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Southern Min
SOUTHERN MIN, or MINNAN (simplified Chinese : 闽南语; traditional Chinese : 閩南語), is a branch of Min Chinese
Min Chinese
spoken in certain parts of China
China
including southern Fujian
Fujian
(the Minnan region
Minnan region
), eastern Guangdong
Guangdong
, Hainan
Hainan
, and southern Zhejiang
Zhejiang
, and in Taiwan
Taiwan
. The Minnan dialects are also spoken by descendants of emigrants from these areas in diaspora , most notably the Philippines
Philippines
, Indonesia
Indonesia
, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Singapore
Singapore
. In common parlance, Southern Min
Southern Min
usually refers to Hokkien
Hokkien
, including Amoy and Taiwanese Hokkien
Hokkien
; both are combinations of Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Zhangzhou speeches. The Southern Min
Southern Min
dialect group also includes Teochew , though Teochew has limited mutual intelligibility with Hokkien
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Southern Ming
The SOUTHERN MING was a loyalist movement that was active in southern China following the Ming dynasty 's collapse in 1644. The Ming were overthrown when peasant rebels captured Beijing . Ming generals then opened the gates of the Great Wall to the nomadic Manchu tribes, hoping they would fight the rebels. Loyalists fled to Nanjing , where they enthroned the Zhu Yousong, Prince of Fu . The Nanjing regime lasted until 1645, when the Qing captured Nanjing. Later, a series of pretenders held court in various southern Chinese cities. The Nanjing regime lacked the resources to pay and supply its soldiers, who were left to live off the land and pillaged the countryside. The soldiers' behavior was so notorious that they were refused entry by those cities in a position to do so. Court official Shi Kefa obtained modern cannons and organized resistance at Yangzhou . The cannons mowed down a large number of Qing soldiers, but this only enraged those who survived. After the city fell in May 1645, the Qing slaughtered as many as 800,000 inhabitants in a notorious massacre . Nanjing surrendered promptly and without resistance on June 6. The Prince of Fu was taken to Beijing and executed in 1646. The literati in the provinces responded to the news from Yangzhou and Nanjing with an outpouring of emotion. Some recruited their own militia and became resistance leaders. Shi was lionized and there was a wave of hopeless sacrifice by loyalists who vowed to erase the shame of Nanjing
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China
CHINA, officially the PEOPLE\'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the world\'s most populous country , with a population of over 1.381 billion . Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometres (3.7 million square miles), it is the world's second-largest state by land area and third- or fourth-largest by total area . Governed by the Communist Party of China , it exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces , five autonomous regions , four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin , Shanghai , and Chongqing ) and the Special Administrative Regions Hong Kong and Macau , also claiming sovereignty over Taiwan . China is a great power and a major regional power within Asia, and has been characterized as a potential superpower . China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain . For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties , beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty . Since then, China has then expanded, fractured, and re-unified numerous times
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Taiwan
