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Spain
Coordinates : 40°N 4°W / 40°N 4°W / 40; -4 Kingdom of Spain Reino de España (Spanish ) 6 other official names * ARAGONESE : Reino d'Espanya ASTURIAN : Reinu d'España BASQUE : Espainiako Erresuma CATALAN : Regne d'Espanya GALICIAN : Reino de España OCCITAN : Reiaume d'Espanha Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Plus Ultra " (Latin ) "Further Beyond" ANTHEM: " Marcha Real " (Spanish ) "Royal March" Location of Spain
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Ethnic Groups
An ETHNIC GROUP, or an ETHNICITY, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry , language , society , culture or nation . Ethnicity is usually an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage , ancestry , origin myth , history , homeland , language or dialect , symbolic systems such as religion , mythology and ritual , cuisine , dressing style, art , and physical appearance . Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population , often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool . By way of language shift , acculturation , adoption and religious conversion , it is sometimes possible for individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group and become part of another (except for ethnic groups emphasizing racial purity as a key membership criterion)
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Upper House
An UPPER HOUSE, sometimes called a senate , is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature (or one of three chambers of a tricameral legislature ), the other chamber being the lower house . The house formally designated as the upper house is usually smaller and often has more restricted power than the lower house. Examples of upper houses in countries include the United Kingdom's House of Lords
House of Lords
, India's Rajya Sabha , Russia's Federation Council , Ireland's Seanad
Seanad
, Malaysia's Dewan Negara , Germany's Bundesrat and the United States Senate
Senate

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Latin Language
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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Lower House
A LOWER HOUSE is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature , the other chamber being the upper house . Inside the Australian House of Representatives Despite its official position "below" the upper house, in many legislatures worldwide, the lower house has come to wield more power. A legislature composed of only one house is described as unicameral
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España (other)
SPAIN , also known as España, is a country in southern Europe. ESPAñA may also refer to: * Spanish battleship Alfonso XIII , served 1915 to 1937 and renamed España in 1931 * Spanish battleship España , served in the Spanish Navy from 1913 to 1923 * España-class battleship * España (Chabrier) , a orchestral piece first performed in 1883 by Emmanuel Chabrier * España (river) , river in Spain * España Lake , lake in Bolivia * España (Waldteufel) , a orchestral piece (waltz) first performed in 1886 by Emile Waldteufel, and based on that by Chabrier * España 1936 , a Spanish documentary film * España 2000 , a Spanish political party * España Boulevard , a thoroughfare in the Philippines * España railway station , Philippines Association football clubs * Real C.D
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Irreligion
IRRELIGION (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion . Irreligion may include some forms of theism , depending on the religious context it is defined against; for example, in 18th-century Europe, the epitome of irreligion was deism . According to the Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
's 2012 global study of 230 countries and territories, only 16% of the world's population is not affiliated with a religion, while 84% are affiliated. . According to their projections, the non-religious, though temporarily increasing, will ultimately decline significantly by 2050 because of lower reproductive rates and ageing
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Unitary State
A UNITARY STATE is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate. The majority of states in the world have a unitary system of government. Of the 193 UN member states , 165 are governed as unitary states. In a unitary state, sub-national units are created and abolished (an example being the 22 mainland regions of France
France
being merged into 13), and their powers may be broadened and narrowed, by the central government. Although political power may be delegated through devolution to local governments by statute , the central government remains supreme; it may abrogate the acts of devolved governments or curtail their powers
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Constitutional Monarchy
A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises their authorities in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution . Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
differs from absolute monarchy (in which a monarch holds absolute power), in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework. Constitutional monarchies range from countries such as Morocco
Morocco
, where the constitution grants substantial discretionary powers to the sovereign, to countries such as Sweden
Sweden
or Denmark
Denmark
where the monarch retains very few formal authorities. A constitutional monarchy may refer to a system in which the monarch acts as a non-party political head of state under the constitution , whether written or unwritten
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Demonym
A DEMONYM (/ˈdɛmənɪm/ ; δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place. It is a neologism (i.e., a recently minted term); previously GENTILIC was recorded in English dictionaries, e.g., the Oxford
Oxford
English Dictionary and Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary. Examples of demonyms include a Swahili for a person of the Swahili coast , the colloquial Kiwi for a person from New Zealand
New Zealand
, and a Cochabambino for a person from the city of Cochabamba
Cochabamba
. Demonyms do not always clearly distinguish place of origin or ethnicity from place of residence or citizenship, and many demonyms overlap with the ethnonym for the ethnically dominant group of a region
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Nueva Planta Decrees
The NUEVA PLANTA DECREES (Spanish: Decretos de Nueva Planta, Catalan : Decrets de Nova Planta) were a number of decrees signed between 1707 and 1716 by Philip V —the first Bourbon King of Spain —during and shortly after the end of the War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
by the Treaty of Utrecht . Angered by what he saw as sedition by the Catalans and taking his native France as a model of a centralized state, Philip V suppressed the institutions, privileges, and the ancient charters (Spanish: fueros, Catalan: furs) of almost all the areas that were formerly part of the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
(Aragon , Catalonia , Valencia , and the Balearic Islands )
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Plaça D'Espanya Station
PLAçA D\'ESPANYA, also simply known as ESPANYA, is an interchange complex underneath Plaça d\'Espanya , in the Barcelona
Barcelona
district of Sants-Montjuïc , in Catalonia
Catalonia
, Spain
Spain
. It comprises the Barcelona terminus of the Llobregat–Anoia Line and a Barcelona Metro
Barcelona Metro
station complex served by lines 1 (L1) and 3 (L3). On the L1, the station is between Hostafrancs and Rocafort , and on the L3 it is between Poble Sec and Tarragona . The Llobregat–Anoia Line station is served by Barcelona Metro
Barcelona Metro
line 8 (L8), Baix Llobregat Metro lines S33 , S4 and S8 , and commuter rail lines R5 , R6 , R50 and R60
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Roman Catholic
The CATHOLIC CHURCH, also known as the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the largest Christian church , with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation . Headed by the Bishop of Rome
Rome
, known as the Pope
Pope
, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
Nicene Creed
. Its central administration, the Holy See
Holy See
, is in the Vatican City
Vatican City
, enclaved within Rome
Rome
, Italy
Italy

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Parliamentary System
A PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEM is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament , and is also held accountable to that parliament. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a different person from the head of government . This is in contrast to a presidential system , where the head of state often is also the head of government and, most importantly, the executive branch does not derive its democratic legitimacy from the legislature
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Plus Ultra (motto)
PLUS ULTRA, Latin for "further beyond", is the national motto of Spain
Spain
. It is taken from the personal motto of Charles V , Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain, and is a reversal of the original phrase Non plus ultra ("not further beyond"). This was said to have been inscribed as a warning on the Pillars of Hercules at the Strait of Gibraltar , which marked the edge of the known world. Charles adopted the motto following the discovery of the New World by Columbus, and it also has metaphorical suggestions of taking risks and striving for excellence. CONTENTS * 1 Charles V * 2 Spain
Spain
* 3 Other uses * 4 See also * 5 References CHARLES VThe motto was suggested to the young king in 1516 by his physician and adviser Luigi Marliano
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