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Space Law
SPACE LAW encompasses national and international law governing activities in outer space . International lawyers have been unable to agree on a uniform definition of the term "outer space", although most lawyers agree that outer space generally begins at the lowest altitude above sea level at which objects can orbit the Earth
Earth
, approximately 100 km (62 mi) (the Kármán line
Kármán line
). The inception of the field of space law began with the launch of the world's first artificial satellite by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in October 1957. Named Sputnik 1
Sputnik 1
, the satellite was launched as part of the International Geophysical Year . Since that time, space law has evolved and assumed more importance as mankind has increasingly come to use and rely on space-based resources
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United Nations Charter
The CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS (also known as the UN CHARTER) of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations
United Nations
, an intergovernmental organization . It was signed at the San Francisco War Memorial and Performing Arts Center in San Francisco, United States, on 26 June 1945, by 50 of the 51 original member countries ( Poland
Poland
, the other original member , which was not represented at the conference, signed it two months later)
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United Nations Convention On The Law Of The Sea
The UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF THE SEA (UNCLOS), also called the LAW OF THE SEA CONVENTION or the LAW OF THE SEA TREATY, is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III), which took place between 1973 and 1982. The Law of the Sea Convention defines the rights and responsibilities of nations with respect to their use of the world's oceans, establishing guidelines for businesses, the environment, and the management of marine natural resources . The Convention, concluded in 1982, replaced four 1958 treaties . UNCLOS came into force in 1994, a year after Guyana became the 60th nation to ratify the treaty. As of June 2016 , 167 countries and the European Union have joined in the Convention. It is uncertain as to what extent the Convention codifies customary international law
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United States Congress
535 voting members * 100 senators * 435 representatives 6 non-voting members SENATE POLITICAL GROUPS * Republican (52) * Democratic (46)* Independent (2) (caucusing with Democrats) HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES POLITICAL GROUPS * Republican (240) * Democratic (194) * Vacant (1) ELECTIONS SENATE LAST ELECTION November 8, 2016 HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES LAST ELECTION November 8, 2016 MEETING PLACE United States Capitol
United States Capitol

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Geostationary Orbit
A GEOSTATIONARY ORBIT, GEOSTATIONARY EARTH ORBIT or GEOSYNCHRONOUS EQUATORIAL ORBIT (GEO) is a circular orbit 35,786 kilometres (22,236 mi) above the Earth's equator and following the direction of the Earth's rotation. An object in such an orbit has an orbital period equal to the Earth's rotational period (one sidereal day ) and thus appears motionless, at a fixed position in the sky, to ground observers. Communications satellites and weather satellites are often placed in geostationary orbits, so that the satellite antennas (located on Earth ) that communicate with them do not have to rotate to track them, but can be pointed permanently at the position in the sky where the satellites are located. Using this characteristic, ocean color satellites with visible and near-infrared light sensors (e.g. the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI)) can also be operated in geostationary orbit in order to monitor sensitive changes of ocean environments
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NASA
The NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ( NASA
NASA
/ˈnæsə/ ) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program , as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. President Dwight D. Eisenhower established NASA
NASA
in 1958 with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science . The National Aeronautics
Aeronautics
and Space Act was passed on July 29, 1958, disestablishing NASA's predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new agency became operational on October 1, 1958. Since that time, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, and later the Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle

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European Space Agency
The EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY (ESA; French : Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; German : Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space . Established in 1975 and headquartered in Paris , France
France
, ESA
ESA
has a worldwide staff of about 2,000 and an annual budget of about €5.25 billion / US$5.77 billion (2016). ESA's space flight programme includes human spaceflight (mainly through participation in the International Space Station
International Space Station
programme); the launch and operation of unmanned exploration missions to other planets and the Moon; Earth observation, science and telecommunication; designing launch vehicles; and maintaining a major spaceport , the Guiana Space Centre at Kourou , French Guiana
French Guiana