TAIWAN (/ˌtaɪˈwɑːn/ ( listen )), officially the REPUBLIC OF CHINA (ROC), is a state in East Asia . Its neighbors include China (officially the People's Republic of China, PRC) to the west, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. Taiwan is the most populous state that is not a member of the United Nations and the largest economy outside the UN. The island of Taiwan , formerly known as Formosa, was inhabited by Taiwanese aborigines before the 17th century, when Dutch and Spanish colonies opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning , the island was annexed by the Qing dynasty , the last dynasty of China. The Qing ceded Taiwan to Japan in 1895 after the Sino-Japanese War . While Taiwan was under Japanese rule, the Republic of China (ROC) was established on the mainland in 1912 after the fall of the Qing dynasty . Following the Japanese surrender to the Allies in 1945, the ROC took control of Taiwan. However, the resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the ROC's loss of the mainland to the Communists , and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949
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Malaysia
Coordinates : 2°30′N 112°30′E / 2.500°N 112.500°E / 2.500; 112.500 Malaysia Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Bersekutu Bertambah Mutu" "Unity Is Strength" ANTHEM: _ Negaraku _ _My Country_ CAPITAL Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
3°8′N 101°41′E / 3.133°N 101.683°E / 3.133; 101.683 Putrajaya
Putrajaya
(administrative) 2°56′35″N 101°41′58″E / 2.9430952°N 101.699373°E / 2.9430952; 101.699373 LARGEST CITY Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
3°8′N 101°41′E / 3.133°N 101.683°E / 3.133; 101.683 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Bahasa Malaysia
Malaysia
OFFICIAL SCRIPT Malay (Latin) alphabet RECOGNISED LANGUAGES English ETHNIC GROUPS ( ) * 50.1% Malay * 22.6% Chinese * 11.8% Indigenous * 6.7% Indian * 8.8% other RELIGION * Official: * 61.3% Islam (Sunni ) * Other religions: * 19.8% Buddhist * 9.2% Christian * 6.2% Hindu * 3.4% other DEMONYM Malaysian GOVERNMENT Federal parliamentary elective constitutional monarchy • YANG DI-PERTUAN AGONG Muhammad V • PRIME MINISTER Najib Razak
Najib Razak
• CHIEF JUSTICE Md Raus Sharif • PRESIDENT OF THE DEWAN NEGARA S
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Indonesia
Coordinates : 5°S 120°E / 5°S 120°E / -5; 120 Republic of Indonesia _Republik Indonesia_ (Indonesian ) _ Flag National emblem MOTTO: Bhinneka Tunggal Ika _ ( Old Javanese ) "Unity in Diversity" NATIONAL IDEOLOGY : _Pancasila _ ANTHEM: _ Indonesia Raya _ "Great Indonesia" Area controlled by Indonesia shown in green Capital and largest city Jakarta 6°10.5′S 106°49.7′E / 6.1750°S 106.8283°E / -6.1750; 106.8283 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Indonesian SPOKEN LANGUAGES * Indonesian * Malay * English * Dutch * Javanese * 700 others RELIGI
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Singapore
SINGAPORE (/ˈsɪŋɡəpɔːr/ (_ listen )), officially the REPUBLIC OF SINGAPORE, sometimes referred to as the Lion City_, the _Garden City_ or the _ Little Red Dot _, is a sovereign city-state in Southeast Asia . It lies one degree (137 km) north of the equator , at the southern tip of peninsular Malaysia , with Indonesia 's Riau Islands to the south. Singapore's territory consists of one main island along with 62 other islets . Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23% (130 km2), and its greening policy has covered the densely populated island with tropical flora, parks and gardens . Stamford Raffles founded colonial Singapore in 1819 as a trading post of the East India Company ; after its collapse and the eventual establishment of the British Raj , the islands were ceded to Britain and became part of its Straits Settlements in 1826. During the Second World War , Singapore was occupied by Japan . It gained independence from the UK in 1963 by federating with other former British territories to form Malaysia , but separated two years later over ideological differences , becoming a sovereign nation in 1965
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Philippines
Coordinates : 13°N 122°E / 13°N 122°E / 13; 122 Republic of the Philippines _Republika ng Pilipinas_ (Filipino ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: " Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa
Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa
" "For God, People, Nature, and Country" ANTHEM: _ Lupang Hinirang
Lupang Hinirang
