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Solid-state Drive
A solid-state drive (SSD), or solid-state disk[1][2][3] is a solid-state storage device that uses integrated circuit assemblies as memory to store data persistently. SSD technology primarily uses electronic interfaces compatible with traditional block input/output (I/O) hard disk drives (HDDs), which permit simple replacements in common applications.[4] New I/O interfaces like SATA Express
SATA Express
and M.2 have been designed to address specific requirements of the SSD technology. SSDs have no moving mechanical components
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Microsecond
A microsecond is an SI unit
SI unit
of time equal to one millionth (0.000001 or 10−6 or 1/1,000,000) of a second. Its symbol is μs. One microsecond is to one second as one second is to 11.574 days. A microsecond is equal to 1000 nanoseconds or 1/1,000 milliseconds. Because the next SI prefix
SI prefix
is 1000 times larger, measurements of 10−5 and 10−4 seconds are typically expressed as tens or hundreds of microseconds. A microsecond of sound signal sample (44.1 kHz, 2 channel, 24 bit, WAV) is typically stored on 4 µm of CD, 2 bits per µs per 4 µm.Contents1 Examples 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksExamples[edit]1 microsecond (1 μs) – cycle time for frequency 1 × 106 hertz (1 MHz), the inverse unit
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DRAM
Dynamic random-access memory
Dynamic random-access memory
(DRAM) is a type of random access semiconductor memory that stores each bit of data in a separate tiny capacitor within an integrated circuit. The capacitor can either be charged or discharged; these two states are taken to represent the two values of a bit, conventionally called 0 and 1. The electric charge on the capacitors slowly leaks off, so without intervention the data on the chip would soon be lost. To prevent this, DRAM requires an external memory refresh circuit which periodically rewrites the data in the capacitors, restoring them to their original charge. Because of this refresh requirement, it is a dynamic memory as opposed to static random-access memory (SRAM) which does not require data to be refreshed. Unlike flash memory, DRAM is volatile memory (vs. non-volatile memory), since it loses its data quickly when power is removed
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NAND Flash
Flash, flashes, or The Flash
Flash
may refer to:Contents1 Arts and media1.1 Fictional entities 1.2 Film and television 1.3 Gaming 1.4 Music1.4.1 Artists 1.4.2 Albums and EPs 1.4.3 Songs1.5 Other media2 Military 3 People3.1 In arts and entertainment 3.2 In sport 3.3 Other people4 Places 5 Science and technology5.1 Computing 5.2 Other uses in science and technology6 Sports 7 Other uses 8 See alsoArts and media[edit] For people in arts and media, see § People. Fictional entities[edit] Flash
Flash
(comics), several DC Comics superheroes with super speed: Flash
Flash
(Jay Garrick) Flash
Flash
(Barry Allen) Wally West, the first Kid Flash
Flash
and third adult Flash Bart Allen, the second Kid Flash
Flash
who also became the adult hero for a time Flash
Flash
(G.I. Joe), a character in the G.I
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Non-volatile Memory
Non-volatile memory, nonvolatile memory, NVM or non-volatile storage is a type of computer memory that can retrieve stored information even after having been power cycled (turned off and back on). The opposite of non-volatile memory is volatile memory which needs constant power in order to prevent data from being erased. Examples of non-volatile memory include read-only memory, flash memory, ferroelectric RAM, most types of magnetic computer storage devices (e.g. hard disk drives, solid state drives, floppy disks, and magnetic tape), optical discs, and early computer storage methods such as paper tape and punched cards.[1] This article is about three distinct storage types:NVS: traditional Non-Volatile Storage in mechanical disks – Hard disk, Solid State Drive, Optical disk, floppy disk, etc. Non-Volatile Storage may also refer to NVM. NVM: storage in Non-Volatile Memory chips ( Flash memory
Flash memory
Storage) – EEPROM, SSD, NAND, etc
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Mean Time Between Failures
Mean time between failures
Mean time between failures
(MTBF) is the predicted elapsed time between inherent failures of a mechanical or electronic system, during normal system operation. MTBF can be calculated as the arithmetic mean (average) time between failures of a system. The term is used for repairable systems, while mean time to failure (MTTF) denotes the expected time to failure for a non-repairable system.[1] The definition of MTBF depends on the definition of what is considered a failure. For complex, repairable systems, failures are considered to be those out of design conditions which place the system out of service and into a state for repair
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Terabyte
The terabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information. The prefix tera represents the fourth power of 1000, and means 1012 in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI), and therefore one terabyte is one trillion (short scale) bytes. The unit symbol for the terabyte is TB.Contents1 Definition 2 History 3 Illustrative usage examples 4 See also 5 ReferencesDefinition[edit] 1 TB = 1000000000000bytes = 1012bytes = 1000gigabytes. A related unit, the tebibyte (TiB), using a binary prefix, is equal to 10244 bytes. One terabyte is about 0.9095 TiB
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Online Transaction Processing
