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Solar Desalination
Solar desalination is a technique to desalinate water using solar energy. There are two basic methods of achieving desalination using this technique; direct and indirect.Contents1 Methods 2 History 3 Types of solar desalination 4 Multi-stage flash distillation
Multi-stage flash distillation
(MSF)4.1 Towered desalination plant built in Pakistan 4.2 Solar humidification–dehumidification5 Problems with thermal systems 6 Solutions for thermal systems 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksMethods[edit] In the direct method, a solar collector is coupled with a distilling mechanism and the process is carried out in one simple cycle.[1] Solar stills of this type are described in survival guides, provided in marine survival kits, and employed in many small desalination and distillation plants
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Standard Enthalpy Change Of Vaporization
The enthalpy of vaporization, (symbol ∆Hvap) also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation, is the amount of energy (enthalpy) that must be added to a liquid substance, to transform a quantity of that substance into a gas. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. The enthalpy of vaporization is often quoted for the normal boiling temperature of the substance; although tabulated values are usually corrected to 298 K, that correction is often smaller than the uncertainty in the measured value. The heat of vaporization is temperature-dependent, though a constant heat of vaporization can be assumed for small temperature ranges and for reduced temperature T r displaystyle T_ r ≪ 1 displaystyle ll 1
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Point Paterson Desalination Plant
The Point Paterson Desalination Plant was a planned municipal-scale solar-powered desalination plant with land-based brine disposal near Point Paterson in the locality of Winninowie in the Australian state of South Australia about 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) south of the city centre of Port Augusta.[1] The Point Paterson Project was to utilise a salt flat owned by a salt company but which has not been in use for solar salt production for decades. The plant would have integrated renewable energy and desalination technologies to create environmentally-friendly electricity and water
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Solar Thermal Collector
A solar thermal collector collects heat by absorbing sunlight. The term "solar collector" commonly refers to solar hot water panels, but may refer to installations such as solar parabolic troughs and solar towers; or basic installations such as solar air heaters. Concentrated solar power plants usually use the more complex collectors to generate electricity by heating a fluid to drive a turbine connected to an electrical generator.[1] Simple collectors are typically used in residential and commercial buildings for space heating. The first solar thermal collector designed for building roofs was patented by William H
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Waste Heat
Waste
Waste
heat is heat that is produced by a machine, or other process that uses energy, as a byproduct of doing work. All such processes give off some waste heat as a fundamental result of the laws of thermodynamics. Waste
Waste
heat has lower utility (or in thermodynamics lexicon a lower exergy or higher entropy) than the original energy source
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Condensation
Condensation
Condensation
is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of vapourisation. The word most often refers to the water cycle.[1] It can also be defined as the change in the state of water vapour to liquid water when in contact with a liquid or solid surface or cloud condensation nuclei within the atmosphere
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Evaporation
Evaporation
Evaporation
is a type of vaporization, that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase.[1] The surrounding gas must not be saturated with the evaporating substance. When the molecules of the liquid collide, they transfer energy to each other based on how they collide. When a molecule near the surface absorbs enough energy to overcome the vapor pressure, it will "escape" and enter the surrounding air as a gas.[2] When evaporation occurs, the energy removed from the vaporized liquid will reduce the temperature of the liquid, resulting in evaporative cooling.[3] On average, only a fraction of the molecules in a liquid have enough heat energy to escape from the liquid. The evaporation will continue until an equilibrium is reached when the evaporation of the liquid is the equal to its condensation
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Water Cycle
The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth. The mass of water on Earth
Earth
remains fairly constant over time but the partitioning of the water into the major reservoirs of ice, fresh water, saline water and atmospheric water is variable depending on a wide range of climatic variables. The water moves from one reservoir to another, such as from river to ocean, or from the ocean to the atmosphere, by the physical processes of evaporation, condensation, precipitation, infiltration, surface runoff, and subsurface flow. In doing so, the water goes through different forms: liquid, solid (ice) and vapor. The water cycle involves the exchange of energy, which leads to temperature changes. When water evaporates, it takes up energy from its surroundings and cools the environment. When it condenses, it releases energy and warms the environment
