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Soviet Invasion Of Poland
An INVASION is a military offensive in which large parts of combatants of one geopolitical entity aggressively enter territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of either conquering, liberating or re-establishing control or authority over a territory, forcing the partition of a country, altering the established government or gaining concessions from said government, or a combination thereof. An invasion can be the cause of a war , be a part of a larger strategy to end a war, or it can constitute an entire war in itself. Due to the large scale of the operations associated with invasions, they are usually strategic in planning and execution. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Defenses * 3 Methods * 3.1 Invasion
Invasion
by land * 3.2 Invasion
Invasion
by sea * 3.3 Invasion
Invasion
by air * 3.4 Pacification * 4 Support * 4.1 Logistics * 4.2 Communication
Communication
* 4.3 Public relations * 5 Applications regarding non-state combatants * 6 Outcomes * 7 See also * 8 References HISTORY Further information: Invasionism Archaeological evidence indicates that invasions have been frequent occurrences since prehistory . In antiquity, before radio communications and fast transportation , the only way to ensure adequate reinforcements was to move armies as one massive force. This, by its very nature, led to the strategy of invasion
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Polish–Soviet War
PEACE OF RIGA : * Polish forces prevent Soviet
Soviet
occupation of Poland
Poland
* Poland
Poland
takes control of present-day Western Ukraine and West Belarus
Belarus
* Soviet
Soviet
forces take control of Eastern Ukraine
Eastern Ukraine
and East Belarus BELLIGERENTS Russian SFSR Ukrainian SSR Byelorussian SSR Poland
Poland
Ukraine
Ukraine
(since 1920) Ukrainian SSR (selected detachments) SUPPORT: France United Kingdom
United Kingdom
COMMANDERS AND LEADERS L. TROTSKY ( Commissar of Military and Naval Affairs) S. Kamenev (Commander-in-Chief) M. Tukhachevsky (Western Front) J. Stalin ( Lviv
Lviv
Front) A. Yegorov (Southwestern Front) S. Budyonny ( 1st Cavalry Army ) J. PIłSUDSKI J. Haller T. Rozwadowski E. Rydz-Śmigły W. Sikorski S
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Invasion Of Poland
Decisive German and Soviet victory * Beginning of World War II
World War II
Territorial changes Polish territory divided among Germany, the Soviet Union, Lithuania
Lithuania
and Slovakia
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World War Ii
Allied victory * Collapse of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires * Dissolution of the League of Nations * Creation of the United Nations
United Nations
* Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers * Beginning of the Cold War (more... ) PARTICIPANTS ALLIES AXIS COMMANDERS AND LEADERS MAIN ALLIED LEADERS Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Lwów
LVIV (Ukrainian : Львів, pronounced ( listen ), Polish : Lwów, pronounced ( listen ), Hellenic and Latin : Leopolis, see also other names ) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016. Lviv is one of the main cultural centres of Ukraine . Named in honor of the Leo , the eldest son of Rus' King Daniel of Galicia , it was the capital of the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia (also called Kingdom of Rus') from 1272 to 1349, when it was conquered by King Casimir III the Great who then became known as the King of Poland and Rus'. From 1434, it was the regional capital of the Ruthenian Voivodeship in the Kingdom of Poland and was known as Lwów. In 1772, after the First partition of Poland , the city became the capital of the Habsburg Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria and was renamed to Lemberg. In 1918, for a short time, it was the capital of the West Ukrainian People\'s Republic . Between the wars, the city was known again as Lwów and was the centre of the Lwów Voivodeship in the Second Polish Republic . After World War II , it became part of the Soviet Union (by Stalin Djugashvili gift to Ukrainian SSR ) with Ukrainian Peoples coming back to their Homeland and in 1991 of independent Ukraine. Administratively, Lviv serves as the administrative center of Lviv Oblast and has the status of city of oblast significance
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Second Polish Republic
