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Spear
A SPEAR is a pole weapon consisting of a shaft, usually of wood , with a pointed head. The head may be simply the sharpened end of the shaft itself, as is the case with fire hardened spears, or it may be made of a more durable material fastened to the shaft, such as flint , obsidian , iron , steel or bronze . The most common design for hunting or combat spears since ancient times has incorporated a metal spearhead shaped like a triangle, lozenge , or leaf. The heads of fishing spears usually feature barbs or serrated edges. The word _spear_ comes from the Old English _spere_, from the Proto-Germanic _speri_, from a Proto-Indo-European root _*sper-_ "spear, pole". Spears can be divided into two broad categories: those designed for thrusting in melee combat and those designed for throwing (usually referred to as javelins ). The spear has been used throughout human history both as a hunting and fishing tool and as a weapon
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Spears (other)
SPEARS may refer to: * A plural of spear * Spears (surname) , people with the surname Spears * Spears (album) , a 1985 album by Tribal Tech * Spears, Kentucky * Kubota Spears , Japanese Top-League rugby team * Southern Spears , a South African rugby team * Spears Motorsports , a defunct NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series teamSEE ALSO * Spear (other) * Speers (other) * Spears House (other) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title SPEARS. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intende
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Ash Tree
FRAXINUS /ˈfræksᵻnəs/ , English name ASH, is a genus of flowering plants in the olive and lilac family, Oleaceae . It contains 45–65 species of usually medium to large trees , mostly deciduous though a few subtropical species are evergreen . The genus is widespread across much of Europe, Asia and North America. The tree's common English name, "ash", traces back to the Old English æsc, while the generic name originated in Latin . Both words also mean "spear " in their respective languages. The leaves are opposite (rarely in whorls of three), and mostly pinnately compound , simple in a few species . The seeds , popularly known as "keys" or "helicopter seeds", are a type of fruit known as a samara . Most Fraxinus species are dioecious , having male and female flowers on separate plants but gender in ash is expressed as a continuum between male and female individuals, dominated by unisexual trees
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Pole Weapon
A POLE WEAPON or POLEARM is a close combat weapon in which the main fighting part of the weapon is fitted to the end of a long shaft, typically of wood , thereby extending the user's effective range. Spears , Glaives , poleaxes , halberds , and naginata are all varieties of polearms. The purpose of using pole weapons is either to extend reach or to increase leverage (thanks to hands moving freely on a pole) and thus increase striking power. Because they contain relatively little metal, polearms are cheap to make. This has made them the favored weapon of peasant levies and peasants in rebellion the world over. Many are adapted from farm implements, or other tools. Polearms were common weapons on medieval European battlefields. Their range and impact force made them effective weapons against armored warriors on horseback, because they could penetrate armor. The Renaissance saw a plethora of different varieties
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Wood
WOOD is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants . It is an organic material , a natural composite of cellulose fibers that are strong in tension and embedded in a matrix of lignin that resists compression. Wood is sometimes defined as only the secondary xylem in the stems of trees, or it is defined more broadly to include the same type of tissue elsewhere such as in the roots of trees or shrubs. In a living tree it performs a support function, enabling woody plants to grow large or to stand up by themselves. It also conveys water and nutrients between the leaves , other growing tissues, and the roots. Wood may also refer to other plant materials with comparable properties, and to material engineered from wood, or wood chips or fiber
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Fire Hardening
FIRE HARDENING, also known as "fire-danubing", is the process of removing moisture from wood , changing its structure and material properties, by slowly and lightly charring it over a fire . This has been thought to make a point, like that of a spear , or an edge, like that of a knife, more durable. Pre-historic weaponmakers would rub the end of a selected wood pole against a smooth rock surface until a point was achieved. Then the point was heated in a fire, making sure to thrust the point into the coals. This put a light coating of carbon on the surface, which was then polished with a special stone, which ground fine particles of stone into the pitch which had been brought to the surface of the wood by the fire. Subsequent firings and polishings of the wooden tip of the spear would eventually form a hardened glaze consisting of pitch, wood particles and carbon on the tip which could eventually be even harder than a copper tip
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Flint
FLINT is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz , categorized as a variety of chert . It occurs chiefly as nodules and masses in sedimentary rocks, such as chalks and limestones . Inside the nodule, flint is usually dark grey, black, green, white or brown in colour, and often has a glassy or waxy appearance. A thin layer on the outside of the nodules is usually different in colour, typically white and rough in texture. From a petrological point of view, "flint" refers specifically to the form of chert which occurs in chalk or marly limestone. Similarly, "common chert" (sometimes referred to simply as "chert") occurs in limestone
