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Sour Cherries
PRUNUS CERASUS (SOUR CHERRY , TART CHERRY, or DWARF CHERRY ) is a species of Prunus
Prunus
in the subgenus Cerasus (cherries ), native to much of Europe
Europe
and southwest Asia
Asia
. It is closely related to the sweet cherry ( Prunus
Prunus
avium ), but has a fruit that is more acidic . The tree is smaller than the sweet cherry (growing to a height of 4–10 m), has twiggy branches, and its crimson-to-near-black cherries are borne upon shorter stalks. There are several varieties of the SOUR CHERRY: the dark-red MORELLO CHERRY and the lighter-red varieties including the AMARELLE CHERRY, and the popular MONTMORENCY CHERRY . The Montmorency cherry is the most popular type of sour cherry. The reason for its popularity is its use in baking and recipe creation. including cherry pies, cherry desserts and other cherry-based recipes. CONTENTS * 1 Origins and cultivation * 2 Uses * 2.1 Culinary * 3 See also * 4 References ORIGINS AND CULTIVATION Illustration of Morello Cherry
Cherry
Prunus
Prunus
cerasus is thought to have originated as a natural hybrid between Prunus
Prunus
avium and Prunus
Prunus
fruticosa in the Iranian Plateau
Iranian Plateau
or Eastern Europe
Europe
where the two species come into contact
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Ramiro Figueiras Amarelle
RAMIRO FIGUEIRAS AMARELLE (born December 17, 1977, in Ponteceso
Ponteceso
, Galicia , Spain
Spain
) is a Spanish beach soccer player and currently the head coach of China national beach soccer team . He was the captain of the Spain
Spain
national beach soccer team . Before he began to play beach soccer he played for Deportivo de La Coruña
Deportivo de La Coruña
B
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List Of Plants Known As Sour Cherry
SOUR CHERRY commonly refers to cultivars of Prunus cerasus
Prunus cerasus
. It can also refer to: * Prunus cerasoides * Syzygium corynanthum , a common Australian treeSEE ALSO * Dwarf cherry * Prunus emarginata , bitter cherry * Prunus virginiana
Prunus virginiana
, choke cherry This page is an index of articles on plant species (or higher taxonomic groups) with the same common name (vernacular name). If an internal link led you here, you may wish to edit the linking article so that it links directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_plants_known_as_sour_cherry additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics , cladistics , and systematics , the Linnaean system
Linnaean system
has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct
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Plant
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. The term is today generally limited to the GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade VIRIDIPLANTAE (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations , although asexual reproduction is also common. There are about 300–315 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants (see the table below ). Green plants provide most of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecologies, especially on land
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Angiosperms
sweet bay SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Kingdom: Plantae Subkingdom: Embryophyta (unranked): Spermatophyta (unranked): ANGIOSPERMS GROUPS (APG IV) Basal angiosperms * Amborellales * Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
* Austrobaileyales Core angiosperms * magnoliids * Chloranthales * monocots * Ceratophyllales * eudicots SYNONYMS * Anthophyta Cronquist * Angiospermae Lindl. * Magnoliophyta Cronquist , Takht. they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers , endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant that produces seeds within an enclosure, in other words, a fruiting plant. The term "angiosperm" comes from the Greek composite word (_angeion_, "case" or "casing", and _sperma_, "seed") meaning "enclosed seeds", after the enclosed condition of the seeds. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period , during the range 245 to 202 million years ago (mya), and the first flowering plants are known from 160 mya. They diversified extensively during the Lower Cretaceous
Cretaceous
, became widespread by 120 mya, and replaced conifers as the dominant trees from 100 to 60 mya
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Eudicots
The EUDICOTS, EUDICOTIDAE or EUDICOTYLEDONS are a monophyletic clade of flowering plants that had been called TRICOLPATES or NON-MAGNOLIID DICOTS by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the later evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots. The close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was initially seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters . These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Later molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits. The term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots. The term "eudicots" has subsequently been widely adopted in botany to refer to one of the two largest clades of angiosperms (constituting over 70% of the angiosperm species), monocots being the other. The remaining angiosperms are sometimes referred to as basal angiosperms or paleodicots, but these terms have not been widely or consistently adopted, as they do not refer to a monophyletic group. The other name for the eudicots is TRICOLPATES, a name which refers to the grooved structure of the pollen
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Rosids
The ROSIDS are members of a large clade (monophyletic group) of flowering plants , containing about 70,000 species , more than a quarter of all angiosperms. The clade is divided into 16 to 20 orders , depending upon circumscription and classification . These orders, in turn, together comprise about 140 families . Fossil rosids are known from the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period. Molecular clock estimates indicate that the rosids originated in the Aptian or Albian stages of the Cretaceous, between 125 and 99.6 million years ago. CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 Relationships * 3 Classification * 3.1 Orders * 4 Phylogeny
Phylogeny
* 5 References * 6 External links NAMEThe name is based upon the name " Rosidae ", which had usually been understood to be a subclass. In 1967, Armen Takhtajan
Armen Takhtajan
showed that the correct basis for the name "Rosidae" is a description of a group of plants published in 1830 by Friedrich Gottlieb Bartling
Friedrich Gottlieb Bartling
. The clade was later renamed "Rosidae" and has been variously delimited by different authors. The name "rosids" is informal and not assumed to have any particular taxonomic rank like the names authorized by the ICBN . The rosids are monophyletic based upon evidence found by molecular phylogenetic analysis. Three different definitions of the rosids were used
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Rosales
