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Soviet Union
The SOVIET UNION (Russian : Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. _Sovetsky Soyuz_; IPA: ), officially the UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (USSR; Russian : Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик (СССР), tr. _Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik (SSSR)_; IPA: (_ listen )), also known unofficially as RUSSIA (Russian : Росси́я, tr. Rossiya_; IPA: ), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple equal national Soviet republics , its government and economy were highly centralized . The country was a one-party federation , governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
had its roots in the October Revolution of 1917, when the Bolsheviks , led by Vladimir Lenin , overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar
Tsar
Nicholas II . In 1922, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was formed with the unification of the Russian , Transcaucasian , Ukrainian , and Byelorussian republics. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism (which he created), and initiated a centrally planned economy
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USSR (other)
USSR
USSR
most commonly refers to the Soviet Union (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 1922–1991). USSR
USSR
may also refer to: * The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (1919–1991) * The Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (1924–1991) * The Union of Soviet Sovereign Republics , a proposed replacement state for the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics * USSR, a former Soviet magazine distributed in the United States; its modern successor is Russian Life * "USSR", a hit song of Euro dance singer Eddy Huntington , recorded in 1986 * "U.S.S.R.", a bonus track from a reissue of Siamese Dream by Smashing Pumpkins This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title USSR. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=USSR_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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CCCP (other)
СССР
СССР
(Союз Советских Социалистических Республик) is a Russian abbreviation for the Soviet Union. CCCP may also refer to: * C.C.C.P. (band) , a German synthpop group * CCCP Fedeli alla linea , an Italian band formed in 1982 * Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone , a toxic ionophore and decoupler of the respiratory chain * Combined Community Codec Pack , a software pack for Microsoft Windows to play multimedia content This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title CCCP. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=CCCP_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Soviet (other)
SOVIET may refer to: * Soviet (council) , a council * Supreme Soviet , the highest institution in the hierarchy of councils* An adjective for something related to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* A Soviet citizen, a citizen of the Soviet Union, see Soviet people * Soviet (band)
Soviet (band)
, American synth-rock bandSEE ALSO * Sovetsky (other) , Russian adjective only for something related to the Soviet Union, Soviet Russia or Soviet regime * Soviet republic (system of government) , a very special subtype of a parliamentary republic * Soviet Republic (other) * Soviet democracy * Republics of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* Sovetsk * Supreme Council (post-Soviet parliaments) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title SOVIET. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Soviet_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Flag Of The Soviet Union
The FLAG OF THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS; commonly known as the SOVIET FLAG was the official national flag of the Soviet Union from 1923 to 1991. The flag's design and symbolism are derived from the Russian Revolution . The flag is also an international symbol of the communist movement as a whole. The nicknames for the flag were THE HAMMER AND SICKLE and THE RED BANNER. The design is a solid field of red adorned with a unique gold emblem in the upper hoist quarter . The red flag was a traditional revolutionary symbol long before 1917, and its incorporation into the flag paid tribute to the international aspect of workers' revolution. The iconic hammer and sickle design was a modern touch – the union of the hammer (workers ) and the sickle (peasants ) represents the victorious and enduring revolutionary alliance. The famous emblem is topped by and a gold-bordered red star representing the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. The first flag with the gold border star, hammer and sickle was adopted on 13 November 1923. In 1955, a statute on the flag was adopted which resulted in a change of the hammer's handle length and the shape of the sickle. A final modification to the flag was adopted in 1980 in which the colour was brightened to a lighter shade of red. The flag continued to be the official national flag until the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union

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State Emblem Of The Soviet Union
The STATE EMBLEM OF THE SOVIET UNION (Russian : Государственный герб Советского Союза, _Gosudarstvenny gerb Sovyetskovo Soyuza_ ) was adopted in 1923 and was used until the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Although it technically is an emblem rather than a coat of arms, since it does not follow traditional heraldic rules, in Russian it is called _герб_ (_gerb_), the word used for a traditional coat of arms. It was the first state insignia created in the style known as socialist heraldry , a style also seen in e.g. the emblem of the People\'s Republic of China . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 First version (1923–1936) * 1.2 Second version (1936–1946) * 1.3 Third version (1946–1956) * 1.4 Fourth version (1956–1991) * 2 Description * 3 Gallery * 4 See also * 5 References HISTORYFIRST VERSION (1923–1936)The project of the first version of the state emblem was accepted on 6 July 1923 by the 2nd session of the Central Executive Committee (CIK) and the version was completed on September 22 of that year
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Workers Of The World, Unite!
