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Solar Desalination
SOLAR DESALINATION is a technique to desalinate water using SOLAR ENERGY . There are two basic methods of achieving DESALINATION using this technique; direct and indirect. CONTENTS * 1 Methods * 2 History * 3 Types of solar desalination * 4 Multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) * 4.1 Towered desalination plant built in Pakistan * 4.2 Solar humidification–dehumidification * 5 Problems with thermal systems * 6 Solutions for thermal systems * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links METHODSIn the direct method, a solar collector is coupled with a distilling mechanism and the process is carried out in one simple cycle. SOLAR STILLS of this type are described in survival guides, provided in marine survival kits, and employed in many small desalination and distillation plants
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Water Scarcity
WATER SCARCITY is the lack of sufficient available water resources to meet water needs within a region. It affects every continent and around 2.8 billion people around the world at least one month out of every year. More than 1.2 billion people lack access to clean drinking water. Water
Water
scarcity involves WATER SHORTAGE, WATER STRESS or deficits, and WATER CRISIS. The relatively new concept of water stress is difficulty in obtaining sources of fresh water for use during a period of time; it may result in further depletion and deterioration of available water resources. Water
Water
shortages may be caused by climate change , such as altered weather-patterns (including droughts or floods ), increased pollution , and increased human demand and overuse of water . The term water crisis labels a situation where the available potable , unpolluted water within a region is less than that region's demand
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Italy
Coordinates : 43°N 12°E / 43°N 12°E / 43; 12 Italian Republic Repubblica Italiana (Italian ) Flag Emblem ANTHEM: Il Canto degli Italiani (Italian ) "The Song of the Italians" Location of Italy
Italy
(dark green) – in Europe
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Open Source
The OPEN-SOURCE MODEL is a decentralized development model that encourages open collaboration . A main principle of open-source software development is peer production , with products such as source code, blueprints , and documentation freely available to the public. The open-source movement in software began as a response to the limitations of proprietary code. The model is used for projects such as in open-source appropriate technologies , and open-source drug discovery. Open source
Open source
promotes universal access via an open-source or free license to a product's design or blueprint, and universal redistribution of that design or blueprint. Before the phrase open source became widely adopted, developers and producers used a variety of other terms. Open source
Open source
gained hold with the rise of the Internet . The open-source software movement arose to clarify copyright , licensing , domain , and consumer issues
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Seawater Greenhouse
A SEAWATER GREENHOUSE is a greenhouse structure that enables the growth of crops in arid regions, using seawater and solar energy . The technique involves pumping seawater (or allowing it to gravitate if below sea level) to an arid location and then subjecting it to two processes: first, it is used to humidify and cool the air, and second, it is evaporated by solar heating and distilled to produce fresh water . Finally, the remaining humidified air is expelled from the greenhouse and used to improve growing conditions for outdoor plants. The technology was introduced by British inventor Charlie Paton in the early 1990s and is being developed by his UK company Seawater Greenhouse
Greenhouse
Ltd. The more concentrated salt water may either be further evaporated for the production of salt and other elements, or discharged back to the sea. The seawater greenhouse is a response to the global water crisis and peak water
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Utirik Atoll
UTIRIK ATOLL or UTRIK ATOLL (Marshallese : UTRōK, ) is a coral atoll of 10 islands in the Pacific Ocean, and forms a legislative district of the Ratak Chain of the Marshall Islands . Its total land area is only 2.4 square kilometres (0.94 sq mi), but it encloses a lagoon with an area of 57.7 square kilometres (22.29 sq mi). It is located approximately 47 kilometres (29 mi) east of Ujae Atoll . The population of Utirik Atoll is 409; it is one of the northernmost Marshall Islands with permanent habitation. The larger islets are: * Utirik (Utrōk ) * Aon (Aon ) * Bikrak (Pekrak ) * Pike (Pike ) * Āllok (Āllok ) * Nalap (Ņa-ļap )CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORYIts first recorded sighting was by the Spanish navigator Álvaro de Saavedra on board of the ship Florida on 29 December 1527
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Solar Still
A SOLAR STILL distills water, using the heat of the Sun to evaporate, cool then collect the water. There are many types of solar still, including large scale concentrated solar stills , and CONDENSATION TRAPS (better known as MOISTURE TRAPS amongst survivalists ). In a solar still, impure water is contained outside the collector, where it is evaporated by sunlight shining through clear plastic or glass. The pure water vapor condenses on the cool inside surface and drips down, where it is collected and removed. Distillation replicates the way nature makes rain. The sun's energy heats water to the point of evaporation. As the water evaporates, water vapor rises, condensing into water again as it cools and can then be collected. This process leaves behind impurities, such as salts and heavy metals, and eliminates microbiological organisms. The end result is pure distilled water
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Solar Panel
SOLAR PANELS absorb the sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity or heat . A photovoltaic (PV) module is a packaged, connect assembly of typically 6x10 photovoltaic solar cells . Photovoltaic
Photovoltaic
