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Solar Thermal
Solar thermal
Solar thermal
energy (STE) is a form of energy and a technology for harnessing solar energy to generate thermal energy or electrical energy for use in industry, and in the residential and commercial sectors.Contents1 Overview 2 History 3 Low-temperature solar heating and cooling systems3.1 Low-temperature collectors 3.2 Heat storage in low-temperature solar thermal systems 3.3 Solar-driven cooling 3.4 Solar heat-driven ventilation 3.5 Process heat4 Medium-temperature collectors4.1 Solar drying 4.2 Cooking 4.3
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Pasteurization
Pasteurization
Pasteurization
or pasteurisation[1] is a process that kills microbes (mainly bacteria) in food and drink, such as milk, juice, canned food, and others. It was invented by French scientist Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
during the nineteenth century. In 1864 Pasteur discovered that heating beer and wine was enough to kill most of the bacteria that caused spoilage, preventing these beverages from turning sour. The process achieves this by eliminating pathogenic microbes and lowering microbial numbers to prolong the quality of the beverage. Today, pasteurization is used widely in the dairy industry and other food processing industries to achieve food preservation and food safety.[2] Unlike sterilization, pasteurization is not intended to kill all microorganisms in the food
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Closed System
A closed system is a physical system that does not allow certain types of transfers (such as transfer of mass and energy transfer) in or out of the system. The specification of what types of transfers are excluded varies in the closed systems of physics, chemistry or engineering.Contents1 In physics1.1 In classical mechanics 1.2 In thermodynamics 1.3 In quantum physics2 In chemistry 3 In engineering 4 See also 5 ReferencesIn physics[edit] In classical mechanics[edit] In nonrelativistic classical mechanics, a closed system is a physical system that doesn't exchange any matter with its surroundings, and isn't subject to any force whose source is external to the system.[1][2] A closed system in classical mechanics would be considered an isolated system in thermodynamics
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Solnova Solar Power Station
The Solnova Solar Power Station
Solnova Solar Power Station
is a large CSP power station made up of five separate units of 50 MW each. The facility is part of the Solucar Complex, in Sanlúcar la Mayor, in Spain, the same area where the PS20
PS20
solar power tower is also located.[1] With the commissioning of the third 50 MW unit, the Solnova-IV in August 2010, the power station ranks as one of the largest CSP power station in the world. Solnova-I, Solnova-III, and Solnova-IV[2] were commissioned in mid-2010 and are all rated at 50 MWe in installed capacity each.[1] All five plants are built, owned and operated by Abengoa Solar, a Spanish solar power company. All five power stations, the three commissioned and two under development, will be utilizing parabolic troughs, a technology to use concentrated solar power
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Trombe Wall
A Trombe wall
Trombe wall
is a passive solar building design where a wall is built on the winter sun side of a building with a glass external layer and a high heat capacity internal layer separated by a layer of air. Light close to UV in the electromagnetic spectrum passes through the glass almost unhindered then is absorbed by the wall that then re-radiates in the far infrared spectrum which does not pass back through the glass easily, hence heating the inside of the building. Trombe walls are commonly used to absorb heat during sunlit hours of winter then slowly release the heat over night. The essential idea was first explored by Edward S. Morse
Edward S

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Solar Chimney
A solar chimney – often referred to as a thermal chimney – is a way of improving the natural ventilation of buildings by using convection of air heated by passive solar energy. A simple description of a solar chimney is that of a vertical shaft utilizing solar energy to enhance the natural stack ventilation through a building. The solar chimney has been in use for centuries, particularly in the Middle east
Middle east
and Near East
Near East
by the Persians, as well as in Europe
Europe
by the Romans.Contents1 Description 2 Solar chimney
Solar chimney
and sustainable architecture 3 Precedent Study: The Environmental Building 4 Passive down-draft cool tower 5 See also 6 References 7 Sources 8 External linksDescription[edit] In its simplest form, the solar chimney consists of a black-painted chimney
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Auguste Mouchout
Augustin Mouchot
Augustin Mouchot
(/muːˈʃoʊ/; French: [muʃo]; 7 April 1825 – 4 October 1912) was a 19th-century French inventor of the earliest solar-powered engine, converting solar energy into mechanical steam power.Contents1 Background 2 Solar research2.1 Universal Exhibition, Paris
Paris
18783 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksBackground[edit] Mouchot was born in Semur-en-Auxois, France
France
on 7 April 1825.[1] He first taught at the primary schools of Morvan
Morvan
(1845–1849) and later Dijon, before attaining a degree in Mathematics
Mathematics
in 1852 and a Bachelor of Physical Sciences in 1853. Subsequently, he taught mathematics in the secondary schools of Alençon
Alençon
(1853–1862), Rennes
Rennes
and Lycée de Tours
Tours
(1864–1871)
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Heating
Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)[1] is the technology of indoor and vehicular environmental comfort. Its goal is to provide thermal comfort and acceptable indoor air quality. HVAC
HVAC
system design is a subdiscipline of mechanical engineering, based on the principles of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer
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Ventilation (architecture)