_ _Chosen Land_ GREAT SEAL _ Dakilang Sagisag ng Pilipinas _ (Tagalog) Great Seal of the Philippines CAPITAL
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Thailand
Coordinates : 15°24′N 101°18′E / 15.4°N 101.3°E / 15.4; 101.3 Kingdom of Thailand ราชอาณาจักรไทย (Thai ) _Ratcha-anachak Thai_ _ Flag Emblem ANTHEM: Phleng Chat Thai _ (English: "Thai National Anthem") ROYAL ANTHEM : _ Sansoen Phra Barami
Sansoen Phra Barami
_ (English: "Glorify His prestige") Location of Thailand (green) in ASEAN
ASEAN
(dark grey) – Capital and largest city Bangkok
Bangkok
13°45′N 100°29′E / 13.750°N 100.483°E / 13.750; 100.483 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Thai SPOKEN LANGUAGES * Isan * Kam Mueang
Mueang
* Pak Tai ETHNIC GROUPS (2009; 2011 :95–99)* Thai ∟ 34.1% Central Thai ∟ 24.9% Khon
Khon
Isan ∟ 9.9% Khon
Khon
Muang ∟ 7.5% Southern Thai :95–99 * 14% Thai Chinese
Thai Chinese
* 12% Others (incl
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Vietnam
Coordinates : 16°10′N 107°50′E / 16.167°N 107.833°E / 16.167; 107.833 Socialist Republic of Vietnam _Cộng hòa xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam_ (Vietnamese ) Flag Emblem MOTTO: Độc lập – Tự do – Hạnh phúc "Independence – Freedom – Happiness" ANTHEM: Tiến Quân Ca (English: "Army March") Location of Vietnam (green) in ASEAN (dark grey) – CAPITAL Hanoi 21°2′N 105°51′E / 21.033°N 105.850°E / 21.033; 105.850 LARGEST CITY Ho Chi Minh City Official language and national language Vietnamese ETHNIC GROUPS
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Myanmar
MYANMAR (Burmese pronunciation: ), officially the REPUBLIC OF THE UNION OF MYANMAR, also known as BURMA, is a sovereign state in the region of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
. Myanmar
Myanmar
is bordered by India
India
and Bangladesh to its west, Thailand
Thailand
and Laos
Laos
to its east, and China
China
to its north and northeast. To its south, about one third of Myanmar's total perimeter of 5,876 km (3,651 miles) forms an uninterrupted coastline of 1,930 km (1,200 mi) along the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
and the Andaman Sea
Andaman Sea
. The country's 2014 census counted a much lower population than expected, with 51 million people recorded. Myanmar
Myanmar
is 676,578 square kilometres (261,227 sq mi) in size. Its capital city is Naypyidaw
Naypyidaw
and its largest city and former capital city is Yangon
Yangon
(Rangoon). Myanmar
Myanmar
has been a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
(ASEAN) since 1997
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Hoklo People
The HOKLO PEOPLE are Han Chinese people whose traditional ancestral homes are in southern Fujian
Fujian
of South China
China
. They are also known by various endonyms ( Pe̍h-ōe-jī : _Hok-ló-lâng / Hō-ló-lâng / Ho̍h-ló-lâng / Hô-ló-lâng_), or other related terms such as BANLAM (MINNAN) PEOPLE (閩南儂; _Bân-lâm-lâng_) or HOKKIEN PEOPLE (福建儂; _Hok-kiàn-lâng_). In the narrowest scope, "Hoklo people" refers mainly to people who speak and use the Hokkien
Hokkien
dialect of Min Nan Chinese spoken in southern Fujian
Fujian
, Taiwan
Taiwan
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Singapore
Singapore
, Indonesia
Indonesia
and by many overseas Chinese throughout Southeast Asia. In a wider scope, "Hoklo people" can include speakers of other Min Nan dialects, such as Zhongshan Min , Zhenan Min , Teochew dialect , and Hainanese . There have been many famous Hoklo people
Hoklo people
throughout history, notably Lee Kuan Yew
Lee Kuan Yew
, Koxinga and Su Song
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Fujian
FUJIAN (Chinese : 福建; pinyin : _Fújiàn_; pronounced ( listen )), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China
China
. Fujian
Fujian
is bordered by Zhejiang
Zhejiang
to the north, Jiangxi
Jiangxi
to the west, and Guangdong
Guangdong
to the south. The name Fujian
Fujian
came from the combination of Fuzhou
Fuzhou
and Jianzhou (a former name for Jian\'ou ) two cities in Fujian, during the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
