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Sound Board (music)
A sound board, or soundboard, is the surface of a string instrument that the strings vibrate against, usually via some sort of bridge. Pianos, guitars, banjos, and many other stringed instruments incorporate soundboards. The resonant properties of the sound board and the interior of the instrument greatly increase the loudness of the vibrating strings.[1] The sound board operates by the principle of forced vibration. The string gently vibrates the board, and despite their differences in size and composition, makes the board vibrate at exactly the same frequency. This produces the same sound as the string alone, differing only in timbre. The string would produce the same amount of energy without the board present, but the greater surface area of the sound board moves a greater volume of air, which produces a louder sound. Sound boards are traditionally made of wood (see tonewood), though other materials are used, such as skin or plastic on instruments in the banjo family
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The New Grove Dictionary Of Music And Musicians
The New Grove Dictionary of Music
Music
and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians. Along with the German-language Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, it is one of the largest reference works on western music. Originally published under the title A Dictionary of Music
Music
and Musicians, and later as Grove's Dictionary of Music
Music
and Musicians, it has gone through several editions since the 19th century and is widely used
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Rosette (design)
A rosette is a round, stylized flower design.Contents1 Origin 2 History 3 Ancient origins 4 Modern use 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 FootnotesOrigin[edit] The rosette derives from the natural shape of the botanical rosette, formed by leaves radiating out from the stem of a plant and visible even after the flowers have withered. History[edit] The rosette design is used extensively in sculptural objects from antiquity, appearing in Mesopotamia,and in funeral steles' decoration in Ancient Greece
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Enharmonicity
In modern musical notation and tuning, an enharmonic equivalent is a note, interval, or key signature that is equivalent to some other note, interval, or key signature but "spelled", or named differently. Thus, the enharmonic spelling of a written note, interval, or chord is an alternative way to write that note, interval, or chord. For example, in twelve-tone equal temperament (the currently predominant system of musical tuning in Western music), the notes C♯ and D♭ are enharmonic (or enharmonically equivalent) notes. Namely, they are the same key on a keyboard, and thus they are identical in pitch, although they have different names and different roles in harmony and chord progressions
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Chladni
Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni (German: [ˈɛʁnst ˈfloːʁɛns ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈkladnɪ]; 30 November 1756 – 3 April 1827) was a German physicist and musician. His most important work, for which he is sometimes labeled the father of acoustics, included research on vibrating plates and the calculation of the speed of sound for different gases.[1] He also undertook pioneering work in the study of meteorites and is regarded by some as the father of meteoritics.[2]Contents1 Early life 2 Career 3 Chladni figures 4 Musical instruments 5 Meteorites 6 Other work 7 Death 8 Bibliography 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External linksEarly life[edit] Although Chladni was born in Wittenberg
Wittenberg
in Saxony, his family originated from Kremnica, then part of the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
and today a mining town in central Slovakia
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Ernst Chladni
Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni (German: [ˈɛʁnst ˈfloːʁɛns ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈkladnɪ]; 30 November 1756 – 3 April 1827) was a German physicist and musician. His most important work, for which he is sometimes labeled the father of acoustics, included research on vibrating plates and the calculation of the speed of sound for different gases.[1] He also undertook pioneering work in the study of meteorites and is regarded by some as the father of meteoritics.[2]Contents1 Early life 2 Career 3 Chladni figures 4 Musical instruments 5 Meteorites 6 Other work 7 Death 8 Bibliography 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External linksEarly life[edit] Although Chladni was born in Wittenberg
Wittenberg
in Saxony, his family originated from Kremnica, then part of the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
and today a mining town in central Slovakia
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Tuning Fork
A tuning fork is an acoustic resonator in the form of a two-pronged fork with the prongs (tines) formed from a U-shaped bar of elastic metal (usually steel). It resonates at a specific constant pitch when set vibrating by striking it against a surface or with an object, and emits a pure musical tone once the high overtones die out. The pitch that a particular tuning fork generates depends on the length and mass of the two prongs
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Pear Tree
About 30 species; see textMany varieties, such as the Nashi pear, are not "pear-shaped".The pear is any of several tree and shrub species of genus Pyrus /ˈpaɪrəs/, in the family Rosaceae. It is also the name of the pomaceous fruit of the trees. Several species of pear are valued for their edible fruit and juices, while others are cultivated as trees.Contents1 Etymology 2 Description 3 History 4 Major recognized taxa 5 Cultivation5.1 Harvest 5.2 Diseases and pests6 Production 7 Storage 8 Uses 9 Nutrition 10 Cultural references 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External linksEtymology[edit] The word pear is probably from Germanic pera as a loanword of Vulgar Latin pira, the plural of pirum, akin to Greek apios (from Mycenaean ápisos),[1] of Semitic origin (pirâ), meaning "fruit"