Barbeyaceae Cannabaceae (hemp family) Dirachmaceae Elaeagnaceae (oleaster / Russian olive family) Moraceae (mulberry family) Rhamnaceae (buckthorn family) Rosaceae (rose family) Ulmaceae (elm family) Urticaceae (nettle family) SYNONYMS Rhamnales Rosanae Urticales ROSALES is an order of flowering plants . It is sister to a clade consisting of Fagales and Cucurbitales . It contains about 7700 species , distributed into about 260 genera . Rosales comprise nine families , the type family being the rose family, Rosaceae . The largest of these families are Rosaceae (90/2500) and Urticaceae (54/2600). The order Rosales is divided into three clades that have never been assigned a taxonomic rank . The basal clade consists of the family Rosaceae; another clade consists of four families, including Rhamnaceae; and the third clade consists of the four urticalean families. The order Rosales is strongly supported as monophyletic in phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences , such as those carried out by members of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group . In their APG III system of plant classification , they defined Rosales as consisting of the nine families listed in the box on the right
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Rosaceae
ROSACEAE, the rose family, is a medium-sized family of flowering plants , including 4,828 known species in 91 genera. The name is derived from the type genus _Rosa _. Among the most species-rich genera are _ Alchemilla _ (270), _ Sorbus _ (260), _ Crataegus _ (260), _ Cotoneaster _ (260), _ Rubus _ (250), and _Prunus _ (plums, cherries, peaches, apricots, and almonds) with about 200 species. However, all of these numbers should be seen as estimates – much taxonomic work remains. The Rosaceae family includes herbs, shrubs, and trees. Most species are deciduous, but some are evergreen. They have a worldwide range, but are most diverse in the Northern Hemisphere. Several economically important products come from the Rosaceae, including many edible fruits (such as apples , pears , quinces , apricots , plums , cherries , peaches , raspberries , loquats , and strawberries ), almonds , and ornamental trees and shrubs (such as roses , meadowsweets , photinias , firethorns , rowans , and hawthorns )
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Prunus
see text SYNONYMS * Amygdalopersica Daniel
Daniel
* Amygdalophora M.Roem. * Amygdalopsis M.Roem. * Amygdalus L
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Binomial Nomenclature
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE (also called BINOMINAL NOMENCLATURE or BINARY NOMENCLATURE) is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms , although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a BINOMIAL NAME (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a BINOMEN, BINOMINAL NAME or a SCIENTIFIC NAME; more informally it is also called a LATIN NAME. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus _ Homo _ and within this genus to the species _ Homo sapiens _. The _formal_ introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus , effectively beginning with his work _ Species Plantarum _ in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin , in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book _Pinax theatri botanici_ (English, _Illustrated exposition of plants_) many names of genera that were later adopted by Linnaeus. The application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the _ International Code of Zoological Nomenclature _ (_ICZN_) for animals and the _International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants _ (_ICN_)
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Carl Linnaeus
CARL LINNAEUS (/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/ ; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as CARL VON LINNé (Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )), was a Swedish botanist , physician , and zoologist , who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature . He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin , and his name is rendered in Latin as CAROLUS LINNæUS (after 1761 CAROLUS A LINNé). Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland , in southern Sweden . He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University , and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his _ Systema Naturae _ in the Netherlands. He then returned to Sweden, where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala . In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals, plants, and minerals, and published several volumes. At the time of his death, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature , a SYNONYM is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies
Picea abies
. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription , position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature ). A synonym cannot exist in isolation: it is always an alternative to a different scientific name. Given that the correct name of a taxon depends on the taxonomic viewpoint used (resulting in a particular circumscription, position and rank) a name that is one taxonomist's synonym may be another taxonomist's correct name (and vice versa). Synonyms may arise whenever the same taxon is described and named more than once, independently
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Cherry
A CHERRY is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus
Prunus
, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit). The cherry fruits of commerce usually are obtained from a limited number of species such as cultivars of the sweet cherry, Prunus
Prunus
avium . The name 'cherry' also refers to the cherry tree, and is sometimes applied to almonds and visually similar flowering trees in the genus Prunus, as in "ornamental cherry" or "cherry blossom ". WILD CHERRY may refer to any of the cherry species growing outside cultivation, although Prunus avium is often referred to specifically by the name "wild cherry" in the British Isles. CONTENTS * 1 Botany * 2 History * 2.1 Etymology and antiquity * 3 Cultivation * 3.1 Growing season * 3.2 Pests and diseases * 4 Cultivars * 5 Production * 5.1 Middle East * 5.2 Europe * 5.3 North America
North America
* 5.4 Australia * 6 Nutritional value * 7 Other uses * 8 Species * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links BOTANY Prunus
Prunus
cerasus Many cherries are members of the subgenus CERASUS, which is distinguished by having the flowers in small corymbs of several together (not singly, nor in racemes ), and by having smooth fruit with only a weak groove along one side, or no groove
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Europe
EUROPE —a concept dating back to classical antiquity — is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia . Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The eastern boundary with Asia is an arbitrary historical and social construct , as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. The primarily physiographic term "continent" as applied to Europe also incorporates cultural and political elements whose discontinuities and lines of demarcation are not reflected by the continent's current overland boundaries with Asia. Europe is considered by historical convention as separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains , the Ural River , the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits . Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth's surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 740 million (about 11% of world population ) as of 2015
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