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Spear
A spear is a pole weapon consisting of a shaft, usually of wood, with a pointed head. The head may be simply the sharpened end of the shaft itself, as is the case with fire hardened spears, or it may be made of a more durable material fastened to the shaft, such as flint, obsidian, iron, steel or bronze. The most common design for hunting or combat spears since ancient times has incorporated a metal spearhead shaped like a triangle, lozenge, or leaf. The heads of fishing spears usually feature barbs or serrated edges. The word spear comes from the Old English spere, from the Proto-Germanic speri, from a Proto-Indo-European root *sper- "spear, pole". Spears can be divided into two broad categories: those designed for thrusting in melee combat and those designed for throwing (usually referred to as javelins). The spear has been used throughout human history both as a hunting and fishing tool and as a weapon
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Phillip Of Macedon
Philip II of Macedon[2] (Greek: Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μακεδών, Phílippos II ho Makedṓn; 382–336 BC) was the king (basileus) of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from 359 BC until his assassination in 336 BC. He was a member of the Argead dynasty of Macedonian kings, the third son of King Amyntas III of Macedon, and father of Alexander the Great and Philip III. The rise of Macedon during the reign of Philip II was achieved in part by his reformation of the Ancient Macedonian army, establishing the Macedonian phalanx that proved critical in securing victories on the battlefield. After defeating Athens and Thebes at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC, Philip II led the effort to establish a federation of Greek states known as the League of Corinth, with him as the elected hegemon and commander-in-chief of a planned invasion of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia
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Club (weapon)
A club (also known as a cudgel, baton, truncheon, cosh, nightstick, or bludgeon) is among the simplest of all weapons: a short staff or stick, usually made of wood, wielded as a weapon[1] since prehistoric times. There are several examples of blunt-force trauma caused by clubs in the past, including at the site of Nataruk
Nataruk
in Turkana, Kenya, described as the scene of a prehistoric conflict between bands of hunter-gatherers 10,000 years ago.[2] In popular culture, clubs are associated with primitive cultures, especially cavemen. Most clubs are small enough to be swung with one hand, although larger clubs may require the use of two to be effective. Various specialized clubs are used in martial arts and other fields, including the law-enforcement baton
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Peltast
A peltast (Ancient Greek: πελταστής peltastes) was a type of light infantry, originating in Thrace
Thrace
and Paeonia, who often served as skirmishers in Hellenic and Hellenistic armies. In the Medieval period the same term was used for a type of Byzantine infantryman.Contents1 Description 2 Development 3 Anatolian peltasts 4 Peltasts in the Persian army 5 'Peltasts' in the Antigonid army 6 Deployment 7 Tactics 8 Medieval Byzantine peltast 9 See also 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External linksDescription[edit] Peltasts carried a crescent-shaped wicker shield called a pelte (Latin: peltarion) as their main protection, hence their name. According to Aristotle, the pelte was rimless and covered in goat or sheep skin. Some literary sources imply that the shield could be round, but in art it is usually shown as crescent-shaped. It also appears in Scythian art
Scythian art
and may have been a common type in Central Europe
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Hoplon
An aspis (Ancient Greek: ἀσπίς, plural aspides, ἀσπίδες), sometimes also referred to as a hoplon, was the heavy wooden shield used by the infantry in various periods of ancient Greece. [1]Contents1 Construction 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksConstruction[edit] An aspis was deeply dished and made primarily of wood. Some had a thin sheet of bronze on the outer face, often just around the rim. In some periods, the convention was to decorate the shield; in others, it was usually left plain. Probably the most famous aspis decoration is that of Sparta (Lacedaemon): a capital lambda (Λ), for Lacedaemon its alternative name (Λακεδαίμων)
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Archaic Greece
Archaic Greece
Greece
was the period in Greek history lasting from the eighth century BC to the second Persian invasion of Greece
Greece
in 480 BC,[1] following the Greek Dark Ages
Greek Dark Ages
and succeeded by the Classical period. The period began with a massive increase in the Greek population[2] and a series of significant changes which rendered the Greek world at the end of the eighth century as entirely unrecognisable as compared to its beginning.[3] According to Anthony Snodgrass, the Archaic period in ancient Greece
Greece
was bounded by two revolutions in the Greek world
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Mycenean Greece
Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC. It represents the first advanced civilization in mainland Greece, with its palatial states, urban organization, works of art and writing system.[1] Among the centers of power that emerged, the most notable were those of Pylos, Tiryns, Midea in the Peloponnese, Orchomenos, Thebes, Athens in Central Greece and Iolcos in Thessaly. The most prominent site was Mycenae, in Argolid, after which the culture of this era is named. Mycenaean and Mycenaean-influenced settlements also appeared in Epirus,[2][3] Macedonia,[4][5] on islands in the Aegean Sea, on the coast of Asia Minor, the Levant,[6] Cyprus[7] and Italy.[8] The Mycenaean Greeks introduced several innovations in the fields of engineering, architecture and military infrastructure, while trade over vast areas of the Mediterranean was essential for the Mycenaean economy
