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Soviet Union
The SOVIET UNION (Russian : Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: ( listen )), officially the UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (Russian : Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: ( listen )), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian : СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics , its government and economy were highly centralized . The country was a one-party state , governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic . The Russian nation had constitutionally equal status among the many nations of the union but exerted de facto dominance in various respects
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Turkmen Language
TURKMEN (Türkmençe, türkmen dili; Түркменче, түркмен дили; تورکمن تیلی ,تورکمنچه‎; , ) is an official language of Turkmenistan. It is a Turkic language spoken by 3.5 million people in Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
as well as by around 2 million people in northeastern Iran
Iran
and 1.5 million people in northwestern Afghanistan
Afghanistan

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Semi-presidential System
A SEMI-PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible to the legislature of a state . A semi-presidential system differs from a parliamentary republic in that it has a popularly elected head of state , who is more than a purely ceremonial figurehead , and from the presidential system in that the cabinet , although named by the president, is responsible to the legislature , which may force the cabinet to resign through a motion of no confidence . While the German Weimar Republic (1919–1933) exemplified an early semi-presidential system, the term "semi-presidential" was introduced by a 1959 article by journalist Hubert Beuve-Méry and popularized by a 1978 work by political scientist Maurice Duverger , both of which intended to describe the French Fifth Republic (established in 1958)
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List Of Countries And Dependencies By Area
This is a list of the world 's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area . Entries in this list, include, but are not limited to, those in the ISO standard 3166-1 , which includes sovereign states and dependent territories. Largely unrecognised states not in ISO 3166-1 are included in the list in ranked order, but are not given a rank number. The areas of such largely unrecognised states are in most cases also included in the areas of the more widely recognised states that claim the same territory; see the notes in the "Notes" column for each country for clarification
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Georgian Language
GEORGIAN (ქართული ენა, pronounced ) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians . It is the official language of Georgia . Georgian is written in its own writing system , the Georgian script . Georgian is the literary language for all regional subgroups of Georgians, including those who speak other Kartvelian languages: Svans , Mingrelians and the Laz
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Demonym
A DEMONYM (/ˈdɛmənɪm/ ; δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place. It is a neologism (i.e., a recently minted term); previously GENTILIC was recorded in English dictionaries, e.g., the Oxford
Oxford
English Dictionary and Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary. Examples of demonyms include a Swahili for a person of the Swahili coast , the colloquial Kiwi for a person from New Zealand
New Zealand
, and a Cochabambino for a person from the city of Cochabamba
Cochabamba
. Demonyms do not always clearly distinguish place of origin or ethnicity from place of residence or citizenship, and many demonyms overlap with the ethnonym for the ethnically dominant group of a region
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State Emblem Of The Soviet Union
The STATE EMBLEM OF THE SOVIET UNION (Russian : Госуда́рственный герб Сове́тского Сою́за, tr. Gosudárstvenny gerb Sovétskogo Soyúza, IPA: ) was adopted in 1923 and was used until the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Although it technically is an emblem rather than a coat of arms, since it does not follow traditional heraldic rules, in Russian it is called герб (gerb), the word used for a traditional coat of arms. It was the first state insignia created in the style known as socialist heraldry , a style also seen in emblems of other socialist countries such as the emblem of the People\'s Republic of China
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Armenian Language
The ARMENIAN LANGUAGE (classical : հայերէն; reformed : հայերեն hayeren) occupies an independent branch of the Indo-European language tree. It is the official language of the Republic of Armenia
Armenia
and the Republic of Artsakh
Republic of Artsakh
. It has historically been spoken throughout the Armenian Highlands
Armenian Highlands
and today is widely spoken in the Armenian diaspora . Armenian is written using the Armenian alphabet
Armenian alphabet
, introduced in AD 405 by Mesrop Mashtots . Armenian has developed since the separation from Indo-European mother tongue in the third millennium BC to at least the time of the first Armenian dynasty (the Yervanduni dynasty , founded in the 6th century BC). Hellenistic influences during the Artashesian Dynasty (2nd century BC to 1st century AD) led to word borrowings from Greek and Latin
