collect data for his investigations. The group appears in the first Sherlock Holmes story, A Study In Scarlet (1887). They also appear in the next novel, The Sign of the Four (1890), in which one of the chapters is titled "The Baker Street Irregulars". The Baker Street Irregulars ("my Baker Street boys") later appear in "The Adventure of the Crooked Man " (1893). LITERARY SOCIETY Baker Street Irregulars Fletcher Pratt , Christopher Morley and Rex Stout (1944) The Baker Street Irregulars is an organization of Sherlock Holmes enthusiasts founded in 1934 by Christopher Morley . The nonprofit organization numbers some 300 individuals worldwide
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Frank Nelson (politician)
SIR FRANK NELSON KCMG (1883 – 11 August 1966) was a British civil servant and Conservative Party politician. He was educated at Bedford School and Neuenheim College, Heidelberg. After leaving school he travelled to India as an assistant with Symons, Barlow and Co, rising to be a senior partner. During the First World War he served with the Bombay Light Horse . In 1922 he was made chairman of the Bombay Chamber of Commerce, and was then made President of the Associatied Chambers of Commerce of India and Ceylon in 1923. From 1922 to 1924 Nelson was a member of the legislative council of Bombay. In 1924 he was knighted and returned to England , where he was elected Member of Parliament (MP) for Stroud at the general election in October 1924 . He was reelected in 1929 but resigned his seat in May 1931 in order to go into business. At the outbreak of the Second World War he was the Consul to Basel , but after the formation of the Special Operations Executive or SOE in 1940 he was appointed as its chief by order of the War Office . He wore himself out establishing the organisation, and retired in 1942 due to ill-health. REFERENCES * ^ "Who\'s Who". Retrieved 6 October 2014
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Charles Jocelyn Hambro
Air Commodore Sir CHARLES JOCELYN HAMBRO, KBE MC (3 October 1897 – 28 August 1963) was a merchant banker and intelligence officer . CAREERHambro was born into a banking family of Danish origin which had settled in Dorset and the City of London in the early 19th century. He was the son of Sir Eric Hambro , a partner in C. J. Hambro & Son (later to become Hambros Bank ) and a Conservative Member of Parliament for Wimbledon between 1900 and 1907. Between 1910 and 1915, he was educated at Eton College , joining the cricket team in 1914 and becoming the Captain in 1915. After leaving he immediately went to the Royal Military College, Sandhurst , being made an ensign in the Coldstream Guards on 22 December 1915. He was immediately posted to the Western Front , serving for two years until demobilisation. Promoted to lieutenant on 10 July 1916 (back-dated to 9 June 1916), he was awarded the Military Cross on 26 September 1917 for conspicuous bravery in action. His citation reads as follows: For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. Accompanied by a private, he crossed to the enemy's side of a canal and rescued two wounded men, one of whom was unable to walk, from close under the enemy's parapet. Later in the day, he went forward in charge of the leading patrol of an advance, personally accounting for four of the enemy with his revolver and capturing several prisoners with his party
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Colin Gubbins
Major-General SIR COLIN MCVEAN GUBBINS KCMG , DSO , MC (2 July 1896 – 11 February 1976) was the prime mover of the Special Operations Executive (SOE) in the Second World War . Gubbins was also responsible for setting up the secret Auxiliary Units , a commando force based around the Home Guard, to operate on the flanks and to the rear of German lines if the United Kingdom were invaded during Operation Sea Lion , Germany's planned invasion. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Military service * 2.1 First World War * 2.2 Interwar period * 2.3 Second World War * 3 Later life * 4 Personal life * 5 Death * 6 Testimonials * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Sources * 10 Bibliography * 11 External links EARLY LIFEGubbins was born in Japan on 2 July 1896, the younger son and third child of John Harington Gubbins (1852–1929), Oriental Secretary at the British Legation. In the 1901 census he is shown living with his grandparents and four siblings at Killiemore House on the Isle of Mull . He was educated at Cheltenham College and at the Royal Military Academy , Woolwich where he graduated 56th out of 70 cadets. MILITARY SERVICEFIRST WORLD WARGubbins was commissioned into the Royal Field Artillery in 1914. On the outbreak of war he was visiting the German city of Heidelberg in order to improve his German language skills and had to make a perilous journey back to Britain via Belgium, arriving in Dover the day before Britain entered the conflict
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World War Ii