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Iliad
Setting: Troy
Troy
(modern Hisarlik, Turkey) Period: Bronze Age Traditional dating: c. 1194–1184 BC Modern dating: c
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Homer
Homer
Homer
(/ˈhoʊmər/; Greek: Ὅμηρος [hómɛːros], Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad
Iliad
and the Odyssey, two epic poems which are the central works of ancient Greek literature. The Iliad
Iliad
is set during the Trojan War, the ten-year siege of the city of Troy
Troy
by a coalition of Greek kingdoms. It focuses on a quarrel between King Agamemnon
Agamemnon
and the warrior Achilles
Achilles
lasting a few weeks during the last year of the war. The Odyssey
Odyssey
focuses on the journey home of Odysseus, king of Ithaca, after the fall of Troy. Many accounts of Homer's life circulated in classical antiquity, the most widespread being that he was a blind bard from Ionia, a region of central coastal Anatolia
Anatolia
in present-day Turkey
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Zulu People
The Zulu (Zulu: amaZulu) are a Bantu ethnic group of Southern Africa and the largest ethnic group in South Africa, with an estimated 10–12 million people living mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. Small numbers also live in Zimbabwe, Zambia, Tanzania
Tanzania
and Mozambique.Contents1 Origins 2 Kingdom2.1 Conflict with the British 2.2 Absorption into Natal3 Apartheid
Apartheid
years3.1 KwaZulu
KwaZulu
homeland 3.2 Inkatha YeSizwe4 Modern Zulu population 5 Language 6 Clothing 7 Religion and beliefs 8 Notable Zulus 9 See also 10 References 11 External linksOrigins[edit] The Zulu were originally a major clan in what is today Northern KwaZulu-Natal, founded ca. 1709 by Zulu kaMalandela. In the Nguni languages, iZulu means heaven, or weather.[3] At that time, the area was occupied by many large Nguni communities and clans (also called isizwe=nation, people or isibongo=clan or family name)
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Stele Of The Vultures
The Stele
Stele
of the Vultures
Vultures
is a monument from the Early Dynastic III period (2600–2350 BC) in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
celebrating a victory of the city-state of Lagash
Lagash
over its neighbour Umma. It shows various battle and religious scenes and is named after the vultures that can be seen in one of these scenes. The stele was originally carved out of a single slab of limestone, but only seven fragments are known today. The fragments were found at Tello (ancient Girsu) in southern Iraq
Iraq
in the late 19th century and are now on display in the Louvre.Contents1 Discovery 2 The stele 3 References 4 External linksDiscovery[edit] The stele is not complete; only seven fragments are known today
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Before Present
Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past. Because the "present" time changes, standard practice is to use 1 January 1950 as the commencement date of the age scale, reflecting the origin of practical radiocarbon dating in the 1950s
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University Of Southern California
The University of Southern California
California
(USC[a] or SC) is a private research university located in Los Angeles, California. Founded in 1880, it is the oldest private research university in California.[9] USC has historically educated a large number of the region's business leaders and professionals. The university has also leveraged its location in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
to establish relationships with research and cultural institutions throughout Asia and the Pacific Rim
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Galago
 Otolemur  Euoticus  Galago  Sciurocheirus  GalagoidesGarnett's galago, Otolemur garnettiiGalagos /ɡəˈleɪɡoʊz/, also known as bushbabies, bush babies, or nagapies (meaning "little night monkeys" in Afrikaans), are small nocturnal[2] primates native to continental Africa, and make up the family Galagidae (also sometimes called Galagonidae). They are sometimes included as a subfamily within the Lorisidae or Loridae. According to some accounts, the name "bushbaby" comes from either the animal's cries or its appearance
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Kédougou
Kédougou is a town in the Kédougou Region of south-eastern Senegal near the border with Mali and Guinea. It lies at an elevation of 547 feet (167 meters) above sea level. Founded in the early 20th century by the Malinké people, Kédougou means the "Land of Man". The town lies on the N7 road and the River Gambia amid the Pays Bassari hills and Fouta Djallon foothills. Local attractions include the Dindefelo Falls and Niokolo-Koba National Park. The main sources of income in the town are agriculture, small-scale commerce, construction, and gold mining. There is a military camp, a hospital, a community radio station and library, a Peace Corps Office and a number of small businesses
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Bayonet
A bayonet (from French baïonnette) is a bladed weapon similar to a knife or short sword, or spike-shaped weapon designed to fit in, on, over or underneath the muzzle of a rifle, musket or similar firearm, augmenting the firearm to allow use as a pike.[1] Starting in the 17th century, it was a weapon of primary importance for infantry attacks, even up to World War II, but more a weapon of last resort since then. In this regard, it is an ancillary close-quarter combat weapon
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