Online transaction processing (OLTP) is information systems that facilitate and manage transaction-oriented applications, typically for data entry and retrieval transaction processing.Contents1 Terminology 2 Overview 3 Systems design 4 References 5 External linksTerminology[edit] The term is understood as "transaction" in the context of computer or database transactions, while others (such as the Transaction Processing Performance Council) define it in terms of business or commercial transactions.[1]:50 OLTP has also been used to refer to processing in which the system responds immediately to user requests. An automated teller machine (ATM) for a bank is an example of a commercial transaction processing application. Online transaction processing applications are high throughput and insert or update-intensive in database management. These applications are used concurrently by hundreds of users
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Volatile Memory
Volatile memory, in contrast to non-volatile memory, is computer memory that requires power to maintain the stored information; it retains its contents while powered on but when the power is interrupted, the stored data is quickly lost. Volatile memory has several uses including as main memory. In addition to usually being faster than forms of mass storage such as a hard disk drive, volatility can protect sensitive information as it becomes unavailable on power-down. Most of the general-purpose random-access memory (RAM) is volatile.[1] There are two kinds of volatile RAM: dynamic and static. Even though both types need continuous electrical current to retain data, there are some important differences between them. Dynamic RAM (DRAM) is very popular due to its cost effectiveness. DRAM stores each bit of information in a different capacitor within the integrated circuit. DRAM chips need just one single capacitor and one transistor to store each bit of information
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Access Time
Access time is the time delay or latency between a request to an electronic system, and the access being completed or the requested data returnedIn a telecommunications system, access time is the delay between the start of an access attempt and successful access
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Bad Sector
A bad sector is a sector on a computer's disk drive or flash memory that is either inaccessible or unwriteable due to permanent damage, such as physical damage to the disk surface or failed flash memory transistors. Bad sectors are usually detected by a disk utility software such as CHKDSK
CHKDSK
or SCANDISK
SCANDISK
on Microsoft systems, or badblocks on Unix-like systems. When found, these programs may mark the sectors unusable (most file systems contain provisions for bad-sector marks) and the operating system skips them in the future. If any of the files uses a sector which is marked as 'bad' by a disk utility then the bad sector of the file is remapped to a free sector and any unreadable data is lost
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Encryption
In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot. Encryption
Encryption
does not itself prevent interference, but denies the intelligible content to a would-be interceptor. In an encryption scheme, the intended information or message, referred to as plaintext, is encrypted using an encryption algorithm – a cipher – generating ciphertext that can be read only if decrypted. For technical reasons, an encryption scheme usually uses a pseudo-random encryption key generated by an algorithm. It is in principle possible to decrypt the message without possessing the key, but, for a well-designed encryption scheme, considerable computational resources and skills are required
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Error Detection And Correction
In information theory and coding theory with applications in computer science and telecommunication, error detection and correction or error control are techniques that enable reliable delivery of digital data over unreliable communication channels. Many communication channels are subject to channel noise, and thus errors may be introduced during transmission from the source to a receiver
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Error-correcting Code
In telecommunication, information theory, and coding theory, forward error correction (FEC) or channel coding[1] is a technique used for controlling errors in data transmission over unreliable or noisy communication channels. The central idea is the sender encodes the message in a redundant way by using an error-correcting code (ECC). The American mathematician Richard Hamming
Richard Hamming
pioneered this field in the 1940s and invented the first error-correcting code in 1950: the Hamming (7,4) code.[2] The redundancy allows the receiver to detect a limited number of errors that may occur anywhere in the message, and often to correct these errors without retransmission. FEC gives the receiver the ability to correct errors without needing a reverse channel to request retransmission of data, but at the cost of a fixed, higher forward channel bandwidth
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Memory Scrubbing
Memory scrubbing consists of reading from each computer memory location, correcting bit errors (if any) with an error-correcting code (ECC), and writing the corrected data back to the same location.[1] Due to the high integration density of modern computer memory chips, the individual memory cell structures became small enough to be vulnerable to cosmic rays and/or alpha particle emission. The errors caused by these phenomena are called soft errors. Over 8% of DIMM modules experience at least one correctable error per year.[2] This can be a problem for DRAM and SRAM based memories. The probability of a soft error at any individual memory bit is very small
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