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South West England (European Parliament Constituency)
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative, elected body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: representing the electorate, making laws, and overseeing the government via hearings and inquiries. The term is similar to the idea of a senate, synod or congress, and is commonly used in countries that are current or former monarchies, a form of government with a monarch as the head. Some contexts restrict the use of the word parliament to parliamentary systems, although it is also used to describe the legislature in some presidential systems (e.g. the French parliament), even where it is not in the official name. Historically, parliaments included various kinds of deliberative, consultative, and judicial assemblies, e.g
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Parliament (other)
Parliament
Parliament
is a title of certain legislatures
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Alfonso IX
Alfonso IX (15 August 1171 – 23 or 24 September 1230) was king of León and Galicia from the death of his father Ferdinand II in 1188 until his own death. According to Ibn Khaldun
Ibn Khaldun
(1332–1406), he is said to have been called the Baboso or Slobberer because he was subject to fits of rage during which he foamed at the mouth.[1] He took steps towards modernizing and democratizing his dominion and founded the University of Salamanca
University of Salamanca
in 1212
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Roman Republic
The Roman Republic
Republic
(Latin: Res publica Romana; Classical Latin: [ˈreːs ˈpuːb.lɪ.ka roːˈmaː.na]) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world. Roman government was headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. As Roman society was very hierarchical by modern standards, the evolution of the Roman government was heavily influenced by the struggle between the patricians, Rome's land-holding aristocracy, who traced their ancestry to the founding of Rome, and the plebeians, the far more numerous citizen-commoners
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Legislative Assemblies Of The Roman Republic
The legislative assemblies of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
were political institutions in the ancient Roman Republic. According to the contemporary historian Polybius, it was the people (and thus the assemblies) who had the final say regarding the election of magistrates, the enactment of Roman laws, the carrying out of capital punishment, the declaration of war and peace, and the creation (or dissolution) of alliances. Under the Constitution of the Roman Republic, the people (and thus the assemblies) held the ultimate source of sovereignty. Since the Romans used a form of direct democracy, citizens, and not elected representatives, voted before each assembly. As such, the citizen-electors had no power, other than to cast a vote. Each assembly was presided over by a single Roman Magistrate, and as such, it was the presiding magistrate who made all decisions on matters of procedure and legality
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Statutes
A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a city, state, or country.[1] Typically, statutes command or prohibit something, or declare policy.[1] Statutes are rules made by legislative bodies; they are distinguished from case law or precedent, which is decided by courts, and regulations issued by government agencies.[1]Contents1 Publication and organization 2 Alternative meanings2.1 International law 2.2 Autonomy statute3 Religious statutes3.1 Biblical terminology 3.2 Dharma4 See also 5 References 6 External linksPublication and organization[edit] In virtually all countries, newly enacted statutes are published in some kind of journal, gazette, or chronological compilation, which is then distributed so that everyone can look up the statutory law. A universal problem encountered by lawmakers throughout human history is how to organize published statutes
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Roman Senate
The Roman Senate
Senate
(Latin: Senatus Romanus; Italian: Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome. It was one of the most enduring institutions in Roman history, being established in the first days of the city (traditionally founded in 753 BC). It survived the overthrow of the kings in 509 BC, the fall of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
in the 1st century BC, the division of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 395 AD, the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 476 AD, and the barbarian rule of Rome
Rome
in the 5th, 6th, and 7th centuries. During the days of the kingdom, it was little more than an advisory council to the king
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Shura
Shura
Shura
(Arabic: شورى‎ shūrā) is an Arabic word for "consultation"
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Congress Of Deputies (Spain)
Government (134)     PP (134) Confidence and supply (36)     Cs (32)      Mixed group (4)     UPN (2)      FAC (1)      CCa (1)Opposition (180)     PSOE
PSOE
(84)      UP–ECP–EM (67)      ERC (9)      PNV (5)      Mixed group (15) 
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Cortes Generales
The Cortes Generales
Cortes Generales
(Spanish pronunciation: [ˈkortes xeneˈɾales], General Courts) are the bicameral legislature of Spain, consisting of two chambers: the Congress of Deputies (the lower house) and the Senate (the upper house). The Congress of Deputies meets in the Palacio de las Cortes, and the Senate meets in the Palacio del Senado, both located in Madrid
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Kingdom Of León
The Kingdom of León
Kingdom of León
(/liˈɒn/; Spanish: [leˈon]; Leonese: Reinu de Llïón, Spanish: Reino de León, Galician: Reino de León, Portuguese: Reino de Leão, Latin: Regnum Legionense) was an independent kingdom situated in the northwest region of the Iberian Peninsula. It was founded in AD 910 when the Christian princes of Asturias
Asturias
along the northern coast of the peninsula shifted their capital from Oviedo
Oviedo
to the city of León. The County of Portugal separated to become the independent Kingdom of Portugal
Portugal
in 1139 and the eastern, inland part of León was joined to the Kingdom of Castile in 1230. From 1296 to 1301, the Kingdom of León
Kingdom of León
was again independent and after the re-union with Castile remained a Crown until 1833, but as part of a united Spain
Spain
from 1479
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León, Spain
León (/leɪˈɒn, -ˈoʊn/; Spanish: León [leˈon]; Leonese: Llión [ʎiˈoŋ]; Portuguese: Leão) is the capital of the province of León, located in the northwest of Spain. Its city population of 127,817 (2015) makes it the largest municipality in the province, accounting for more than one quarter[2] of the province's population. Including the metropolitan area, the population is estimated at 202,793 (2015). Founded as the military encampment of the Legio VI Victrix
Legio VI Victrix
around 29 BC, its standing as an encampment city was consolidated with the definitive settlement of the Legio VII Gemina
Legio VII Gemina
from 74 AD
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Kingdom Of Castile
The Kingdom of Castile
Kingdom of Castile
(/kæˈstiːl/; Spanish: Reino de Castilla, Latin: Regnum Castellae) was a large and powerful state on the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages. Its name comes from the host of castles constructed in the region. It began in the 9th century as the County of Castile
County of Castile
(Condado de Castilla), an eastern frontier lordship of the Kingdom of León. During the 10th century its counts increased their autonomy, but it was not until 1065 that it was separated from León and became a kingdom in its own right. Between 1072 and 1157 it was again united with León, and after 1230 this union became permanent. Throughout this period the Castilian kings made extensive conquests in southern Iberia at the expense of the Islamic principalities
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Citizen
Citizenship
Citizenship
is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation. A person may have multiple citizenships and a person who does not have citizenship of any state is said to be stateless. Nationality
Nationality
is often used as a synonym for citizenship in English[1] – notably in international law – although the term is sometimes understood as denoting a person's membership of a nation (a large ethnic group).[2] In some countries, e.g
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Portugal
Portugal
Portugal
(Portuguese pronunciation: [puɾtuˈɣaɫ]), officially the Portuguese Republic
Republic
(Portuguese: República Portuguesa [ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ puɾtuˈɣezɐ]),[note 1] is a sovereign state located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and to the north and east by Spain
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