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Soil Salinity Control
SOIL SALINITY CONTROL relates to controlling the problem of soil salinity and reclaiming salinized agricultural land. The aim of soil salinity control is to prevent soil degradation by salination and reclaim already salty (saline) soils. Soil
Soil
reclamation is also called soil improvement, rehabilitation, remediation, recuperation, or amelioration. The primary man-made cause of salinization is irrigation . River water or groundwater used in irrigation contains salts, which remain behind in the soil after the water has evaporated . The primary method of controlling soil salinity is to permit 10-20% of the irrigation water to leach the soil,that will be drained and discharged through an appropriate drainage system . The salt concentration of the drainage water is normally 5 to 10 times higher than that of the irrigation water, thus salt export matches salt import and it will not accumulate
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Drainage
DRAINAGE is the natural or artificial removal of a surface's water and sub-surface water from an area
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Semi Arid
A SEMI-ARID CLIMATE or STEPPE CLIMATE is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration , but not extremely. There are different kinds of semi-arid climates, depending on such variables as temperature, and they give rise to different classes of ecology. Regions with semi-arid climates BSh BSk CONTENTS * 1 Defining attributes of semi-arid climates * 2 Hot semi-arid climates * 3 Cold semi-arid climates * 4 Regions of varying classification * 5 See also * 6 Charts of selected cities * 7 References * 8 External links DEFINING ATTRIBUTES OF SEMI-ARID CLIMATESA more precise definition is given by the Köppen climate classification , which treats steppe climates (BSk and BSh) as intermediates between desert climates (BW) and humid climates in ecological characteristics and agricultural potential. Semi-arid climates tend to support short or scrubby vegetation and are usually dominated by either grasses or shrubs
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Crop Yield
In agriculture , CROP YIELD (also known as "agricultural output") refers to both the measure of the yield of a crop per unit area of land cultivation , and the seed generation of the plant itself (e.g. if three grains are harvested for each grain seeded, the resulting yield is 1:3). The figure, 1:3 is considered by agronomists as the minimum required to sustain human life. One of the three seeds must be set aside for the next planting season, the remaining two either consumed by the grower, or one for human consumption and the other for livestock feed. The higher the surplus, the more livestock can be established and maintained, thereby increasing the physical and economic well-being of the farmer and his family. This, in turn, resulted in better stamina, better over-all health, and better, more efficient work
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Sugar Cane
SUGARCANE, or SUGAR CANE, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum , tribe Andropogoneae , native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South Asia
South Asia
and Melanesia
Melanesia
, and used for sugar production. It has stout, jointed, fibrous stalks that are rich in the sugar sucrose , which accumulates in the stalk internodes . The plant is two to six meters (six to twenty feet) tall. All sugar cane species interbreed and the major commercial cultivars are complex hybrids . Sugarcane belongs to the grass family Poaceae, an economically important seed plant family that includes maize, wheat, rice, and sorghum , and many forage crops. Sucrose, extracted and purified in specialized mill factories, is used as raw material in the food industry or is fermented to produce ethanol
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Waterlogging (agriculture)
WATERLOGGING refers to the saturation of soil with water . Soil
Soil
may be regarded as waterlogged when it is nearly saturated with water much of the time such that its air phase is restricted and anaerobic conditions prevail. In extreme cases of prolonged waterlogging, anaerobiosis occurs, the roots of mesophytes suffer, and the subsurface reducing atmosphere leads to such processes as denitrification , methanogenesis , and the reduction of iron and manganese oxides. In agriculture, various crops need air (specifically, oxygen ) to a greater or lesser depth in the soil. Waterlogging of the soil stops air getting in. How near the water table must be to the surface for the ground to be classed as waterlogged, varies with the purpose in view. A crop's demand for freedom from waterlogging may vary between seasons of the year, as with the growing of rice (Oryza sativa)
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Topographical
TOPOGRAPHY is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth
Earth
and other observable astronomical objects including planets , moons , and asteroids . The topography of an area could refer to the surface shapes and features themselves, or a description (especially their depiction in maps). This field of geoscience and planetary science is concerned with local detail in general, including not only relief but also natural and artificial features, and even local history and culture . This meaning is less common in the United States
United States
, where topographic maps with elevation contours have made "topography" synonymous with relief. The older sense of topography as the study of place still has currency in Europe
Europe

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Aquifer
An AQUIFER is an underground layer of water -bearing permeable rock , rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel , sand , or silt ) from which groundwater can be extracted using a water well . The study of water flow in aquifers and the characterization of aquifers is called hydrogeology . Related terms include AQUITARD, which is a bed of low permeability along an aquifer, and AQUICLUDE (or aquifuge), which is a solid, impermeable area underlying or overlying an aquifer. If the impermeable area overlies the aquifer, pressure could cause it to become a confined aquifer
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Arid
A region is ARID when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life. Environments subject to arid climates tend to lack vegetation and are called xeric or desertic . Most "arid" climates surround the equator; these places include most of Africa
Africa
and parts of South America , Central America
Central America
and Australia
Australia
. CHANGE OVER TIME THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (January 2008)The distribution of aridity observed at any one point in time is largely the result of the general circulation of the atmosphere
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Semi-arid
A SEMI-ARID CLIMATE or STEPPE CLIMATE is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration , but not extremely. There are different kinds of semi-arid climates, depending on such variables as temperature, and they give rise to different classes of ecology. Regions with semi-arid climates BSh BSk CONTENTS * 1 Defining attributes of semi-arid climates * 2 Hot semi-arid climates * 3 Cold semi-arid climates * 4 Regions of varying classification * 5 See also * 6 Charts of selected cities * 7 References * 8 External links DEFINING ATTRIBUTES OF SEMI-ARID CLIMATESA more precise definition is given by the Köppen climate classification , which treats steppe climates (BSk and BSh) as intermediates between desert climates (BW) and humid climates in ecological characteristics and agricultural potential
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Water Table
The WATER TABLE is the upper surface of the zone of saturation . The zone of saturation is where the pores and fractures of the ground are saturated with water. The water table is the surface where the water pressure head is equal to the atmospheric pressure (where gauge pressure = 0). It may be visualized as the "surface" of the subsurface materials that are saturated with groundwater in a given vicinity. The groundwater may be from precipitation or from groundwater flowing into the aquifer. In areas with sufficient precipitation, water infiltrates through pore spaces in the soil, passing through the unsaturated zone . At increasing depths water fills in more of the pore spaces in the soils, until a zone of saturation is reached. Below the water table, in the phreatic zone (zone of saturation), layers of permeable rock that yield groundwater are called aquifers
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Subsurface Drainage
DRAINAGE is the natural or artificial removal of a surface's water and sub-surface water from an area
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Hydrology (agriculture)
AGRICULTURAL HYDROLOGY is the study of water balance components intervening in agricultural water management, especially in irrigation and drainage
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Geohydrology
HYDROGEOLOGY (hydro- meaning water, and -geology meaning the study of the Earth
Earth
) is the area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth's crust (commonly in aquifers ). The terms GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY, GEOHYDROLOGY, and HYDROGEOLOGY are often used interchangeably
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Europe
EUROPE —a concept dating back to classical antiquity — is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of