modules constitute the photovoltaic array of a photovoltaic system that generates and supplies solar electricity in commercial and residential applications. Each module is rated by its DC output power under standard test conditions (STC), and typically ranges from 100 to 365 Watts (W) . The efficiency of a module determines the area of a module given the same rated output – an 8% efficient 230 W module will have twice the area of a 16% efficient 230 W module. There are a few commercially available solar modules that exceed efficiency of 22% and reportedly also exceeding 24%. A single solar module can produce only a limited amount of power; most installations contain multiple modules
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Peak Oil
PEAK OIL, an event based on M. King Hubbert 's theory , is the point in time when the maximum rate of extraction of petroleum is reached, after which it is expected to enter terminal decline. Peak oil
Peak oil
theory is based on the observed rise, peak, fall, and depletion of aggregate production rate in oil fields over time. It is often confused with oil depletion ; however, peak oil is the point of maximum production, while depletion refers to a period of falling reserves and supply. Some observers, such as petroleum industry experts Kenneth S. Deffeyes and Matthew Simmons
Matthew Simmons
, predict negative global economy implications following a post-peak production decline and subsequent oil price increase because of the high dependence of most modern industrial transport , agricultural , and industrial systems on the low cost and high availability of oil
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Water Cycle
The WATER CYCLE, also known as the HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE or the HYDROLOGIC CYCLE, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth
Earth
. The mass of water on Earth remains fairly constant over time but the partitioning of the water into the major reservoirs of ice, fresh water , saline water and atmospheric water is variable depending on a wide range of climatic variables . The water moves from one reservoir to another, such as from river to ocean , or from the ocean to the atmosphere, by the physical processes of evaporation , condensation , precipitation , infiltration , surface runoff , and subsurface flow. In doing so, the water goes through different forms: liquid, solid (ice ) and vapor . The water cycle involves the exchange of energy, which leads to temperature changes. For instance, when water evaporates, it takes up energy from its surroundings and cools the environment
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Standard Enthalpy Change Of Vaporization
The ENTHALPY OF VAPORIZATION, (symbol ∆Hvap) also known as the (LATENT) HEAT OF VAPORIZATION or HEAT OF EVAPORATION, is the amount of energy (enthalpy ) that must be added to the liquid substance, to transform a quantity of that substance into a gas. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. The enthalpy of vaporization is often quoted for the normal boiling temperature of the substance; although tabulated values are usually corrected to 298 K , that correction is often smaller than the uncertainty in the measured value. The heat of vaporization is temperature-dependent, though a constant heat of vaporization can be assumed for small temperature ranges and for reduced temperature T r {displaystyle T_{r}} 1 {displaystyle ll 1}
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Solar Powered Desalination Unit
A SOLAR-POWERED DESALINATION UNIT produces potable water from saline water through direct or indirect methods of desalination powered by sunlight. Countries such as Australia, Italy and Egypt have adopted this system as an alternative source of water for the population. Direct solar desalination produces distillate directly in the solar collector. An example would be a solar still which traps the Sun's energy to obtain freshwater through the process of evaporation and condensation . Indirect solar desalination incorporates solar energy collection systems with conventional desalination systems such as multi-stage flash distillation , multiple effect evaporation , freeze separation or reverse osmosis to produce freshwater . The intermittent nature of sunlight and its variable intensity throughout the day makes predicting its efficiency difficult
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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Solar Thermal Collector
A SOLAR THERMAL COLLECTOR collects heat by absorbing sunlight . A collector is a device for capturing solar radiation. Solar radiation is energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation from the infrared (long) to the ultraviolet (short) wavelengths. The quantity of solar energy striking the Earth's surface (solar constant ) averages about 1,000 watts per square meter under clear skies, depending upon weather conditions, location and orientation. The term "solar collector" commonly refers to solar hot water panels , but may refer to installations such as solar parabolic troughs and solar towers ; or basic installations such as solar air heaters . Concentrated solar power plants usually use the more complex collectors to generate electricity by heating a fluid to drive a turbine connected to an electrical generator . Simple collectors are typically used in residential and commercial buildings for space heating
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Waste Heat
WASTE HEAT is by necessity produced both by machines that do work and in other processes that use energy , for example in a refrigerator warming the room air or a combustion engine releasing heat into the environment. The need for many systems to reject heat as a by-product of their operation is fundamental to the laws of thermodynamics . Waste
Waste
heat has lower utility (or in thermodynamics lexicon a lower exergy or higher entropy ) than the original energy source. Sources of waste heat include all manner of human activities, natural systems, and all organisms. Instead of being "wasted" by release into the ambient environment, sometimes waste heat (or cold) can be utilized by another process (such as using hot engine coolant to heat a vehicle), or a portion of heat that would otherwise be wasted can be reused in the same process if make-up heat is added to the system (as with heat recovery ventilation in a building)
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