Ventilation is the intentional introduction of ambient air into a space and is mainly used to control indoor air quality by diluting and displacing indoor pollutants; it can also be used for purposes of thermal comfort or dehumidification. The correct introduction of ambient air will help to achieve desired indoor comfort levels although the measure of an ideal comfort level varies from individual to individual. The intentional introduction of subaerial air can be categorized as either mechanical ventilation, or natural ventilation.[2] Mechanical ventilation uses fans to drive the flow of subaerial air into a building. This may be accomplished by pressurization (in the case of positively pressurized buildings), or by depressurization (in the case of exhaust ventilation systems). Many mechanically ventilated buildings use a combination of both, with the ventilation being integrated into the HVAC
HVAC
system
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Air Conditioning
Air conditioning
Air conditioning
(often referred to as AC, A/C, or air con[1]) is the process of removing heat and moisture from the interior of an occupied space, to improve the comfort of occupants. Air conditioning
Air conditioning
can be used in both domestic and commercial environments. This process is most commonly used to achieve a more comfortable interior environment, typically for humans or animals; however, air conditioning is also used to cool/dehumidify rooms filled with heat-producing electronic devices, such as computer servers, power amplifiers, and even to display and store artwork. Air conditioners often use a fan to distribute the conditioned air to an occupied space such as a building or a car to improve thermal comfort and indoor air quality
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Natural Circulation
Natural circulation refers to the ability of a fluid in a system to circulate continuously, with gravity and possible changes in heat energy. The difference of density being the only driving force. If the differences of density are caused by heat, this force is called as "thermal head" or "thermal driving head." A fluid system designed for natural circulation will have a heat source and a heat sink. Each of these is in contact with some of the fluid in the system, but not all of it. The heat source is positioned lower than the heat sink. Most materials that are fluid at common temperatures expand when they are heated, becoming less dense. Correspondingly, they become denser when they are cooled. At the heat source of a system of natural circulation, the heated fluid becomes lighter than the fluid surrounding it, and thus rises
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Frank Shuman
Frank Shuman
Frank Shuman
(/ˈʃuːmən/; January 23, 1862 – April 28, 1918) was an American inventor, engineer and solar energy pioneer known for his work on solar engines, especially those that used solar energy to heat water that would produce steam.Contents1 Career 2 Patents 3 References 4 Further readingCareer[edit] In 1892 Frank Shuman
Frank Shuman
invented wire glass safety glass.[1] Additional patents were issued relating to the process of making wire glass and machines for making wire glass. In 1914 Shuman invented a process for making laminated safety glass, called safety glass,[2] and manufactured by the Safety Glass Company
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International Energy Agency
The International Energy Agency
International Energy Agency
(IEA) (French: Agence internationale de l'énergie) is a Paris-based autonomous intergovernmental organization established in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis. The IEA was initially dedicated to responding to physical disruptions in the supply of oil, as well as serving as an information source on statistics about the international oil market and other energy sectors. The IEA acts as a policy adviser to its member states, but also works with non-member countries, especially China, India, and Russia
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Open System (systems Theory)
An open system is a system that has external interactions. Such interactions can take the form of information, energy, or material transfers into or out of the system boundary, depending on the discipline which defines the concept. An open system is contrasted with the concept of an isolated system which exchanges neither energy, matter, nor information with its environment. An open system is also known as a constant volume system or a flow system. The concept of an open system was formalized within a framework that enabled one to interrelate the theory of the organism, thermodynamics, and evolutionary theory.[1] This concept was expanded upon with the advent of information theory and subsequently systems theory
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Updraft
An updraft is a small‐scale current of rising air, often within a cloud.[1]Contents1 Overview 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksOverview[edit] Localized regions of warm or cool air will exhibit vertical movement. A mass of warm air will typically be less dense than the surrounding region, and so will rise until it reaches air that is either warmer or less dense than itself. The converse will occur for a mass of cool air, and is known as subsidence. This movement of large volumes of air, especially when regions of hot, wet air rise, can create large clouds, and is the central source of thunderstorms. Drafts can also be conceived by low or high pressure regions. A low pressure region will attract air from the surrounding area, which will move towards the center and then rise, creating an updraft
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Salt Evaporation Pond
Salt
Salt
evaporation ponds, also called salterns, salt works or salt pans, are shallow artificial ponds designed to extract salts from sea water or other brines. The seawater or brine is fed into large ponds and water is drawn out through natural evaporation which allows the salt to be subsequently harvested. The ponds also provide a productive resting and feeding ground for many species of waterbirds, which may include endangered species.[1] The ponds are commonly separated by levees. Natural salt pans are geological formations that are also created by water evaporating and leaving behind salts
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