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USSR (other)
USSR
USSR
most commonly refers to the Soviet Union (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 1922–1991)
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Belarusian Language
BELARUSIAN (/bɛləˈruːsiən/ ; беларуская мова belaruskaya mova ) is an official language of Belarus , along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Russia , Ukraine , and small parts in far-eastern Poland . Before Belarus gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, the language was known in English as Byelorussian or Belorussian, transliterating the Russian name, белорусский язык, or alternatively as White Ruthenian (/ruːˈθiːniən/ ) or White Russian (with the meaning Rus' but not Russia). Following independence, it also became known as Belarusian. Belarusian is one of the East Slavic languages and shares many grammatical and lexical features with other members of the group. To some extent, Russian , Ukrainian , and Belarusian are mutually intelligible
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Kazakh Language
Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Russia
Russia
* Altai Republic
Altai Republic
China
China
* Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture REGULATED BY Kazakh language
Kazakh language
agency LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 kk ISO 639-2 kaz ISO 639-3 kaz GLOTTOLOG kaza1248 LINGUASPHERE 44-AAB-cc The Kazakh-speaking world: regions where Kazakh is the language of the majority regions where Kazakh is the language of a significant minority THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Uzbek Language
UZBEK is a Turkic language and the official language of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
. It has 27 million native speakers and is spoken by the Uzbeks in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and elsewhere in Central Asia
Central Asia
. Uzbek belongs to the Eastern Turkic, or Karluk , branch of the Turkic language family . External influences include Persian , Arabic
Arabic
and Russian . One of the most noticeable distinctions of Uzbek from other Turkic languages
Turkic languages
is the rounding of the vowel /a/ to /ɒ/, a feature that was influenced by Persian. CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 History * 3 Number of speakers * 4 Loan words * 5 Dialects * 6 Writing systems * 7 Phonology * 7.1 Vowels * 7.2 Consonants * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Sources * 11 External links NAMEIn the language itself, Uzbek is oʻzbek tili or oʻzbekcha
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CCCP (other)
СССР (Союз Советских Социалистических Республик) is a Russian abbreviation for the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. Written in Cyrillic alphabet symbols, the abbreviation is often misinterpreted as if it were written in Latin letters 'CCCP'. The Cyrillic letters translate to 'SSSR' in Latin alphabet symbols, Hence it should be pronounced as SSSR or Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik. CCCP may also refer to: * Combined Community Codec Pack , a filter pack developed for Microsoft Windows to play back rich multimedia content * CCCP Fedeli alla linea , a punk/art band from Reggio Emilia, Italy * C.C.C.P
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Lithuanian Language
LITHUANIAN (lietuvių kalba) is the official state language of Lithuania
Lithuania
and is recognized as one of the official languages of the European Union
European Union
. There are about 2.9 million native Lithuanian speakers in Lithuania
Lithuania
and about 200,000 abroad. Lithuanian is a Baltic language , related to Latvian . It is written in a Latin
Latin
alphabet . Lithuanian is often said to be the most conservative living Indo-European language , retaining many features of Proto-Indo-European now lost in other Indo-European languages
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Estonian Language
ESTONIAN (eesti keel ( listen )) is the official language of Estonia
Estonia
, spoken natively by about 922,000 people in Estonia
Estonia
and 160,000 outside Estonia. It belongs to the Finnic branch of the Uralic language family . CONTENTS * 1 Classification * 2 History * 2.1 Estonian literature * 2.2 State language * 3 Dialects * 4 Writing system
Writing system
* 4.1 Alphabet * 4.2 Orthography * 5 Phonology * 6 Grammar * 7 Vocabulary * 7.1 Ex nihilo lexical enrichment * 8 Sample text * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links CLASSIFICATIONEstonian belongs to the Finnic branch of the Uralic languages , along with Finnish , Karelian , and other nearby languages
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Azerbaijani Language
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Russia
Russia
* Dagestan
Dagestan
REGULATED BY Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
National Academy of Sciences LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 az ISO 639-2 aze ISO 639-3 aze – inclusive code Individual codes: azj – North Azerbaijani azb – South Azerbaijani slq – Salchuq qxq – Qashqai GLOTTOLOG azer1255 North Azeri–Salchuq sout2696 South Azeri–Qashqa'i LINGUASPHERE part of 44-AAB-a Location of Azerbaijani speakers in Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
regions where Azerbaijani is the language of the majority regions where Azerbaijani is the language of a significant minority THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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