The SECOND POLISH REPUBLIC, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939). Officially known as the REPUBLIC OF POLAND (Polish : Rzeczpospolita Polska), the Polish state was recreated in 1918 , in the aftermath of World War I . When, after several regional conflicts, the borders of the state were fixed in 1922, Poland's neighbours were Czechoslovakia , Germany , the Free City of Danzig , Lithuania , Latvia , Romania and the Soviet Union . It had access to the Baltic Sea via a short strip of coastline either side of the city of Gdynia . Between March and August 1939, Poland also shared a border with the then-Hungarian governorate of Subcarpathia . Despite internal and external pressures, it continued to exist until 1939, when Poland was invaded by Nazi Germany , the Soviet Union and the Slovak Republic , marking the beginning of World War II in Europe . The Second Republic was significantly different in territory to the current Polish state as it included substantially more territory in the east and less in the west. The Second Republic's land area was 388,634 km2, making it, in October 1938, the sixth largest country in Europe. After the annexation of Zaolzie , this grew to 389,720 km2. According to the 1921 census , the number of inhabitants was 27.2 million. By 1939, just before the outbreak of World War II, this had grown to an estimated 35.1 million
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Kresy
KRESY WSCHODNIE or KRESY (Polish pronunciation: , Eastern Borderlands, or Borderlands) was a region of the Second Polish Republic during the interwar period constituting nearly half of the territory of the state; where the ethnic Poles, being the largest group, were roughly equal in their number to the size of the national minorities (with notable exceptions). Administratively, the territory of Kresy was composed of voivodeships of Lwów , Nowogródek , Polesie , Stanisławów , Tarnopol , Wilno , Wołyń , and the Białystok . Today, these territories are divided between Western Ukraine , Western Belarus , and south-eastern Lithuania , with such major cities as Lviv , Vilnius , and Grodno no longer in Poland. In the Second Polish Republic the term Kresy roughly equated with the lands beyond the so-called Curzon Line , which was suggested after World War I in December 1919 by the British Foreign Office as the eastern border of the re-emerging sovereign Republic following the century of partitions . In September 1939, after the Soviet Union joined Nazi Germany in their attack on Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact , the territories were incorporated into Soviet Ukraine , Belarus and Lithuania in the atmosphere of terror. Following the failure of German Operation Barbarossa , the Soviet gains were ratified by the Western Allies at the Tehran conference , the Yalta conference and the Potsdam conference
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Soviet Union
The SOVIET UNION (Russian : Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. _Sovetsky Soyuz_; IPA: ), officially the UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (USSR; Russian : Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик (СССР), tr. _Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik (SSSR)_; IPA: (_ listen )), also known unofficially as RUSSIA (Russian : Росси́я, tr. Rossiya_; IPA: ), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple equal national Soviet republics , its government and economy were highly centralized . The country was a one-party federation , governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
had its roots in the October Revolution of 1917, when the Bolsheviks , led by Vladimir Lenin , overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar
Tsar
Nicholas II . In 1922, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was formed with the unification of the Russian , Transcaucasian , Ukrainian , and Byelorussian republics. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism (which he created), and initiated a centrally planned economy
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Edward Rydz-Śmigły
Marshal EDWARD RYDZ-ŚMIGłY ( listen ) (11 March 1886 – 2 December 1941; nom de guerre Śmigły, Tarłowski, Adam Zawisza), also called EDWARD ŚMIGłY-RYDZ, was a Polish politician, statesman, Marshal of Poland and Commander-in-Chief of Poland's armed forces, as well as painter and poet. During the interwar period , he was an exceptionally admired public figure in Poland and was regarded as a hero for his exemplary record as an army commander in the Polish Legions of World War I and the ensuing Polish-Soviet War of 1920 . His popularity grew upon his appointment as Commander-in-Chief and Inspector General of the Polish Armed Forces following Marshal Józef Piłsudski ‘s death in 1935. Rydz served in this