The political slogan WORKERS OF THE WORLD, UNITE! is one of the most famous rallying cries from the Communist Manifesto (1848), by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
(German : Proletarier aller Länder vereinigt Euch!, literally "Proletarians of all countries, unite!" but soon popularised in English as " Workers of the world, unite!
Workers of the world, unite!
You have nothing to lose but your chains!"). A variation of this phrase ("Workers of all lands, unite") is also inscribed on Marx's tombstone. The essence of the slogan is that members of the working classes throughout the world should cooperate to achieve victory in class conflict . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Variations * 3 Non-English usage * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links OVERVIEWFive years before the Communist Manifesto, the phrase appeared in the 1843 book "The Workers' Union" by Flora Tristan . The International Workingmen\'s Association , described by Engels as "the first international movement of the working class" was persuaded by Engels to change its motto from the League of the Just 's "all men are brothers" to "working men of all countries, unite!" It reflected Marx's and Engels' view of proletarian internationalism . The phrase has overlapping meanings
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State Anthem Of The Soviet Union
SLAV’SYA, OTECHESTVO NASHE SVOBODNOYE! (Russian : Славься, Отечество наше свободное!; Slav’sya, Otechestvo nashe svobodnoye!, lit. "Be glorious, our free Fatherland!"), officially known as the "STATE ANTHEM OF THE SOVIET UNION" (Russian : Государственный гимн СССР, tr. Gosudarstvenny Gimn SSSR) was introduced during World War II
World War II
on 15 March 1944, replacing The Internationale as the official anthem of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic . The lyrics were written by Sergey Mikhalkov (1913–2009) in collaboration with Gabriel El-Registan (1899–1945) and the music was composed by Alexander Alexandrov (1883–1946). Although the Soviet Union was dissolved in 1991, its national anthem's melody continues to be used in the Russian Federation\'s national anthem , which has different lyrics to the version used in the Soviet Union. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Use in the Russian Federation * 3 State Union of Russia
Russia
and Belarus * 4 Decommunization * 5 Lyrics * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORY Play media Playing of the State Anthem at the 63rd Anniversary Jubilee of the Great October Socialist Revolution , 1980
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World War Ii
Allied victory * Collapse of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires * Dissolution of the League of Nations * Creation of the United Nations
United Nations
* Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers * Beginning of the Cold War (more... ) PARTICIPANTS ALLIES AXIS COMMANDERS AND LEADERS MAIN ALLIED LEADERS Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Moscow
MOSCOW (/ˈmɒskoʊ/ or /ˈmɒskaʊ/ ; Russian : Москва́, tr. _Moskva_; IPA: ( listen )) is the capital and most populous city of Russia , with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.8 million within the urban area . Moscow has the status of a Russian federal city . Moscow is a major political, economic, cultural, and scientific centre of Russia and Eastern Europe , as well as the largest city entirely on the European continent . By broader definitions Moscow is among the world\'s largest cities , being the 14th largest metro area , the 18th largest agglomeration , the 15th largest urban area , and the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide. According to Forbes 2013 , Moscow has been ranked as the ninth most expensive city in the world by Mercer and has one of the world's largest urban economies , being ranked as an alpha global city according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network , and is also one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world according to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index . Moscow is the northernmost and coldest megacity and metropolis on Earth
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Russian Language
RUSSIAN (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. _russkiy yazik_) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia , Belarus , Kazakhstan , Kyrgyzstan and many minor or unrecognised territories. It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Ukraine , and to a lesser extent, the other countries that were once constituent republics of the Soviet Union and former participants of the Eastern Bloc. Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages . Written examples of Old East Slavonic are attested from the 10th century and beyond. It is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. It is also the largest native language in Europe , with 144 million native speakers in Russia , Ukraine and Belarus . Russian is the eighth most spoken language in the world by number of native speakers and the seventh by total number of speakers . The language is one of the six official languages of the United Nations . Russian is also the second most widespread language on the Internet after English . Russian distinguishes between consonant phonemes with palatal secondary articulation and those without, the so-called _soft_ and _hard_ sounds
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Demonym
