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Solar Power
Solar power
Solar power
is the conversion of energy from sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), indirectly using concentrated solar power, or a combination. Concentrated solar power systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. Photovoltaic
Photovoltaic
cells convert light into an electric current using the photovoltaic effect.[1] Photovoltaics
Photovoltaics
were initially solely used as a source of electricity for small and medium-sized applications, from the calculator powered by a single solar cell to remote homes powered by an off-grid rooftop PV system. Commercial concentrated solar power plants were first developed in the 1980s
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Silicon
Silicon
Silicon
is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14. A hard and brittle crystalline solid with a blue-grey metallic lustre, it is a tetravalent metalloid and semiconductor. It is a member of group 14 in the periodic table, along with carbon above it and germanium, tin, and lead below. It is rather unreactive, though less so than germanium, and has a very large chemical affinity for oxygen; as such, it was first prepared and characterized in pure form only in 1823 by Jöns Jakob Berzelius. Its melting and boiling points of 1414 °C and 3265 °C respectively are the second-highest among all the metalloids and nonmetals, being only surpassed by boron (carbon sublimes rather than melts at atmospheric pressure, albeit at a higher temperature than boron). Silicon
Silicon
is the eighth most common element in the universe by mass, but very rarely occurs as the pure element in the Earth's crust
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Sunlight
Sunlight
Sunlight
is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light. On Earth, sunlight is filtered through Earth's atmosphere, and is obvious as daylight when the Sun
Sun
is above the horizon. When the direct solar radiation is not blocked by clouds, it is experienced as sunshine, a combination of bright light and radiant heat. When it is blocked by clouds or reflects off other objects, it is experienced as diffused light
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Electric Current
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.[1]:2 In electric circuits this charge is often carried by moving electrons in a wire. It can also be carried by ions in an electrolyte, or by both ions and electrons such as in an ionised gas (plasma).[2] The SI unit
SI unit
for measuring an electric current is the ampere, which is the flow of electric charge across a surface at the rate of one coulomb per second. Electric current
Electric current
is measured using a device called an ammeter.[3] Electric currents cause Joule
Joule
heating, which creates light in incandescent light bulbs. They also create magnetic fields, which are used in motors, inductors and generators. The moving charged particles in an electric current are called charge carriers. In metals, one or more electrons from each atom are loosely bound to the atom, and can move freely about within the metal
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Selenium
Selenium
Selenium
is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34. It is a nonmetal with properties that are intermediate between the elements above and below in the periodic table, sulfur and tellurium, and also has similarities to arsenic. It rarely occurs in its elemental state or as pure ore compounds in the Earth's crust. Selenium
Selenium
(from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
σελήνη (selḗnē) "Moon") was discovered in 1817 by Jöns Jacob Berzelius, who noted the similarity of the new element to the previously discovered tellurium (named for the Earth). Selenium
Selenium
is found in metal sulfide ores, where it partially replaces the sulfur. Commercially, selenium is produced as a byproduct in the refining of these ores, most often during production. Minerals that are pure selenide or selenate compounds are known but rare
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Solar Luminosity
The solar luminosity, L☉, is a unit of radiant flux (power emitted in the form of photons) conventionally used by astronomers to measure the luminosity of stars. It is defined in terms of the Sun's output. One solar luminosity is 7026382800000000000♠3.828×1026 W.[2] This does not include the solar neutrino luminosity, which would add 0.023 L☉.[3] The Sun
Sun
is a weakly variable star, and its luminosity therefore fluctuates.[4] The major fluctuation is the eleven-year solar cycle (sunspot cycle) that causes a periodic variation of about ±0.1%
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Lens (optics)
A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction. A simple lens consists of a single piece of transparent material, while a compound lens consists of several simple lenses (elements), usually arranged along a common axis. Lenses are made from materials such as glass or plastic, and are ground and polished or molded to a desired shape. A lens can focus light to form an image, unlike a prism, which refracts light without focusing
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Calvin Fuller
Elected to US National Inventors Hall of Fame, May 2, 2008, for invention of the "Silicon Solar Cell" along with Daryl Chapin and Gerald Pearson. Elected to New Jersey Inventors Hall of Fame, June 22, 2006, for Development of the Semiconductor Photovoltaic Solar Cell. Winner of Alfred Krupp Award, Heidelberg University, Germany. Received the John Price Wetherill Medal in 1963.Scientific careerFields Physical ChemistryInstitutions AT&T Bell LaboratoriesCalvin Souther Fuller (May 25, 1902 – October 28, 1994) was a physical chemist at AT&T Bell Laboratories where he worked for 37 years from 1930 to 1967. Fuller was part of a team in basic research that found answers to physical challenges