capacity at the start of World War II during the 1939 German invasion of Poland . His military positions gave Rydz-Śmigły de facto command over all matters of national defense in time of war. Initially, he did not surround himself with any organized political grouping, but over time, he gave up the role of a disinterested observer and became more public in his views and pronouncements, and his speeches increasingly took on a political tone. Having few political connections and taking advantage of the feuds within the ruling elite following Piłsudski‘s death, he gradually emerged at the pinnacle of the nation's politics, but his tenure was characterised by grave domestic problems and failures in foreign policy
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Marshal Of Poland
MARSHAL OF POLAND (Marszałek Polski) is the highest rank in the Polish Army . It has been granted to only six officers. At present, this rank is equivalent to a Field Marshal or General of the Army (OF-10) in other NATO armies. HISTORY Buława of the Marshal of Poland Today there are no living Marshals of Poland, since this rank is bestowed only on military commanders who have achieved victory in war. Recently, however, the rank of four-star with modernized name Generał has been introduced, and on August 15, 2002, was granted to Czesław Piątas , at present civilian, former Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Poland . In all, the following persons have served as Marshals of Poland
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Kliment Voroshilov
KLIMENT YEFREMOVICH VOROSHILOV (Russian : Климе́нт Ефре́мович Вороши́лов​ (help ·info ) Kliment Jefremovič Vorošilov, Ukrainian : Климент Охрімович Ворошилов, Klyment Ochrimovyč Vorošylov), popularly known as KLIM VOROSHILOV (Russian : Клим Вороши́лов, Klim Vorošilov) (4 February 1881 – 2 December 1969), was a prominent Soviet military officer and politician during the Stalin era. He was one of the original five Marshals of the Soviet Union (the highest military rank of the Soviet Union), along with Chief of the General Staff of the Red Army Alexander Ilyich Yegorov , and three senior commanders, Vasily Blyukher , Semyon Budyonny , and Mikhail Tukhachevsky . CONTENTS * 1 Early life and Russian Revolution * 2 Political career * 3 Retirement * 4 Personal life * 5 Honours and awards * 5.1 Soviet * 5.2 Foreign awards * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links EARLY LIFE AND RUSSIAN REVOLUTIONVoroshilov was born in the settlement of Verkhnyeye, Bakhmut uyezd , Yekaterinoslav Governorate , Russian Empire (now part of Lysychansk city in Luhansk Oblast , Ukraine ), into a railway worker's family of Russian ethnicity. However, according to the Soviet Major General Pyotr Grigorenko , Voroshilov himself alluded to his Ukrainian heritage and to the previous family name of Voroshilo
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Soviet Order Of Battle For Invasion Of Poland In 1939
The SOVIET ORDER OF BATTLE FOR THE INVASION OF POLAND IN 1939 details the major combat units arrayed for the Soviet surprise attack on Poland on September 17, 1939. As a result of joining battle after the Germans had already launched their invasion, the Soviets, prepared for battle in secrecy, met comparatively limited resistance. Several skirmishes between the German and Soviet forces did occur, but neither government was prepared for starting a larger conflict, and these were soon referred to as "misunderstandings". Map of central Poland with the Siege of Warsaw (upper middle). Situation after September 14, 1939 - the map also gives information on placement and movement of some Soviet troops Like the Germans, the Soviets employed two primary offensive axes, each managed by a Front . Each Front commander had at his disposal a mobile group of forces created from cavalry and mechanised troops; a precursor of the cavalry-mechanised groups of the Second World War
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Mikhail Kovalyov
