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Sovereign State
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area
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United Nations
The United Nations
United Nations
(UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order. A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations, the organization was established on 24 October 1945 after World War II
World War II
with the aim of preventing another such conflict. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, and is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, promoting human rights, fostering social and economic development, protecting the environment, and providing humanitarian aid in cases of famine, natural disaster, and armed conflict
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South Africa Under Apartheid
Apartheid
Apartheid
(South African English pronunciation: /əˈpɑːrteɪd/; Afrikaans: [aˈpartɦəit], lit. "separateness") was a system of institutionalised racial segregation and discrimination that existed in South Africa
South Africa
between 1948 and 1994. The system was based on white supremacy and the repression of the black majority (Africans, coloureds and Asian South Africans) for the benefit of the politically and economically dominant Afrikaners
Afrikaners
and other whites
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Congress Of Vienna
The Congress of Vienna
Vienna
(German: Wiener Kongress) was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna
Vienna
from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814. The objective of the Congress was to provide a long-term peace plan for Europe by settling critical issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars
French Revolutionary Wars
and the Napoleonic Wars. The goal was not simply to restore old boundaries but to resize the main powers so they could balance each other and remain at peace. The leaders were conservatives with little use for republicanism or revolution, both of which threatened to upset the status quo in Europe
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Final Act Of The Congress Of Vienna
The Congress of Vienna
Vienna
(German: Wiener Kongress) was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna
Vienna
from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814. The objective of the Congress was to provide a long-term peace plan for Europe by settling critical issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars
French Revolutionary Wars
and the Napoleonic Wars. The goal was not simply to restore old boundaries but to resize the main powers so they could balance each other and remain at peace. The leaders were conservatives with little use for republicanism or revolution, both of which threatened to upset the status quo in Europe
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L. F. L. Oppenheim
Lassa Francis Lawrence Oppenheim (March 30, 1858 – October 7, 1919) was a renowned German jurist. He is regarded by many as the father of the modern discipline of international law, especially the hard legal positivist school of thought. He inspired Joseph Raz
Joseph Raz
and Prosper Weil.Contents1 Birth, life, and career in Germany 2 Life and career in the United Kingdom 3 Works3.1 Books and monographs 3.2 Other works 3.3 Edited by Oppenheim4 References 5 External linksBirth, life, and career in Germany[edit] Oppenheim was born in Windecken
Windecken
near the Free City of Frankfurt, German Confederation, the son of a Jewish horse trader,[1] and educated at the Universities of Berlin, Göttingen and Heidelberg. In 1881, he obtained his PhD of Law at the University of Göttingen. In 1883, he went to the University of Leipzig, where he became a disciple of the renowned Professor of Criminal Law Karl Binding
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Montevideo Convention
The Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States is a treaty signed at Montevideo, Uruguay, on December 26, 1933, during the Seventh International Conference of American States. The Convention codifies the declarative theory of statehood as accepted as part of customary international law.[2] At the conference, United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Secretary of State Cordell Hull declared the Good Neighbor Policy, which opposed U.S. armed intervention in inter-American affairs. The convention was signed by 19 states. The acceptance of three of the signatories was subject to minor reservations. Those states were Brazil, Peru and the United States.[1] The convention became operative on December 26, 1934. It was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on January 8, 1936.[3] The conference is notable in U.S. history, since one of the U.S. representatives was Dr. Sophonisba Preston Breckinridge, the first U.S
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European Economic Community
The European Economic Community
European Economic Community
(EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states. It was created by the Treaty of Rome
Treaty of Rome
of 1957.[1] Upon the formation of the European Union
European Union
(EU) in 1993, the EEC was incorporated and renamed as the European Community (EC). In 2009 the EC's institutions were absorbed into the EU's wider framework and the community ceased to exist. The Community's initial aim was to bring about economic integration, including a common market and customs union, among its six founding members: Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands
Netherlands
and West Germany
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Badinter Arbitration Committee
The Arbitration
Arbitration
Commission of the Conference on Yugoslavia (commonly known as Badinter Arbitration
Arbitration
Committee) was a commission set up by the Council of Ministers of the European Economic Community
European Economic Community
on 27 August 1991 to provide the Conference on Yugoslavia with legal advice. Robert Badinter
Robert Badinter
was appointed to President of the five-member Commission consisting of presidents of Constitutional Courts in the EEC. The Arbitration
Arbitration
Commission has handed down fifteen opinions on "major legal questions" raised by the conflict between several republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
(SFRY).[1]Contents1 Commission members 2 Opinions2.1 Opinion
Opinion
No
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Rhodesia
Rhodesia
Rhodesia
(/roʊˈdiːʒə/) was an unrecognised state in southern Africa from 1965 to 1979, equivalent in territorial terms to modern Zimbabwe. With its capital in Salisbury (now Harare), Rhodesia
Rhodesia
was considered a de facto successor state to the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
(which had achieved responsible government in 1923) until 1970, when Rhodesia
Rhodesia
was proclaimed a republic without a monarch. During an effort to delay an immediate transition to black majority rule, Rhodesia's predominantly white government issued its own Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) from the United Kingdom on 11 November 1965
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United Nations Security Council
The United Nations
United Nations
Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations,[1] charged with the maintenance of international peace and security[2] as well as accepting new members to the United Nations[3] and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.[4] Its powers include the establishment of peacekeeping operations, the establishment of international sanctions, and the authorization of military action through Security Council resolutions; it is the only UN body with the authority to issue binding resolutions to member states. The Security Council held its first session on 17 January 1946. Like the UN as a whole, the Security Council was created following World War
War
II to address the failings of a previous international organization, the League of Nations, in maintaining world peace
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Synonym
A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language. Words that are synonyms are said to be synonymous, and the state of being a synonym is called synonymy. For example, the words begin, start, commence, and initiate are all synonyms of one another. Words are typically synonymous in one particular sense: for example, long and extended in the context long time or extended time are synonymous, but long cannot be used in the phrase extended family. Synonyms with the exact same meaning share a seme or denotational sememe, whereas those with inexactly similar meanings share a broader denotational or connotational sememe and thus overlap within a semantic field
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Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
or Cypriot Turks (Turkish: Kıbrıs Türkleri or Kıbrıslı Türkler; Greek: Τουρκοκύπριοι) are mostly ethnic Turks originating from Cyprus
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Parliamentary Assembly Of The Council Of Europe
The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
Council of Europe
(PACE) is the parliamentary arm of the Council of Europe, a 47-nation international organisation dedicated to upholding human rights, democracy and the rule of law
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Organisation Of Islamic Cooperation
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
(OIC; Arabic: منظمة التعاون الإسلامي‎; French: Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.6 billion as of 2008. The organisation states that it is "the collective voice of the Muslim world" and works to "safeguard and protect the interests of the Muslim world
Muslim world
in the spirit of promoting international peace and harmony".[2] The OIC has permanent delegations to the United Nations
United Nations
and the European Union
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Economic Cooperation Organization
The Economic Cooperation Organisation or ECO is a Eurasian
Eurasian
political and economic intergovernmental organization which was founded in 1985 in Tehran
Tehran
by the leaders of Iran, Pakistan
Pakistan
and Turkey. It provides a platform to discuss ways to improve development and promote trade and investment opportunities. The ECO is an ad hoc organisation under the United Nations Charter (Chap. VIII). The objective is to establish a single market for goods and services, much like the European Union.[2] ECO's secretariat and cultural department are located in Iran, its economic bureau is in Turkey
Turkey
and its scientific bureau is situated in Pakistan. The nature of ECO is that it consists of predominantly Muslim-majority states as it is a trade bloc for the Central Asian states connected to the Mediterranean through Turkey, to the Persian Gulf via Iran, and to the Arabian sea via Pakistan
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