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Longyangxia Dam
The Longyangxia Dam
Longyangxia Dam
is a concrete arch-gravity dam at the entrance of the Longyangxia canyon on the Yellow River
Yellow River
in Gonghe County, Qinghai Province, China. The dam is 178 metres (584 ft) tall and was built for the purposes of hydroelectric power generation, irrigation, ice control and flood control. The dam supports a 1,280 MW power station with 4 x 320 MW generators that can operate at a maximum capacity of 1400 MW. Controlling ice, the dam controls downstream releases to reservoirs lower in the river, allowing them to generate more power instead of mitigating ice. Water in the dam's 24.7 billion m3 reservoir provides irrigation water for up to 1,000,000 hectares (2,471,054 acres) of land.[2] The dam is composed of its main body and a gravity pier and secondary dam on both its left and right flank
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Qinghai
Qinghai
Qinghai
(Chinese: 青海; pronounced [tɕʰíŋxài]), formerly known in English as Kokonur,[4] is a province of the People's Republic of China
China
located in the northwest of the country. As one of the largest province-level administrative divisions of China
China
by area, the province is ranked fourth-largest in size, but has the third-smallest population. Located mostly on the Tibetan Plateau, the province has long been a melting pot for a number of ethnic groups including the Han, Tibetans, Hui, Tu, Mongols, and Salars. Qinghai
Qinghai
borders Gansu
Gansu
on the northeast, Xinjiang
Xinjiang
on the northwest, Sichuan
Sichuan
on the southeast, and the Tibet Autonomous Region on the southwest
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Russell Ohl
Russell Shoemaker Ohl (January 30, 1898 – March 20, 1987) was an American engineer who is generally recognized for patenting the modern solar cell (US Patent
Patent
2402662, "Light sensitive device").[1] Ohl was a notable semiconductor researcher prior to the invention of the transistor.[1] He was also known as R.S. Ohl. Russell Ohl’s specialized area of research was into the behavior of certain types of crystals. He worked on materials research in the 1930s at AT&T's Bell Labs’ Holmdel facility, investigating diode detectors suitable for high-frequency wireless, broadcasting, and military radar. His work was only understood by a handful of scientists in the organization, one of whom was Dr
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Copper Oxide
Copper oxide is a compound from the two elements copper and oxygen. Copper oxide may refer to: Copper(I) oxide
Copper(I) oxide
(cuprous oxide, Cu2O) Copper(II) oxide
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Silver Selenide
Silver
Silver
selenide (Ag2Se) is the reaction product formed when selenium toning analog silver gelatine photo papers in photographic print toning. The selenium toner contains sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) as one of its active ingredients, which is the source of the selenide (Se2−) anion combining with the silver in the toning process. It is found in nature as the mineral naumannite, a comparatively rare silver mineral which has nevertheless become recognized as important silver compound in some low-sulfur silver ores from mines in Nevada and Idaho.[2][3] Structure[edit] Silver
Silver
selenide normally exists in the orthorhombic β-phase but at temperatures above 130 °C transforms into the cubic α-Ag2Se ( Space group
Space group
Im-3m, No. 229, Pearson symbol cI20). The phase transition increases ionic conductivity by 10,000 times to about 2 S/cm [4] References[edit]^ O. Madelung (2004)
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Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(Cantonese: [hœ́ːŋ.kɔ̌ːŋ] ( listen)), officially the Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Special
Special
Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia. Along with Macau, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, and several other major cities in Guangdong, the territory forms a core part of the Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
metropolitan region, the most populated area in the world
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Ernst Werner Von Siemens
Ernst Werner Siemens
Siemens
(von Siemens
Siemens
from 1888; German: [ˈziːmɛns]; 13 December 1816 – 6 December 1892) was a German inventor and industrialist. Siemens’s name has been adopted as the SI unit of electrical conductance, the siemens. He was also the founder of the electrical and telecommunications company Siemens.Contents1 Biography1.1 Early years 1.2 Middle years 1.3 Later years 1.4 Personal life2 Patents 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksBiography[edit] Early years[edit] Ernst Werner Siemens
Siemens
was born in Lenthe, today part of Gehrden, near Hannover, in the Kingdom of Hanover
Kingdom of Hanover
in the German Confederation, the fourth child (of fourteen) of a tenant farmer of the Siemens
Siemens
family, an old family of Goslar, documented since 1384
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Charles Fritts
Charles Fritts (1850 – 1903[1]) was the American inventor credited with creating the first working Selenium Cell
Selenium Cell
in 1883. The world's first rooftop solar array, using Fritts' selenium cells, was installed in 1884 on a New York City rooftop.[2] Fritts coated the semiconductor material selenium with an extremely thin layer of gold. The resulting cells had a conversion electrical efficiency of only about 1% owing to the properties of selenium, which in combination with the material's high cost prevented the use of such cells for energy supply
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