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Solubility
Solubility
Solubility
is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent. The solubility of a substance fundamentally depends on the physical and chemical properties of the solute and solvent as well as on temperature, pressure and presence of other chemicals (including changes to the pH) of the solution. The extent of the solubility of a substance in a specific solvent is measured as the saturation concentration, where adding more solute does not increase the concentration of the solution and begins to precipitate the excess amount of solute. Insolubility is the inability to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent. Most often, the solvent is a liquid, which can be a pure substance or a mixture
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Solvable Group
In mathematics, more specifically in the field of group theory, a solvable group or soluble group is a group that can be constructed from abelian groups using extensions. Equivalently, a solvable group is a group whose derived series terminates in the trivial subgroup. Historically, the word "solvable" arose from Galois theory
Galois theory
and the proof of the general unsolvability of quintic equation
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Effervescence
Effervescence
Effervescence
is the escape of gas from an aqueous solution and the foaming or fizzing that results from that release.[1] The word effervescence is derived from the Latin
Latin
verb fervere (to boil), preceded by the adverb ex. It has the same linguistic root as the word fermentation. Effervescence
Effervescence
can also be observed when opening a bottle of champagne, beer or carbonated beverages such as soft drinks. The visible bubbles are produced by the escape from solution of the dissolved gas (which itself is not visible while dissolved in the liquid). Although CO2 is most common for beverages, nitrogen gas is sometimes deliberately added to certain beers. The smaller bubble size creates a smoother beer head
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Suspension (chemistry)
In chemistry, a suspension is a heterogeneous mixture that contains solid particles sufficiently large for sedimentation. The particles may be visible to the naked eye, usually must be larger than 1 micrometer, and will eventually settle. A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture in which the solute particles do not dissolve, but get suspended throughout the bulk of the solvent, left floating around freely in the medium.[1] The internal phase (solid) is dispersed throughout the external phase (fluid) through mechanical agitation, with the use of certain excipients or suspending agents. An example of a suspension would be sand in water. The suspended particles are visible under a microscope and will settle over time if left undisturbed
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Oxide
An oxide /ˈɒksaɪd/ is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element[1] in its chemical formula. "Oxide" itself is the dianion of oxygen, an O2– atom. Metal
Metal
oxides thus typically contain an anion of oxygen in the oxidation state of −2. Most of the Earth's crust
Earth's crust
consists of solid oxides, the result of elements being oxidized by the oxygen in air or in water. Hydrocarbon
Hydrocarbon
combustion affords the two principal carbon oxides: carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Even materials considered pure elements often develop an oxide coating
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Solvolysis
Solvolysis is a type of nucleophilic substitution (SN1) or elimination, where the nucleophile is a solvent molecule.[1] Characteristic of SN1 reactions, solvolysis of a chiral reactant affords the racemate. Sometimes however, the stereochemical course is complicated by intimate ion pairs, whereby the leaving anion remains close to the carbocation, effectively shielding it from an attack by the nucleophile.Contents1 Examples1.1 Hydrolysis 1.2 Alcoholysis 1.3 Ammonolysis2 See also 3 ReferencesExamples[edit] For certain nucleophiles, solvolysis reaction are classified. Solvolysis involving water is called hydrolysis. Related terms are alcoholysis (alcohols), ammonolysis (ammonia), and aminolysis (alkyl amines)
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Solids
Solid
Solid
is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma). In solids molecules are closely packed. It is characterized by structural rigidity and resistance to changes of shape or volume. Unlike a liquid, a solid object does not flow to take on the shape of its container, nor does it expand to fill the entire volume available to it like a gas does. The atoms in a solid are tightly bound to each other, either in a regular geometric lattice (crystalline solids, which include metals and ordinary ice) or irregularly (an amorphous solid such as common window glass). Solids cannot be compressed with little pressure whereas gases can be compressed with little pressure because in gases molecules are loosely packed. The branch of physics that deals with solids is called solid-state physics, and is the main branch of condensed matter physics (which also includes liquids)
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Solid
Solid
Solid
is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma). In solids molecules are closely packed. It is characterized by structural rigidity and resistance to changes of shape or volume. Unlike a liquid, a solid object does not flow to take on the shape of its container, nor does it expand to fill the entire volume available to it like a gas does. The atoms in a solid are tightly bound to each other, either in a regular geometric lattice (crystalline solids, which include metals and ordinary ice) or irregularly (an amorphous solid such as common window glass). Solids cannot be compressed with little pressure whereas gases can be compressed with little pressure because in gases molecules are loosely packed. The branch of physics that deals with solids is called solid-state physics, and is the main branch of condensed matter physics (which also includes liquids)