Allied victory * Collapse of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires * Dissolution of the League of Nations * Creation of the United Nations
United Nations
* Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers * Beginning of the Cold War (more... ) PARTICIPANTS ALLIES AXIS COMMANDERS AND LEADERS MAIN ALLIED LEADERS Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Cabinet Of The United Kingdom
The CABINET OF THE UNITED KINGDOM is the collective decision-making body of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, composed of the Prime Minister and 21 cabinet ministers, the most senior of the government ministers . Ministers of the Crown , and especially Cabinet ministers, are selected primarily from the elected members of House of Commons , and from the House of Lords
House of Lords
, by the Prime Minister . Cabinet ministers are heads of government departments , mostly with the office of "Secretary of State for ". The collective co-ordinating function of the Cabinet is reinforced by the statutory position that all the Secretaries of State jointly hold the same office, and can exercise the same powers. The Cabinet is the ultimate decision-making body of the executive within the Westminster system of government in traditional constitutional theory. This interpretation was originally put across in the work of nineteenth century constitutionalists such as Walter Bagehot , who described the Cabinet as the "efficient secret" of the British political system in his book The English Constitution . The political and decision-making authority of the cabinet has been gradually reduced over the last several decades, with some claiming its role has been usurped by a "prime ministerial" government
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Minister Of Economic Warfare
The MINISTER OF ECONOMIC WARFARE was a British government position which existed during the Second World War . The minister was in charge of the Special Operations Executive and the MINISTRY OF ECONOMIC WARFARE. CONTENTS * 1 See also * 2 Ministers of Economic Warfare 1939–1945 * 3 Director-General, Ministry of Economic Warfare * 4 References SEE ALSO * Blockade of Germany (1939–45) MINISTERS OF ECONOMIC WARFARE 1939–1945 * Ronald Cross (3 September 1939 – 15 May 1940) * Hugh Dalton (15 May 1940 – 22 February 1942) * Roundell Palmer, 3rd Earl of Selborne (22 February 1942 – 23 May 1945)DIRECTOR-GENERAL, MINISTRY OF ECONOMIC WARFARE * Sir Frederick W. Leith-Ross 1939-1942 * The Earl of Drogheda 1942-1945REFERENCES * ^ http://www.gulabin.com/britishcivilservants/pdf/Senior%20Civil%20Servants.pdf accessed 24 February 2014 This United Kingdom military article is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Minister_of_Economic_Warfare additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Hugh Dalton
EDWARD HUGH JOHN NEALE DALTON, BARON DALTON PC (16 August 1887 – 13 February 1962) was a British Labour Party economist and politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1945 to 1947. He shaped Labour Party foreign-policy in the 1930s, opposed pacifism, promoted rearmament against the German threat, and strongly opposed the appeasement policy of Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain in 1938. He served in Churchill's wartime coalition cabinet. As Chancellor, he pushed his cheap money policy too hard, and mishandled the sterling crisis of 1947. Dalton's political position was already in jeopardy in 1947, when, he, seemingly inadvertently, revealed a sentence of the budget to a reporter minutes before delivering his budget speech. Prime Minister Clement Attlee
Clement Attlee
accepted his resignation, but he later returned to the cabinet in relatively minor positions. His biographer Ben Pimlott characterised Dalton as peevish, irascible, given to poor judgment and lacking administrative talent
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Reconnaissance
Reconnaissance is a mission to obtain information by visual observation or other detection methods, about the activities and resources of an enemy or potential enemy, or about the meteorologic, hydrographic, or geographic characteristics of a particular area. “ ” Reconnaissance (US Army FM 7-92; Chap. 4) In military operations, RECONNAISSANCE is the exploration outside an area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about natural features and enemy presence. Examples of reconnaissance include patrolling by troops (skirmishers , Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol , U.S. Army Rangers , cavalry scouts , or military intelligence specialists), ships or submarines , manned/unmanned reconnaissance aircraft , satellites , or by setting up covert observation posts. Espionage normally is not reconnaissance, because reconnaissance is a military's special forces operating ahead of its main forces; spies are non-combatants operating behind enemy lines. Often called "recce" (British and Canadian English) or "recon" (American and Australian English), the associated verb is _reconnaître_
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