. While its population is chiefly of Han origin, it is one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse provinces in China. Most of Fujian
Fujian
is administered by the People\'s Republic of China (PRC). However, the archipelagos of Kinmen
Kinmen
and Matsu are under the control of the Republic of China
Republic of China
(ROC, aka Taiwan
Taiwan
). Thus, there are two provinces (in the sense of government organizations): the Fujian Province administered by the PRC and the Fujian
Fujian
Province of the ROC
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Chaozhou
CHAOZHOU (Chinese : 潮州), alternatively transliterated as CHIUCHOW, CHAOCHOW, or TEOCHEW, is a city in the eastern Guangdong province of the China. It borders Shantou to the south, Jieyang
Jieyang
to the southwest, Meizhou
Meizhou
to the northwest, the province of Fujian to the east and the South China Sea to the southeast. It is administered as a prefecture-level city with a jurisdiction area of 3,110 square kilometres (1,200 sq mi) and a total population of 2,669,844. Along with Shantou and Jieyang, Chaozhou
Chaozhou
is part of the Chaoshan region. CONTENTS * 1 Administration * 2 Geography and climate * 3 History * 4 Language * 5 Culture * 6 Economy * 7 Tourism * 8 Education * 9 Media * 9.1 Newspaper * 9.2 Radio and television * 10 Chaozhou
Chaozhou
communities * 11 Sister cities * 12 See also * 13 References * 14 External links ADMINISTRATIONChaozhou's municipal executive, legislature and judiciary are situated in Xiangqiao District , together with its CPC and Public Security bureau
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Shantou
SHANTOU, formerly romanized as SWATOW and sometimes known as SANTOW, is a prefecture-level city on the eastern coast of Guangdong , China, with a total population of 5,391,028 as of 2010 and an administrative area of 2,064 square kilometres (797 sq mi). Shantou has direct jurisdiction over six districts and one county, and the six urban districts of Shantou have a population of 5,330,764. With it and the surrounding cities of Jieyang and Chaozhou , the metropolitan region known as Chaoshan covers an area of 10,404 km2 (4,017 sq mi), and had a permanent population of 13,937,897 at the end of 2010. It's built up area spread of 11 districts was home to 11,635,577 inhabitants at the 2010 census. Shantou, a city significant in 19th-century Chinese history as one of the treaty ports established for Western trade and contact, was one of the original Special Economic Zones of the People's Republic of China established in the 1980s, but did not blossom in the manner that cities such as Shenzhen , Xiamen and Zhuhai did. However, it remains eastern Guangdong's economic centre, and is home to Shantou University , a member of the Project 211 group
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Chaoshan
CHAOSHAN or TEOSWA (Chinese : 潮汕; pinyin : Cháoshàn; peng\'im : Dio⁵suan¹ ) is the linguistic and cultural region in the east of Guangdong , China that is developing into a single metropolis. This region is the origin of the Min Nan Teochew dialect (潮汕话). The region, also known as CHIUSAAN in Cantonese, consists of the cities Jieyang , Chaozhou and Shantou . It differs linguistically from the rest of Guangdong province which consists of Leizhou Min , Yue , and Hakka speakers. It is historically important as the ancestral homeland of many Thais, Singaporeans, and Malaysians of Chinese descent. CONTENTS * 1 Origin and Metropolis * 2 Economy * 3 Geography * 4 Culture and language * 5 See also * 6 References ORIGIN AND METROPOLISThe name "Chaoshan" (潮汕) is a contraction of the names of two of its administrative areas, the prefecture-level cities of Chaozhou (潮州), and Shantou (汕头), which have agglomerated into a single extremely dense metropolitan area and among China's most densely populated. It is Guangdong 's second largest metropolitan area after the Pearl River Delta , and part of the Southern China Coast Megalopolis. ECONOMYThe Chaoshan region is the second largest economy in Guangdong, after the Pearl River Delta , however, it is still considered quite small in scale, in comparison
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