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Chemical Formula
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs. These are limited to a single typographic line of symbols, which may include subscripts and superscripts. A chemical formula is not a chemical name, and it contains no words. Although a chemical formula may imply certain simple chemical structures, it is not the same as a full chemical structural formula. Chemical formulas can fully specify the structure of only the simplest of molecules and chemical substances, and are generally more limited in power than are chemical names and structural formulas. The simplest types of chemical formulas are called empirical formulas, which use letters and numbers indicating the numerical proportions of atoms of each type
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U.S. Pharmacopoeia
A pharmacopoeia, pharmacopeia, or pharmacopoea (literally, “drug-making”), in its modern technical sense, is a book containing directions for the identification of compound medicines, and published by the authority of a government or a medical or pharmaceutical society. Descriptions of preparations are called monographs
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Intermolecular Force
Intermolecular forces (IMF) are the forces which mediate interaction between molecules, including forces of attraction or repulsion which act between molecules and other types of neighboring particles, e.g., atoms or ions. Intermolecular forces are weak relative to intramolecular forces – the forces which hold a molecule together. For example, the covalent bond, involving sharing electron pairs between atoms, is much stronger than the forces present between neighboring molecules. Both sets of forces are essential parts of force fields frequently used in molecular mechanics. The investigation of intermolecular forces starts from macroscopic observations which indicate the existence and action of forces at a molecular level
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Miscible
Miscibility
Miscibility
/mɪsɪˈbɪlɪti/ is the property of substances to mix in all proportions (that is, to fully dissolve in each other at any concentration), forming a homogeneous solution. The term is most often applied to liquids, but applies also to solids and gases. Water
Water
and ethanol, for example, are miscible because they mix in all proportions.[1] By contrast, substances are said to be immiscible if there are certain proportions in which the mixture does not form a solution. For example, butanone (methyl ethyl ketone) is significantly soluble in water, but these two solvents are not miscible because they are not soluble in all proportions.[2]Contents1 Organic compounds 2 Metals 3 Effect of entropy 4 Determination 5 See also 6 ReferencesOrganic compounds[edit] In organic compounds, the weight percent of hydrocarbon chain often determines the compound's miscibility with water
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International Union Of Pure And Applied Chemistry
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
(IUPAC /ˈaɪjuːpæk, ˈjuː-/) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries. It is a member of the International Council for Science (ICSU).[2] IUPAC is registered in Zürich, Switzerland, and the administrative office, known as the "IUPAC Secretariat", is in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, United States. This administrative office is headed by IUPAC's executive director,[3] currently Lynn Soby.[4] IUPAC was established in 1919 as the successor of the International Congress of Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
for the advancement of chemistry. Its members, the National Adhering Organizations, can be national chemistry societies, national academies of sciences, or other bodies representing chemists
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Water
Water
Water
is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms. Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms that are connected by covalent bonds. Strictly speaking, water refers to the liquid state of a substance that prevails at standard ambient temperature and pressure; but it often refers also to its solid state (ice) or its gaseous state (steam or water vapor). It also occurs in nature as snow, glaciers, ice packs and icebergs, clouds, fog, dew, aquifers, and atmospheric humidity. Water
Water
covers 71% of the Earth's surface.[1] It is vital for all known forms of life
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Entropy
In statistical mechanics, entropy (usual symbol S) is related to the number of microscopic configurations Ω that a thermodynamic system can have when in a state as specified by some macroscopic variables. Specifically, assuming for simplicity that each of the microscopic configurations is equally probable, the entropy of the system is the natural logarithm of that number of configurations, multiplied by the Boltzmann constant
Boltzmann constant
kB. Formally, S = k B ln ⁡ Ω  (assuming equiprobable states) . displaystyle S=k_ mathrm B ln Omega text (assuming equiprobable states) . This is consistent with 19th-century formulas for entropy in terms of heat and temperature, as discussed below
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PH
In chemistry, pH (/piːˈeɪtʃ/) (potential of hydrogen) is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. It is approximately the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the molar concentration, measured in units of moles per liter, of hydrogen ions. More precisely it is the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the activity of the hydrogen ion.[1] Solutions with a pH less than 7 are acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic
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