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Sound Board (music)
A SOUND BOARD, or SOUNDBOARD, is the surface of a string instrument that the strings vibrate against, usually via some sort of bridge . Pianos, guitars, banjos, and many other stringed instruments incorporate soundboards. The resonant properties of the sound board and the interior of the instrument greatly increase the loudness of the vibrating strings. The sound board operates by the principle of forced vibration . The string gently vibrates the board, and despite their differences in size and composition, makes the board vibrate at exactly the same frequency. This produces the same sound as the string alone, differing only in timbre . The string would produce the same amount of energy without the board present, but the greater surface area of the sound board moves a greater volume of air, which produces a louder sound. Sound boards are traditionally made of wood (see tonewood ), though other materials are used, such as skin or plastic on instruments in the banjo family
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Pear Tree
About 30 species; see text. Many varieties, such as the Nashi pear , are not "pear-shaped " The PEAR is any of several tree and shrub species of genus PYRUS /ˈpaɪrəs/ , in the family Rosaceae
Rosaceae
. It is also the name of the pomaceous fruit of the trees. Several species of pear are valued for their edible fruit and juices, while others are cultivated as trees. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Description * 3 History * 4 Major recognized taxa * 5 Cultivation * 5.1 Harvest * 5.2 Diseases and pests * 6 Production * 7 Storage * 8 Uses * 9 Nutrition * 10 Cultural references * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 Further reading * 14 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word “pear” is probably from Germanic pera as a loanword of Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
pira, the plural of pirum, akin to Greek apios (from Mycenaean ápisos), of Semitic origin ("pirâ"), meaning "fruit"
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Maple
See either species grouped by sections alphabetical list of species DistributionACER /ˈeɪsər/ is a genus of trees or shrubs commonly known as MAPLE. The genus is placed in the Sapindaceae family. There are approximately 128 species , most of which are native to Asia, with a number also appearing in Europe, northern Africa, and North America. Only one species, Acer laurinum , extends to the Southern Hemisphere. The type species of the genus is the sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus , the most common maple species in Europe
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Softwood
SOFTWOOD is wood from gymnosperm trees such as conifers . The term is opposed to hardwood , which is the wood from angiosperm trees. CONTENTS * 1 Characteristics * 2 Applications * 3 See also * 4 References CHARACTERISTICSSoftwoods are not necessarily softer than hardwoods. In both groups there is an enormous variation in actual wood hardness, with the range in density in hardwoods completely including that of softwoods; some hardwoods (e.g. balsa ) are softer than most softwoods, while the hardest hardwoods are much harder than any softwood. The woods of longleaf pine , douglas fir , and yew are much harder in the mechanical sense than several hardwoods. Certain species of softwood are more resistant to insect attack from woodworm , as certain insects prefer damp hardwood
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Tuning Fork
A TUNING FORK is an acoustic resonator in the form of a two-pronged fork with the prongs (tines ) formed from a U-shaped bar of elastic metal (usually steel ). It resonates at a specific constant pitch when set vibrating by striking it against a surface or with an object, and emits a pure musical tone once the high overtones have died out. The pitch that a particular tuning fork generates depends on the length and mass of the two prongs. It is frequently used as a standard of pitch to tune musical instruments. The tuning fork was invented in 1711 by British musician John Shore , Sergeant Trumpeter and Lutenist to the court
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Ernst Chladni
ERNST FLORENS FRIEDRICH CHLADNI (German: ; 30 November 1756 – 3 April 1827) was a German physicist and musician . His most important work, for which he is sometimes labeled the father of acoustics, included research on vibrating plates and the calculation of the speed of sound for different gases . He also undertook pioneering work in the study of meteorites and is regarded by some as the father of meteoritics . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Career * 3 Chladni figures * 4 Musical instruments * 5 Meteorites * 6 Other work * 7 Death * 8 Bibliography * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links EARLY LIFEAlthough Chladni was born in Wittenberg
Wittenberg
in Saxony , his family originated from Kremnica , then part of the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
and today a mining town in central Slovakia
Slovakia

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Enharmonicity
In modern musical notation and tuning , an ENHARMONIC EQUIVALENT is a note , interval , or key signature that is equivalent to some other note, interval, or key signature but "spelled", or named differently. Thus, the ENHARMONIC SPELLING of a written note, interval, or chord is an alternative way to write that note, interval, or chord. For example, in twelve-tone equal temperament (the currently predominant system of musical tuning in Western music), the notes C♯ and D♭ are enharmonic (or enharmonically equivalent) notes. Namely, they are the same key on a keyboard , and thus they are identical in pitch, although they have different names and different roles in harmony and chord progressions. In other words, if two notes have the same pitch but are represented by different letter names and accidentals , they are enharmonic
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Piano Acoustics