Colonel-General MIKHAIL PROKOFIEVICH KOVALYOV (Russian : Михаил Прокофьевич Ковалёв) (7 July 1897 – 31 August 1967) was a Soviet military officer. Mikhail Kovalyov was born to family of a peasants in stanitsa Bryukovetskaya, Krasnodar Krai . In 1915 he enlisted in the Russian Army. After graduating from a School for Praporshchiks . Kovalyov fought in World War I commanding a platoon (polurota), company and then a battalion. At the time of the October Revolution he was a Stabs-Captain. During the Russian Civil War he commanded a regiment and then a brigade in the Red Army participating in the fights against White Armies of Denikin , Wrangel and the peasant Tambov rebellion of Aleksandr Antonov . From 1937 Kovalyov was the commander of Kiev Military District , then from 1938, he was the commander of Belarussian Military District . He was the commander of the Belarusian Front during the Soviet invasion of Poland in September 1939. Kovalyov was also the commander of the 15th Army (Soviet Union) and led the Russians to victory. As well as leading during the Winter War (1939–1940). He was the commander of Kharkov Military District , then Inspector of Infantry for the Red Army Commander of the Transbaikal Front during 1941. In July 1945 he became a vice-commander (Russian : заместитель командующего, zamestitel' komanduyushchego) of the Transbaikal Front and participated in military actions against Japan
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Semyon Timoshenko
SEMYON KONSTANTINOVICH TIMOSHENKO (Russian : Семён Константи́нович Тимоше́нко, Semën Konstantinovič Timošenko; Ukrainian : Семе́н Костянти́нович Тимоше́нко, Semen Kostiantynovych Tymoshenko) (18 February 1895 – 31 March 1970) was a Soviet military commander and Marshal of the Soviet Union . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Military career * 2.1 First World War * 2.2 The Russian Civil War and the 1930s * 2.3 The Winter War * 2.4 World War II * 2.5 Postwar * 3 Awards * 4 References * 4.1 Citations * 4.2 Bibliography * 5 External links EARLY LIFETimoshenko was born into a peasant family at Furmanivka , in the Budjak region (Southern Bessarabia , present-day Odessa Oblast , Ukraine ). MILITARY CAREERFIRST WORLD WARIn 1914, he was drafted into the army of the Russian Empire and served as a cavalryman on Russia's western front. On the outbreak of the Russian Revolution in 1917, he sided with the Bolsheviks, joining the Red Army in 1918 and the Bolshevik Party in 1919
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Border Protection Corps
The BORDER PROTECTION CORPS (Polish : Korpus Ochrony Pogranicza, KOP) was a Polish military formation that was created in 1924 to defend the country's eastern borders against armed Soviet incursions and local bandits. Other borders were under the jurisdiction of a separate, regular Border Guard state security agency. Though the corps was part of the Polish Army , it was commanded directly by the Ministry of Internal Affairs rather than the Ministry of National Defence. It consisted of elite soldiers from all parts of Poland. Initially KOP comprised 6 brigades and 5 regiments, each guarding part of the borders with the Soviet Union. KOP ceased to exist with the fall of Poland in September 1939. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Founding * 1.2 Piłsudski\'s reforms (1929-35) * 1.3 Modernisation (1937-39) * 1.4 September Campaign * 2 Commanders * 3 Support forces * 4 Order of battle * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORYFOUNDINGAfter the Polish-Bolshevik War the Polish eastern frontier was stretched from the border with Latvia to the north, to the Prut river and Romanian border to the south. Although the peace treaty had been signed, the eastern border of Poland was insecure. Armed bands of saboteurs were crossing the border on a daily basis and the weak police forces in the area could not cope with the problem. In 1924 the town of Stołpce located 20 kilometres from the border was seized by Soviet saboteurs and pillaged
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Polish Army
The LAND FORCES (Wojska Lądowe) are a military branch of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland . They currently contain some 65,000 active personnel and form many components of European Union and NATO deployments around the world. Poland's recorded military history stretches back for hundreds of years – since the 10th century (see List of Polish wars and History of the Polish Army ), but Poland's modern army was formed after 1918. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 1918–1938 * 1.2 1939–1945 * 1.3 1945–1989 * 1.4 After 1989 * 2 Participation in peacekeeping operations * 3 Equipment * 4 Modernization of Land Forces in 2013-2022 * 5 Structure * 5.1 Formations * 5.2 Arms of Service * 6 Geographic distribution * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links HISTORY1918–1938 See also: Polish-Soviet War Polish order of battle When Poland regained independence in 1918, it recreated its military which participated in the Polish-Soviet War of 1919–1921, and in the two smaller conflicts ( Polish-Ukrainian War (1918–1919) and the Polish-Lithuanian War (1920))
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