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Obsidian
OBSIDIAN is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock . It is produced when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly with minimal crystal growth . Obsidian
Obsidian
is commonly found within the margins of rhyolitic lava flows known as obsidian flows, where the chemical composition (high silica content) induces a high viscosity and polymerization degree of the lava. The inhibition of atomic diffusion through this highly viscous and polymerized lava explains the lack of crystal growth. Obsidian
Obsidian
is hard and brittle ; it therefore fractures with very sharp edges, which were used in the past in cutting and piercing tools, and it has been used experimentally as surgical scalpel blades
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Iron
IRON is a chemical element with symbol FE (from Latin : _ferrum_) and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series . It is by mass the most common element on Earth
Earth
, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core . It is the fourth most common element in the Earth\'s crust . Its abundance in rocky planets like Earth
Earth
is due to its abundant production by fusion in high-mass stars , where it is the last element to be produced with release of energy before the violent collapse of a supernova , which scatters the iron into space. Like the other group 8 elements , ruthenium and osmium , iron exists in a wide range of oxidation states , −2 to +6, although +2 and +3 are the most common. Elemental iron occurs in meteoroids and other low oxygen environments, but is reactive to oxygen and water
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Steel
STEEL is an alloy of iron and other elements, primarily carbon . Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, it is a major component in buildings , infrastructure , tools , ships , automobiles , machines , appliances, and weapons . Steel's base metal is iron, which is able to take on two crystalline forms (allotropic forms), body centered cubic (BCC) and face centered cubic (FCC) , depending on its temperature. It is the interaction of those allotropes with the alloying elements, primarily carbon, that gives steel and cast iron their range of unique properties. In the body-centred cubic arrangement, there is an iron atom in the centre of each cube, and in the face-centred cubic, there is one at the center of each of the six faces of the cube. In pure iron, the crystal structure has relatively little resistance to the iron atoms slipping past one another, and so pure iron is quite ductile , or soft and easily formed
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Bronze
BRONZE is an alloy consisting primarily of copper , commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium , manganese , nickel or zinc ) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic , phosphorus or silicon . These additions produce a range of alloys that may be harder than copper alone, or have other useful properties, such as stiffness, ductility , or machinability. The archeological period where bronze was the hardest metal in widespread use is known as the Bronze Age . In the ancient Near East this began with the rise of Sumer in the 4th millennium BC, with India and China starting to use bronze around the same time; everywhere it gradually spread across regions. The Bronze Age was followed by the Iron Age starting from about 1300 BC and reaching most of Eurasia by about 500 BC, though bronze continued to be much more widely used than it is in modern times
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Lozenge
؋ ​₳ ​ ฿ ​₿ ​ ₵ ​¢ ​₡ ​₢ ​ $ ​₫ ​₯ ​֏ ​ ₠ ​€ ​ ƒ ​₣ ​ ₲ ​ ₴ ​ ₭ ​ ₺ ​₾ ​ ₼ ​ℳ ​₥ ​ ₦ ​ ₧ ​₱ ​₰ ​£ ​ 元 圆 圓 ​﷼ ​៛ ​₽ ​₹ ₨ ​ ₪ ​ ৳ ​₸ ​₮ ​ ₩ ​ ¥ 円 UNCOMMON TYPOGRAPHY asterism ⁂ hedera ❧ index, fist ☞ interrobang ‽ irony punctuation ⸮ lozenge ◊ tie ⁀ RELATED* * Diacritics * Logic symbols * Whitespace characters IN OTHER SCRIPTS * Chinese * Hebrew * Japanese * Korean * Category * Portal
Portal
* Book
Book
* v * t * e A LOZENGE (◊), often referred to as a DIAMOND, is a form of rhombus . The definition of lozenge is not strictly fixed, and it is sometimes used simply as a synonym (from the French losange) for rhombus
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Old English Language
OLD ENGLISH (_Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc_) or ANGLO-SAXON is the earliest historical form of the English language
English language
, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland
Scotland
in the early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. It was brought to Great Britain
Great Britain
by Anglo-Saxon settlers probably in the mid 5th century, and the first Old English
Old English
literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman Conquest of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman , a relative of French . This is regarded as marking the end of the Old English
Old English
era, as during this period the English language was heavily influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English
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Proto-Indo-European Language
_Pontic Steppe_ * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture _Caucasus_ * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo _Eastern Europe_ * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni _Northern Europe_* Corded ware * Baden
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