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Spaghettification
In astrophysics, spaghettification (sometimes referred to as the noodle effect[1]) is the vertical stretching and horizontal compression of objects into long thin shapes (rather like spaghetti) in a very strong non-homogeneous gravitational field; it is caused by extreme tidal forces. In the most extreme cases, near black holes, the stretching is so powerful that no object can withstand it, no matter how strong its components. Within a small region the horizontal compression balances the vertical stretching so that small objects being spaghettified experience no net change in volume. Stephen Hawking[2] describes the flight of a fictional astronaut who, passing within a black hole's event horizon, is "stretched like spaghetti" by the gravitational gradient (difference in strength) from head to toe. The reason this happens would be because the gravity exerted from the singularity would be much stronger at one end of your body from the other
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Spaghetti Code
Spaghetti code is a pejorative phrase for unstructured and difficult to maintain source code, broadly construed
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Cambridge University Press
Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world (after Oxford University Press).[2][3][4][5] It also holds letters patent as the Queen's Printer.[6] The Press’s mission is "to further the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education, learning and research at the highest international levels of excellence".[7] Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge
Cambridge
and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, and offices in more than 40 countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries
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Supernova
A supernova (/ˌsuːpərnoʊvə/ plural: supernovae /ˌsuːpərnoʊviː/ or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a massive star's life, whose destruction is marked by one final titanic explosion. This causes the sudden appearance of a "new" bright star, before slowly fading from sight over several weeks or months. SN 1994D
SN 1994D
(bright spot on the lower left), a Type Ia supernova outshining its home galaxy, NGC 4526Supernovae are more energetic than novae. In Latin, nova means "new", referring astronomically to what appears to be a temporary new bright star. Adding the prefix "super-" distinguishes supernovae from ordinary novae, which are far less luminous
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Exotic Star
An exotic star is a hypothetical compact star composed of something other than electrons, protons, neutrons, or muons; and balanced against gravitational collapse by degeneracy pressure or other quantum properties. These include quark stars (composed of quarks) and perhaps strange stars (based upon strange quark matter, a condensate of up, down and strange quarks), as well as speculative preon stars (composed of preons, which are hypothetical particles and "building blocks" of quarks, if quarks prove to be decomposable into component sub-particles). Of the various types of exotic star proposed, the most well evidenced and understood is the quark star. Exotic stars are largely theoretical – partly because it is difficult to test in detail how such forms of matter may behave, and partly because we lacked a satisfactory means of detecting cosmic objects that do not radiate electromagnetically or through known particles prior to the fledgling technology of gravitational-wave astronomy
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Quark Star
A quark star is a hypothetical type of compact exotic star, where extremely high temperature and pressure has forced nuclear particles to form a continuous state of matter that consists primarily of free quarks. It is well known that massive stars can collapse to form neutron stars, under extreme temperatures and pressures. In simple terms, neutrons usually have space separating them, due to degeneracy pressure keeping them apart. Under extreme conditions such as a neutron star, the pressure separating nucleons is overwhelmed by gravity, and the separation between them breaks down, causing them to be packed extremely densely and form an immensely hot and dense state known as neutron matter. Because these neutrons are made of quarks, it is hypothesized that under even more extreme conditions, the degeneracy pressure keeping the quarks apart within the neutrons might break down in much the same way, creating an ultra-dense phase of degenerate matter based on densely packed quarks
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Stellar Evolution
Stellar evolution
Stellar evolution
is the process by which a star changes over the course of time. Depending on the mass of the star, its lifetime can range from a few million years for the most massive to trillions of years for the least massive, which is considerably longer than the age of the universe. The table shows the lifetimes of stars as a function of their masses.[1] All stars are born from collapsing clouds of gas and dust, often called nebulae or molecular clouds. Over the course of millions of years, these protostars settle down into a state of equilibrium, becoming what is known as a main-sequence star. Nuclear fusion
Nuclear fusion
powers a star for most of its life. Initially the energy is generated by the fusion of hydrogen atoms at the core of the main-sequence star
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Princeton University Press
Princeton University
Princeton University
Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University
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W. H. Freeman And Company
W. H. Freeman and Company is an imprint of Macmillan Higher Education, a division of Macmillan Publishers. Macmillan publishes monographs and textbooks for the sciences under the imprint. History[edit] The company was founded in 1946 by William H. Freeman. He had been a salesman and editor at Macmillan Publishing. Freeman's first published book was General Chemistry by Linus Pauling.[1] Freeman was acquired by Scientific American
Scientific American
Inc. in 1964. Holtzbrinck bought Scientific American in 1986. References[edit]^ "About W.H. Freeman". W.H. Freeman. Retrieved 2008-07-29. External links[edit]Official W. H. Freeman and Company websitev t eHoltzbrinck Publishing GroupHoltzbrinckPublishersS
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New York City
Bronx, Kings (Brooklyn), New York (Manhattan), Queens, Richmond (Staten Island)Historic colonies New Netherland Province of New YorkSettled 1624Consolidated 1898Named for James, Duke of YorkGovernment[2] • Type Mayor–Council • Body New York City
New York City
Council • Mayor Bill de Blasio
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BBC
The British Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House
Broadcasting House
in Westminster, London, and it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation[4] and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees
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Viking Press
Viking
Viking
Press is an American publishing company now owned by Penguin Random House.[1] It was founded in New York City
New York City
on March 1, 1925, by Harold K. Guinzburg and George S
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Nigel Calder
Nigel David McKail Ritchie-Calder (2 December 1931 – 25 June 2014) was a British science writer.Contents1 Early life 2 Career 3 Personal life 4 Death 5 Works 6 References 7 External linksEarly life[edit] Nigel Calder was born on 2 December 1931. His father was Lord Ritchie-Calder. His mother was Mabel Jane Forbes McKail. He had four siblings, including historian Angus Calder (1942–2008), mathematician Allan Calder and educationist Isla Calder (1946–2000). He was educated at Merchant Taylors' School, Northwood
Merchant Taylors' School, Northwood
and Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge. Career[edit] Between 1956 and 1966, Calder wrote for the magazine New Scientist, serving as editor from 1962 until 1966. After that, he worked as an independent author and TV screenwriter
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A Brief History Of Time
A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang
Big Bang
to Black Holes is a popular-science book on cosmology (the study of the universe) by British physicist Stephen Hawking.[1] It was first published in 1988. Hawking wrote the book for nonspecialist readers with no prior knowledge of scientific theories. In A Brief History of Time, Hawking writes in non-technical terms about the structure, origin, development and eventual fate of the universe, which is the object of study of astronomy and modern physics. He talks about basic concepts like space and time, basic building blocks that make up the universe (such as quarks) and the fundamental forces that govern it (such as gravity). He writes about cosmological phenomena such as the Big Bang
Big Bang
and black holes
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Special
Special
Special
or the specials or variation, may refer to:.mw-parser-output .tocright float:right;clear:right;width:auto;background:none;padding:.5em 0 .8em 1.4em;margin-bottom:.5em .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-left clear:left .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-both clear:both .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-none clear:none Contents1 Policing 2 Literature 3 Film and television 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Computing 6 Other uses 7 See alsoPolicing[edit] Specials, Ulster
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International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique.[a][b] Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each separate edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is ten digits long if assigned before 2007, and thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-specific and varies between countries, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book
Book
Numbering (SBN) created in 1966
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