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Song Dynasty
The SONG DYNASTY (Chinese : 宋朝; pinyin : _Sòng cháo_; 960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279. It succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period , coincided with the Liao and Western Xia dynasties, and was followed by the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
. It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or true paper money nationally and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy . This dynasty also saw the first known use of gunpowder , as well as the first discernment of true north using a compass . The Song dynasty
Song dynasty
is divided into two distinct periods, Northern and Southern. During the NORTHERN SONG (Chinese : 北宋; 960–1127), the Song capital was in the northern city of Bianjing (now Kaifeng
Kaifeng
) and the dynasty controlled most of what is now Eastern China. The SOUTHERN SONG (Chinese : 南宋; 1127–1279) refers to the period after the Song lost control of its northern half to the Jurchen Jin dynasty in the Jin–Song Wars
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Song (state)
SòNG (Chinese : 宋; Old Chinese : *ˤuŋ-s) was a state during the Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
of ancient China, with its capital at Shangqiu
Shangqiu
. The state was founded soon after King Wu of Zhou conquered the Shang dynasty to establish the Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
in 1046/46 BC. It was conquered by the State of Qi in 286 BC, during the Warring States period . Confucius
Confucius
was a descendant of a Song nobleman who moved to the State of Lu . CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 History * 3 Rulers of the state * 4 Descendants * 5 Song in astronomy * 6 See also * 7 References ORIGINAfter King Wu overthrew the last ruler of Shang , marking the transition to the Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
, the victor was honor-bound by feudal etiquette to allow the defeated house (Shang ) to continue offering sacrifices to their ancestors. As a result, for a time Shang became a vassal state of Zhou, with the Shang heir Wu Geng allowed to continue ancestor worship at Yin (殷). This practice was referred to as Èr wáng Sān kè (二王三恪). However, after King Wu’s death, Wu Geng fomented a rebellion and was killed by the Duke of Zhou
Duke of Zhou

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Liu Song Dynasty
Myanmar
Myanmar
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS CHINESE TEXT. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters .The LIU SONG DYNASTY (simplified Chinese : 刘宋朝; traditional Chinese : 劉宋朝; pinyin : Liú Sòng Cháo; Wade-Giles : Liu Sung Ch'ao), also known as FORMER SONG (前宋) (420-479 CE), was first of the four Southern Dynasties
Southern Dynasties
in China
China
, succeeding the Eastern Jin
Eastern Jin
and followed by the Southern Qi
Southern Qi
. The dynasty was founded by Liu Yu (劉裕) (363–422), whose surname together with "Song" forms the most commonly used name for the dynasty, the LIU SONG . This appellation is used to distinguish it from a later dynasty of the same name, the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
(960–1279, whose ruling family was Zhao), which is better known and more significant. The Liu Song
Liu Song
is also at times referred to as the "Southern Song" (南宋), as it is one of the Southern Dynasties period, i.e., one of those with its capital at Jiankang
Jiankang
(modern Nanjing
Nanjing
)
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Kaifeng
KAIFENG (simplified Chinese : 开封; traditional Chinese : 開封), known previously by several names, is a prefecture-level city in east-central Henan , China
China
. It was once the capital of the Song dynasty , and is one of the Eight Ancient Capitals of China
China
. There are currently nearly 5 million people living in its metropolitan area. Located along the southern bank of the Yellow River , it borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the west, Xinxiang to the northwest, Shangqiu to the east, Zhoukou to the southeast, Xuchang to the southwest, and Shandong
Shandong
to the northeast. CONTENTS * 1 Names * 2 Administration * 3 History * 4 Climate * 5 Transportation * 5.1 Air * 5.2 Rail * 5.3 Coach * 5.4 Light rail * 5.5 Road transport * 6 Culture * 6.1 Religion * 6.2 Cuisine * 6.3 Chrysanthemums * 7 Sporting events * 7.1 Zheng-Kai International Marathon * 8 Military * 9 Gallery * 10 International relations * 10.1 Twin towns—Sister cities * 11 Colleges and universities * 11.1 Public * 12 See also * 13 References * 14 Further reading * 15 External links NAMESThe postal romanization for the city is "Kaifeng". Its official one-character abbreviation in Chinese is 汴 (_Biàn_)
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Hangzhou
HANGZHOU ( ( listen )), formerly romanized as HANGCHOW, is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Province in east China
China
. It sits at the head of Hangzhou Bay , which separates Shanghai
Shanghai
and Ningbo . Hangzhou
Hangzhou