A DEMONYM (/ˈdɛmənɪm/ ; δῆμος _dẽmos_ "people, tribe", ὄνομα _ónoma_ "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place. It is a neologism (i.e., a recently minted term); previously _GENTILIC_ was recorded in English dictionaries, e.g., the _ Oxford English Dictionary _ and _Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary_. Examples of demonyms include a _ Pakistani _ for a person from Pakistan , _Swahili _ for a person of the Swahili coast , the colloquial _Kiwi _ for a person from New Zealand , and a _Cochabambino_ for a person from the city of Cochabamba . Demonyms do not always clearly distinguish place of origin or ethnicity from place of residence or citizenship, and many demonyms overlap with the ethnonym for the ethnically dominant group of a region. Thus a _Thai_ may be any resident or citizen of Thailand of any ethnic group, or more narrowly a member of the Thai people . Conversely, some groups of people may be associated with multiple demonyms. For example, a native of the United Kingdom may be called a _ British person _, a _Briton_ or, informally, a _Brit_. In some languages, when a parallel demonym does not exist, a demonym is borrowed from another language as a nickname or descriptive adjective of a group of people
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Soviet People
SOVIET PEOPLE (Russian : советский народ, Sovetskiy narod) or CITIZENS OF THE USSR (Russian : Граждане СССР; Grazhdane SSSR) was an umbrella demonym for the population of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. Initially used as a nonspecific reference to the Soviet population, it was eventually declared to be a "new historical, social and international unity of people". CONTENTS * 1 Nationality politics in early Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* 2 Soviet people
Soviet people
as a political concept * 3 See also * 4 References NATIONALITY POLITICS IN EARLY SOVIET UNION Pomerki child sanatory in Kharkov . Summer 1950 Through the history of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, both doctrine and practice regarding ethnic distinctions within the Soviet population varied over time. Minority national cultures were not completely abolished in the Soviet Union. By Soviet definition, national cultures were to be "socialist by content and national by form", to be used to promote the official aims and values of the state
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Federalism
FEDERALISM is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system. Its distinctive feature, exemplified in the founding example of modern federalism of the United States of America under the Constitution of 1787, is a relationship of parity between the two levels of government established. It can thus be defined as a form of government in which there is a division of powers between two levels of government of equal status. Federalism differs from confederalism , in which the general level of government is subordinate to the regional level, and from devolution within a unitary state, in which the regional level of government is subordinate to the general level. It represents the central form in the pathway of regional integration or separation, bounded on the less integrated side by confederalism and on the more integrated side by devolution within a unitary state. Leading examples of the federation or federal state include the Russian Federation , the United States , USSR , Canada , Mexico , Brazil , Germany , Switzerland , Australia and India
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Marxism–Leninism
MARXISM–LENINISM is the political ideology adopted by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Comintern , which its proponents consider to be based on Marxism and Leninism
Leninism
. The term was suggested by Joseph Stalin and gained wide circulation in the Soviet Union after Stalin's 1938 History of the VKP(b). A Brief Course , which became an official standard textbook. The goal of Marxism–Leninism, according to its proponents, is the development of a state into what it considers a socialist state through the leadership of a revolutionary vanguard composed of "professional" revolutionaries, an organic part of the working class who come to socialist consciousness as a result of the dialectic of class struggle . The socialist state, which according to Marxism– Leninism
Leninism
represents a "dictatorship of the proletariat ", is primarily or exclusively governed by the party of the revolutionary vanguard through the process of democratic centralism , which Vladimir Lenin described as "diversity in discussion, unity in action." Through this policy, the communist party (or equivalent) is the supreme political institution of the state and primary force of societal organisation
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One-party State
A ONE-PARTY STATE, SINGLE-PARTY STATE, ONE-PARTY SYSTEM, SINGLE-PARTY SYSTEM is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution. All other parties are either outlawed or allowed to take only a limited and controlled participation in elections. Sometimes the term _DE FACTO_ ONE-PARTY STATE is used to describe a dominant-party system that, unlike the one-party state, allows (at least nominally) democratic multiparty elections, but the existing practices or balance of political power effectively prevent the opposition from winning the elections. CONTENTS * 1 Concept * 2 Examples * 2.1 Current one-party states * 2.2 Former one-party states * 2.2.1 Former big tent one-party states * 2.2.2 Former left-wing one-party states * 2.2.2.1 Former Marxist-Leninist one-party states * 2.2.3 Former right-wing one-party states * 2.2.3.1 Former fascist or nationalist one-party states * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links CONCEPTOne-party states explain themselves through various methods. Most often, proponents of a one-party state argue that the existence of separate parties runs counter to national unity. Others argue that the one party is the vanguard of the people, and therefore its right to rule cannot be legitimately questioned
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