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Partial Test Ban Treaty
The PARTIAL TEST BAN TREATY (PTBT) is the abbreviated name of the 1963 TREATY BANNING NUCLEAR WEAPON TESTS IN THE ATMOSPHERE, IN OUTER SPACE AND UNDER WATER, which prohibited all test detonations of nuclear weapons except for those conducted underground . It is also abbreviated as the LIMITED TEST BAN TREATY (LTBT) and NUCLEAR TEST BAN TREATY (NTBT), though the latter may also refer to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), which succeeded the PTBT for ratifying parties. Negotiations initially focused on a comprehensive ban, but this was abandoned due to technical questions surrounding the detection of underground tests and Soviet concerns over the intrusiveness of proposed verification methods. The impetus for the test ban was provided by rising public anxiety over the magnitude of nuclear tests, particularly tests of new thermonuclear weapons (hydrogen bombs), and the resulting nuclear fallout
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University Of The Pacific, McGeorge School Of Law
UNIVERSITY OF THE PACIFIC, MCGEORGE SCHOOL OF LAW is a private, American Bar Association
American Bar Association
(ABA) approved law school in the Oak Park neighborhood of the city of Sacramento, California
Sacramento, California
. It is part of the University of the Pacific and is located on the University's Sacramento campus. Founded in 1924, the school merged with and became part of the University of the Pacific in 1966. The current dean of McGeorge School of Law is Michael Hunter Schwartz, formerly the dean of the William H. Bowen School of Law at University of Arkansas at Little Rock
University of Arkansas at Little Rock
from 2013-2017. Former CIA
CIA
General Counsel Elizabeth Rindskopf Parker stepped down on June 1, 2012, after 10 years as dean of McGeorge School of Law. Francis J
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United Nations General Assembly
For two articles dealing with membership of and participation in the General Assembly, see: * General Assembly members * General Assembly observers The UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY (abbreviated UNGA and GA. French : _Assemblée Générale_ "AG") is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations
United Nations
(UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN. Its powers are to oversee the budget of the UN, appoint the non-permanent members to the Security Council , receive reports from other parts of the UN and make recommendations in the form of General Assembly Resolutions . It has also established numerous subsidiary organs
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Longitude
LONGITUDE (/ˈlɒndʒᵻtjuːd/ or /ˈlɒndʒᵻtuːd/ , Australian and British also /ˈlɒŋɡᵻtjuːd/ ), is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface. It is an angular measurement, usually expressed in degrees and denoted by the Greek letter lambda (λ). Meridians (lines running from the North Pole
North Pole
to the South Pole
South Pole
) connect points with the same longitude. By convention, one of these, the Prime Meridian
Prime Meridian
, which passes through the Royal Observatory, Greenwich , England, was allocated the position of zero degrees longitude. The longitude of other places is measured as the angle east or west from the Prime Meridian, ranging from 0° at the Prime Meridian
Prime Meridian
to +180° eastward and −180° westward
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Latitudes
In geography , LATITUDE is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north –south position of a point on the Earth's surface. Latitude
Latitude
is an angle (defined below) which ranges from 0° at the Equator
Equator
to 90° ( North
North
or South) at the poles. Lines of constant latitude, or parallels, run east–west as circles parallel to the equator. Latitude
Latitude
is used together with longitude to specify the precise location of features on the surface of the Earth. Without qualification the term latitude should be taken to be the geodetic latitude as defined in the following sections. Also defined are six auxiliary latitudes which are used in special applications
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University Of Sunderland
The UNIVERSITY OF SUNDERLAND is a university located in Sunderland in the North East of England . Its predecessor, SUNDERLAND TECHNICAL COLLEGE, was established as a municipal training college in 1901. It gained university status in 1992. It now has campuses in Sunderland, London
London
and Hong Kong. The university has 12,995 students and was one of six universities to be short-listed for 'University of the Year' in the Times Higher Education Supplement Awards 2012
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LLB
The BACHELOR OF LAWS ( Latin
Latin
: Bachelor Legum Of Law; LL.B. or B.L.) is an undergraduate degree in law (or a first professional degree in law, depending on jurisdiction) originating in England
England
and offered in most common law jurisdictions. The "LL." of the abbreviation for the degree is from the genitive plural legum (of lex, law). Creating an abbreviation for a plural, especially from Latin, is often done by doubling the first letter (e.g., "pp" for "pages"), thus "LL.B." stands for Legum Baccalaureus in Latin
Latin
. It is sometimes erroneously called "Bachelor of Legal Letters" to account for the double "L". Historically, in Canada, Bachelor of Laws was the name of the first degree in common law, but is also the name of the first degree in Quebec civil law awarded by a number of Quebec universities. Canadian common-law LL.B
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University Of Nebraska
The UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA–LINCOLN, often referred to as NEBRASKA, UNL or NU, is a public research university in the city of Lincoln , in the state of Nebraska in the Midwestern United States . It is the state's oldest university, and the largest in the University of Nebraska system . The state legislature chartered the university in 1869 as a land-grant university under the 1862 Morrill Act , two years after Nebraska's statehood into the United States. Around the turn of the 20th century, the university began to expand significantly, hiring professors from eastern schools to teach in the newly organized professional colleges while also producing groundbreaking research in agricultural sciences. The " Nebraska method" of ecological study developed here during this time pioneered grassland ecology and laid the foundation for research in theoretical ecology for the rest of the 20th century
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University Of Paris-Sud
UNIVERSITY OF PARIS-SUD (French: Université Paris-Sud), also known as UNIVERSITY OF PARIS XI, is a French university distributed among several campuses in the southern suburbs of Paris
Paris
including Orsay , Cachan
Cachan
,