grew to prominence as the southern terminus of the Grand Canal and has been one of the most renowned and prosperous cities in China
China
for much of the last millennium. The city's West Lake , a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
, immediately west of the city, is amongst its best-known attraction. Hangzhou
Hangzhou
is classified as a sub-provincial city and forms the core of the Hangzhou
Hangzhou
metropolitan area, the fourth-largest in China. During the 2010 Chinese census , the metropolitan area held 21.102 million people over an area of 34,585 km2 (13,353 sq mi). Hangzhou prefecture had a registered population of 9,018,000 in 2015. In September 2015, Hangzhou
Hangzhou
was awarded the 2022 Asian Games . It will be the third Chinese city to play host to the Asian Games
Asian Games
after Beijing
Beijing
1990 and Guangzhou
Guangzhou
2010
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Chinese Language
LEGEND: Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers Major Chinese-speaking settlements THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters
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Buddhism
BUDDHISM ( /ˈbʊdɪzəm/ or /ˈbuːdɪzəm/ ) is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions , beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to the Buddha
Buddha
. Buddhism
Buddhism
originated in Ancient India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia
Asia
, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada ( Pali
Pali
: "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: "The Great Vehicle"). Buddhism
Buddhism
is the world\'s fourth-largest religion , with over 500 million followers or 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhist schools vary on the exact nature of the path to liberation, the importance and canonicity of various teachings and scriptures , and especially their respective practices
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Taoism
TAOISM (/ˈdaʊɪzəm/ or /ˈtaʊɪzəm/ ), also known as DAOISM, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao
Tao
(道, literally "Way", also romanized as Dao ). The Tao
Tao
is a fundamental idea in most Chinese philosophical schools; in Taoism, however, it denotes the principle that is the source, pattern and substance of everything that exists. Taoism
Taoism
differs from Confucianism by not emphasizing rigid rituals and social order. Taoist ethics vary depending on the particular school, but in general tend to emphasize wu wei (effortless action), "naturalness", simplicity, spontaneity, and the Three Treasures : 慈 "compassion", 儉 "frugality", and 不敢為天下先 "humility". The roots of Taoism
Taoism
go back at least to the 4th century BCE. Early Taoism
Taoism
drew its cosmological notions from the School of Yinyang (Naturalists), and was deeply influenced by one of the oldest texts of Chinese culture, the Yijing , which expounds a philosophical system about how to keep human behavior in accordance with the alternating cycles of nature
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Confucianism
HERMENEUTIC SCHOOLS: * Old Texts * New Text Confucianism Confucianism by country * Confucianism in Indonesia * Korean Confucianism * Japanese Confucianism Confucian texts * Ruzang FOUR BOOKS: *
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Heaven Worship
HEAVEN WORSHIP is a Chinese religious belief that predates Taoism and Confucianism , but was later incorporated into both. Shangdi is the supreme unknowable god of Chinese folk religion . Over time, namely following the conquests of the Zhou dynasty who worshipped Tian (天 _lit. "sky"_), Shangdi became synonymous with Tian, or Heaven. In the Han dynasty the worship of Heaven would be highly ritualistic and require that the emperor hold official sacrifices and worship at an altar of Heaven, the most famous of which is the Temple of Heaven in Beijing . Heaven worship is closely linked with ancestor veneration and polytheism , as the ancestors and the gods are seen as a medium between Heaven and man. The Emperor of China , also known as the "Son of Heaven ", derived the Mandate of Heaven , and thus his legitimacy as ruler, from his supposed ability to commune with Heaven on behalf of his nation. Early Abrahamic missionaries saw similarities between Shangdi/Tian and the Abrahamic God , and therefore rendered "God" as "Shangdi" in Chinese. ESTABLISHMENTWorship of Heaven in the southern suburb of the capital was initiated in 31 BCE and firmly established in the first century CE (Western Han)
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Chinese Folk Religion
MODEL HUMANITY: * Xian * Zhenren * Wen and wu Practices * Fenxiang * Jingxiang * Feng shui * Miaohui * Wu shamanism * Jitong mediumship * Precious scrolls Institutions and temples * Associations of good-doing * Lineage associations or churches * Chinese temple *
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Chinese Manichaeism
WESTERN * Revelation * Divine illumination * Divine light EASTERN * Jnana * Bodhi * Prajna * Buddhism * Hinduism Gnostic sects * List of Gnostic sects -------------------------SYRIAN-EGYPTIC* Sethianism SAMARITAN BAPTIST SECTS * Dositheos *