PIANO ACOUSTICS are the physical properties of the piano that affect its sound . CONTENTS * 1 String length and mass * 2 Inharmonicity and piano size * 3 The Railsback curve * 3.1 Shape of the curve * 4 Multiple strings * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links STRING LENGTH AND MASS Strings vary in length and thickness, so that many octaves can fit on one sounding board The strings of a piano vary in thickness, and therefore in mass per length, with bass strings thicker than treble. A typical range is from 1/30 inch (.85 mm) for the highest treble strings to 1/3 inch (8.5 mm) for the lowest bass. These differences in string thickness follow from well-understood acoustic properties of strings. Given two strings, equally taut and heavy, one twice as long as the other, the longer would vibrate with a pitch one octave lower than the shorter
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Rosette (design)
A ROSETTE is a round, stylized flower design, used extensively in sculptural objects from antiquity , appearing in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and used to decorate the funeral stele in Ancient Greece . It was adopted later in Romaneseque and Renaissance , and also common in the art of Central Asia , spreading as far as India where it is used as a decorative motif in Greco-Buddhist art . The rosette derives from the natural shape of the botanical rosette , formed by leaves radiating out from the stem of a plant and visible even after the flowers have withered. The formalised flower motif is often carved in stone or wood to create decorative ornaments for architecture and furniture, and in metalworking , jewelry design and the applied arts to form a decorative border or at the intersection of two materials. Rosette decorations have been used for formal military awards
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The New Grove Dictionary Of Music And Musicians
THE NEW GROVE DICTIONARY OF MUSIC AND MUSICIANS is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians. Along with the German-language Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart , it is one of the largest reference works on western music. Originally published under the title A DICTIONARY OF MUSIC AND MUSICIANS, and later as GROVE\'S DICTIONARY OF MUSIC AND MUSICIANS, it has gone through several editions since the 19th century and is widely used. In recent years it has been made available as an electronic resource called GROVE MUSIC ONLINE, which is now an important part of OXFORD MUSIC ONLINE
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Timbre
In music , TIMBRE (/ˈtæmbər/ TAM-bər , also known as TONE COLOR or TONE QUALITY from psychoacoustics ), is the perceived sound quality of a musical note , sound, or tone. Timbre
Timbre
distinguishes different types of sound production, such as choir voices and musical instruments , such as string instruments , wind instruments , and percussion instruments. It also enables listeners to distinguish different instruments in the same category (e.g. an oboe and a clarinet ). The physical characteristics of sound that determine the perception of timbre include spectrum and envelope . Singers and instrumental musicians can change the timbre of the music they are singing/playing by using different singing or playing techniques
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Loudness
LOUDNESS is the characteristic of a sound that is primarily a psycho-physiological correlate of amplitude . More formally, it is defined as, "That attribute of auditory sensation in terms of which sounds can be ordered on a scale extending from quiet to loud." The relation of physical attributes of sound to perceived loudness consists of physical, physiological and psychological components. In different industries, loudness may have different meanings, and different standards exist, each purporting to define the measurement. Some definitions such as LKFS refer to relative loudness of different segments of electronically reproduced sounds such as for broadcasting and cinema. Others, such as ISO 532A (Stevens loudness, measured in sones ), ISO 532B (Zwicker loudness), DIN
DIN
45631 and ASA/ ANSI
ANSI
S3.4, have a more general scope and are often used to characterize loudness of environmental noise
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Tonewood
TONEWOOD refers to specific wood varieties that possess tonal properties that make them good choices for use in acoustic stringed instruments. CONTENTS* 1 Varieties of tonewood * 1.1 Softwoods * 1.2 Hardwoods * 2 Selection of tonewoods * 3 Sources * 4 Preparation * 5 References * 6 External links VARIETIES OF TONEWOODAs a rough generalization it can be said that stiff-but-light softwoods are favored for the soundboards or soundboard-like surface that transmits the vibrations of the strings to the ambient air. Hardwoods are favored for the body or framing element of an instrument. SOFTWOODS * Spruces are often used in the sound boards of instruments from the lute , violin , oud , mandolin , guitar , and harpsichord families; as well as the piano . Spruce
Spruce
is particularly suited for this use because of its high stiffness-to-weight ratio
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Banjo
The BANJO is a four-, five- or six-stringed instrument with a thin membrane stretched over a frame or cavity as a resonator, called the head. The membrane, or head, is typically made of plastic, although animal skin is still occasionally but rarely used, and the frame is typically circular. Early forms of the instrument were fashioned by Africans in America , adapted from African instruments of similar design. The banjo is frequently associated with country , folk , Irish traditional and bluegrass music . Historically, the banjo occupied a central place in African American
African American
traditional music , before becoming popular in the minstrel shows of the 19th century. The banjo, with the fiddle, is a mainstay of American old-time music . It is also very frequently used in Traditional ("Trad") Jazz
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Chladni
ERNST FLORENS FRIEDRICH CHLADNI (German: ; 30 November 1756 – 3 April 1827) was a German physicist and musician . His most important work, for which he is sometimes labeled the father of acoustics, included research on vibrating plates and the calculation of the speed of sound for different gases . He also undertook pioneering work in the study of meteorites and is regarded by some as the father of meteoritics . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Career * 3 Chladni figures * 4 Musical instruments * 5 Meteorites * 6 Other work * 7 Death * 8 Bibliography * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links EARLY LIFEAlthough Chladni was born in Wittenberg
Wittenberg
in Saxony , his family originated from