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Maple
See either species grouped by sections alphabetical list of speciesDistributionAcer /ˈeɪsər/ is a genus of trees or shrubs commonly known as maple
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Softwood
Softwood
Softwood
is wood from gymnosperm trees such as conifers. The term is opposed to hardwood, which is the wood from angiosperm trees. Softwood trees have needles and exposed seeds, but do not have leaves.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Known softwood trees and uses 3 Applications 4 See also 5 ReferencesCharacteristics[edit] Softwoods are not necessarily softer than hardwoods.[1] In both groups there is an enormous variation in actual wood hardness, with the range in density in hardwoods completely including that of softwoods; some hardwoods (e.g. balsa) are softer than most softwoods, while the hardest hardwoods are much harder than any softwood
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Banjo
The banjo is a four-, five- or six-stringed instrument with a thin membrane stretched over a frame or cavity as a resonator, called the head. The membrane, or head, is typically made of plastic, although animal skin is still occasionally but rarely used, and the frame is typically circular. Early forms of the instrument were fashioned by Africans in America, adapted from African instruments of similar design.[1][2] The banjo is frequently associated with folk, Irish traditional, and country music. Historically, the banjo occupied a central place in African American
African American
traditional music, before becoming popular in the minstrel shows of the 19th century.[3][4][5] The banjo, with the fiddle, is a mainstay of American old-time music
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Timbre
In music, timbre (/ˈtæmbər/ TAM-bər, also known as tone color or tone quality from psychoacoustics) is the perceived sound quality of a musical note, sound or tone. Timbre
Timbre
distinguishes different types of sound production, such as choir voices and musical instruments, such as string instruments, wind instruments, and percussion instruments. It also enables listeners to distinguish different instruments in the same category (e.g. an oboe and a clarinet). The physical characteristics of sound that determine the perception of timbre include spectrum and envelope. Singers and instrumental musicians can change the timbre of the music they are singing/playing by using different singing or playing techniques
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Tonewood
Tonewood refers to specific wood varieties that possess tonal properties that make them good choices for use in acoustic stringed instruments.Contents1 Varieties of tonewood1.1 Softwoods 1.2 Hardwoods2 Selection of tonewoods 3 Sources 4 Preparation 5 References 6 External linksVarieties of tonewood[edit] As a rough generalization it can be said that stiff-but-light softwoods are favored for the soundboards or soundboard-like surface that transmits the vibrations of the strings to the ambient air. Hardwoods are favored for the body or framing element of an instrument. Softwoods[edit]Spruces are often used in the sound boards of instruments from the lute, violin, oud, mandolin, guitar, and harpsichord families; as well as the piano. Spruce
Spruce
is particularly suited for this use because of its high stiffness-to-weight ratio
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Loudness
In acoustics, loudness is the subjective perception of sound pressure. More formally, it is defined as, "That attribute of auditory sensation in terms of which sounds can be ordered on a scale extending from quiet to loud."[1] The relation of physical attributes of sound to perceived loudness consists of physical, physiological and psychological components. The study of apparent loudness is included in the topic of psychoacoustics and employs methods of psychophysics. In different industries, loudness may have different meanings and different measurement standards
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Monochord
A monochord, also known as sonometer (see below), is an ancient musical and scientific laboratory instrument, involving one (mono) string (Chord). The term monochord is sometimes used as the class-name for any musical stringed instrument having only one string and a stick shaped body, also known as musical bows. According to the Hornbostel–Sachs system, string bows are bar zithers (311.1) while monochords are traditionally board zithers (314). The "harmonical canon", or monochord is, at its least, "merely a string having a board under it of exactly the same length, upon which may be delineated the points at which the string must be stopped to give certain notes," allowing comparison.[2] A string is fixed at both ends and stretched over a sound box. One or more movable bridges are then manipulated to demonstrate mathematical relationships among the frequencies produced
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Drone (music)
In music, a drone is a harmonic or monophonic effect or accompaniment where a note or chord is continuously sounded throughout most or all of a piece. The word drone is also used to refer to any part of a musical instrument that is just used to produce such an effect, as is the archaic term burden (bourdon or burdon)[1][2] such as a "drone [pipe] of a bagpipe",[3][4] the pedal point in an organ, or the lowest course of a lute. Burden also refers to a part of a song that is repeated at the end of each stanza, such as the chorus or refrain.[5] The term comes from the French bourdon, a staff; or a pipe made in the form of a staff. "The drone does not take its name from the bee
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