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Christianity
CHRISTIANITY is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ , who serves as the focal point of the Christian faith . It is the world\'s largest religion , with over 2.4 billion followers, or 33% of the global population, known as Christians . Christians make up a majority of the population in 158 countries and territories . They believe that Jesus is the Son of God and the savior of humanity whose coming as the Messiah (the Christ ) was prophesied in the Old Testament . Christian theology is summarized in creeds such as the Apostles\' Creed and Nicene Creed . These professions of faith state that Jesus suffered , died , was buried , descended into hell , and rose from the dead, in order to grant eternal life to those who believe in him and trust in him for the remission of their sins . The creeds further maintain that Jesus physically ascended into heaven, where he reigns with God the Father in the unity of the Holy Spirit , and that he will return to judge the living and the dead and grant eternal life to his followers. His incarnation , earthly ministry, crucifixion and resurrection are often referred to as "the gospel ", meaning "good news"
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Islam During The Song Dynasty
The transition from the Tang to the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
(960–1279) in China did not greatly interrupt the trends of Muslims established during the Tang . CONTENTS * 1 Islam continues to increase its influence * 2 Migration of Muslims to China * 3 Notes * 4 See also ISLAM CONTINUES TO INCREASE ITS INFLUENCEMany Muslims began to go to China to trade during the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
. During the Song
Song
dynasty, Muslims began to have a greater economic impact and influence on the country. During the Song
Song
dynasty (960–1279), Muslims in China dominated foreign trade and the import/export industry to the south and west. Indeed, the office of Director General of Shipping for China's great seaport of Quanzhou was consistently held by a Muslim during this period. The Chinese materia medica 52 (re-published in 1968-75) was revised under the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
in 1056 and 1107 to include material, particularly 200 medicines , taken from Ibn Sina 's _The Canon of Medicine _. Meanwhile, further west, Arabic storytellers were narrating fantastical stories of China, which were incorporated into the _ One Thousand and One Nights _ (_Arabian Nights_), the most famous being the story of Aladdin
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Monarchy
A MONARCHY is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty , embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch , exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic ), to partial and restricted (_constitutional_ monarchy ), to completely autocratic (_absolute_ monarchy ). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected. Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc. Occasionally this might create a situation of rival claimants whose legitimacy is subject to effective election. There have been cases where the term of a monarch's reign is either fixed in years or continues until certain goals are achieved: an invasion being repulsed, for instance. Richard I of England being anointed during his coronation in Westminster Abbey , from a 13th-century chronicle. Monarchic rule was the most common form of government until the 19th century
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List Of Song Emperors
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that succeeded the period referred to as Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–960) and preceded the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368), which conquered the Song dynasty in 1279. The conventional division into the Northern Song dynasty (960–1127) and Southern Song dynasty (1127–1279) is created by the conquest of northern China by the Jin dynasty (1115–1234) in 1127 and the consequent shift of the capital from Bianjing (present-day Kaifeng ) in the north to Lin'an (present-day Hangzhou ) in the south. Below is a complete LIST OF EMPERORS OF THE SONG DYNASTY, including their temple names , posthumous names , given names , and era names . The dynasty was founded by Zhao Kuangyin , who became Emperor Taizu (r. 960–976) and concluded with the death of Zhao Bing (r. 1278–1279). The last emperor of the Northern Song was Emperor Qinzong (r. 1126–1127), while the first Southern Song emperor was Emperor Gaozong (r. 1127–1162). The emperor, or huangdi , was the supreme head of state during the imperial era of China (221 BC – 1912), including the Song dynasty. He was a hereditary ruler who shared executive powers with civilian officials appointed to various levels of office according to their performance in bureaucratic examinations
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