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Peak Oil
Peak oil
Peak oil
is the theorized point in time when the maximum rate of extraction of petroleum is reached, after which it is expected to enter terminal decline.[1] Peak oil
Peak oil
theory is based on the observed rise, peak, fall, and depletion of aggregate production rate in oil fields over time. It is often confused with oil depletion; however, whereas depletion refers to a period of falling reserves and supply, peak oil refers to peak, before terminal depletion occurs. The concept of peak oil is often credited to geologist M. King Hubbert
M. King Hubbert
whose 1956 paper first presented a formal theory. Some observers, such as petroleum industry experts Kenneth S
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Open Source
The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.[1][2] A main principle of open-source software development is peer production, with products such as source code, blueprints, and documentation freely available to the public. The open-source movement in software began as a response to the limitations of proprietary code. The model is used for projects such as in open-source appropriate technology,[3] and open-source drug discovery.[4][5] Open source
Open source
promotes universal access via an open-source or free license to a product's design or blueprint, and universal redistribution of that design or blueprint.[6][7] Before the phrase open source became widely adopted, developers and producers used a variety of other terms
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Italy
Coordinates: 43°N 12°E / 43°N 12°E / 43; 12Italian Republic Repubblica Italiana  (Italian)FlagEmblemAnthem: Il Canto degli Italiani  (Italian) "The Song of the Italians"Location of  Italy  (dark green) – in Europe  (light green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (light green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Rome 41°54′N 12°29′E / 41.900°N 12.483°E / 41.900; 12.483Official languages ItalianaNative languages see full listReligion83.3% Christians 12.4% irreligious 3.7% Muslims 0.2% Buddhists 0.1% Hindus 0.3% other religions[1]Demonym ItalianGovernment Unitary constitutional parliamentary republic• PresidentSergio Mattarella• Prime MinisterPaolo Gentiloni• President of the SenateElisabetta Casellati•&
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Water Scarcity
Water scarcity
Water scarcity
is the lack of fresh water resources to meet water demand
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Utirik Atoll
Utirik Atoll or Utrik Atoll (Marshallese: Utrōk, [u̯u͡ɯdˠ(ɯ)rˠɤk][1]) is a coral atoll of 10 islands in the Pacific Ocean, and forms a legislative district of the Ratak Chain of the Marshall Islands. Its total land area is only 2.4 square kilometres (0.94 sq mi), but it encloses a lagoon with an area of 57.7 square kilometres (22.29 sq mi). It is located approximately 47 kilometres (29 mi) east of Ujae Atoll
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Solar Panel
Photovoltaic
Photovoltaic
solar panels absorb sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity. A photovoltaic (PV) module is a packaged, connect assembly of typically 6x10 photovoltaic solar cells. Photovoltaic
Photovoltaic
modules constitute the photovoltaic array of a photovoltaic system that generates and supplies solar electricity in commercial and residential applications. Each module is rated by its DC output power under standard test conditions (STC), and typically ranges from 100 to 365 Watts (W). The efficiency of a module determines the area of a module given the same rated output – an 8% efficient 230 W module will have twice the area of a 16% efficient 230 W module. There are a few commercially available solar modules that exceed efficiency of 22%[1] and reportedly also exceeding 24%.[2][3] A single solar module can produce only a limited amount of power; most installations contain multiple modules
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Solar Still
A solar still distills water, using the heat of the Sun
Sun
to evaporate, cool then collect the water. They are used in areas where drinking water is unavailable, so that clean water is obtained from dirty water or from plants by exposing them to sunlight. There are many types of solar still, including large scale concentrated solar stills, and condensation traps (better known as moisture traps amongst survivalists). In a solar still, impure water is contained outside the collector, where it is evaporated by sunlight shining through clear plastic or glass. The pure water vapor condenses on the cool inside surface and drips down, where it is collected and removed. Distillation
Distillation
replicates the way nature makes rain. The sun's energy heats water to the point of evaporation. As the water evaporates, water vapor rises, condensing into water again as it cools and can then be collected
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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