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Software License
A SOFTWARE LICENSE is a legal instrument (usually by way of contract law , with or without printed material) governing the use or redistribution of software. Under United States copyright law all software is copyright protected, in source code as also object code form. The only exception is software in the public domain . A typical software license grants the licensee , typically an end-user , permission to use one or more copies of software in ways where such a use would otherwise potentially constitute copyright infringement of the software owner's exclusive rights under copyright law. CONTENTS* 1 Software
Software
licenses and copyright law * 1.1 Ownership vs. licensing * 2 Proprietary software licenses * 3 Free and open-source software licenses * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links SOFTWARE LICENSES AND COPYRIGHT LAWMost distributed software can be categorized according to its license type (see table)
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Mark Webbink
MARK WEBBINK is a lawyer and a visiting professor of law at New York Law School (NYLS). At NYLS Webbink serves as the Executive Director of the Center for Patent Innovations, the home of the Peer-to-Patent program. Webbink is also a senior lecturing fellow at Duke University School of Law and a member of the board of Software Freedom Law Center
Software Freedom Law Center
, which he joined in October, 2007. Webbink worked at Red Hat as its first general counsel from 2000 to 2004 and its deputy general counsel for intellectual property from 2004 to August 2007, when he retired. Webbink wrote a blog, now defunct, covering open source and intellectual property issues. On May 16, 2011 Groklaw\'s Pamela Jones announced that Groklaw's new editor would be Mark Webbink. REFERENCES * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-09-23. Retrieved 2009-10-16. * ^ "Archived copy"
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Performing Rights
PERFORMING RIGHTS are the right to perform music in public. It is part of copyright law and demands payment to the music’s composer /lyricist and publisher (with the royalties generally split 50/50 between the two). Public performance means that a musician or group who is not the copyright holder is performing a piece of music live, as opposed to the playback of a pre-recorded song. Performances are considered "public" if they take place in a public place and the audience is outside of a normal circle of friends and family, including concerts , nightclubs , restaurants etc. Public performance also includes broadcast and cable television , radio , and any other transmitted performance of a live song. Permission to publicly perform a song must be obtained from the copyright holder or a collective rights organization
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CC0
A CREATIVE COMMONS (CC) LICENSE is one of several public copyright licenses that enable the free distribution of an otherwise copyrighted work. A CC license is used when an author wants to give people the right to share, use, and build upon a work that they have created. CC provides an author flexibility (for example, they might choose to allow only non-commercial uses of their own work) and protects the people who use or redistribute an author's work from concerns of copyright infringement as long as they abide by the conditions that are specified in the license by which the author distributes the work. There are several types of CC licenses. The licenses differ by several combinations that condition the terms of distribution. They were initially released on December 16, 2002 by Creative Commons
Creative Commons
, a U.S. non-profit corporation founded in 2001. There have also been five versions of the suite of licenses, numbered 1.0 through 4.0
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Law Of Germany
The LAW OF GERMANY (German : Recht Deutschlands), that being the modern GERMAN LEGAL SYSTEM (German : Deutsche Rechtssystem), is a system of civil law which is founded on the principles laid out by the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany , though many of the most important laws, for example most regulations of the civil code ( Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch , or BGB) were developed prior to the 1949 constitution. It is composed of public law (öffentliches Recht), which regulates the relations between a citizen/person and the state (including criminal law ) or two bodies of the state and the private law (Privatrecht) which regulates the relations between two people or companies. It has been subject to a wide array of influences from Roman law
Roman law
, such as the Corpus Juris Civilis
Corpus Juris Civilis
, to Napoleonic law, such as the Napoleonic Code
Napoleonic Code

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Copyright Term
COPYRIGHT TERM is the length of time copyright subsists in a work before it passes into the public domain . CONTENTS * 1 Length of copyright * 2 Implications * 2.1 Copyright
Copyright
term and the public domain * 2.2 Copyright
Copyright
term and orphan works * 3 Reception and discussion * 4 Charts * 5 See also * 6 References LENGTH OF COPYRIGHT Copyright
Copyright
subsists for a variety of lengths in different jurisdictions. The length of the term can depend on several factors, including the type of work (e.g. musical composition or novel ), whether the work has been published or not, and whether the work was created by an individual or a corporation. In most of the world, the default length of copyright is the life of the author plus either 50 or 70 years. In the United States, the term for most existing works is a fixed number of years after the date of creation or publication
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Derivative Works
In copyright law , a DERIVATIVE WORK is an expressive creation that includes major copyright-protected elements of an original, previously created first work (the UNDERLYING WORK). The derivative work becomes a second, separate work independent in form from the first. The transformation, modification or adaptation of the work must be substantial and bear its author's personality to be original and thus protected by copyright. Translations, cinematic adaptations and musical arrangements are common types of derivative works. Most countries' legal systems seek to protect both original and derivative works. They grant authors the right to impede or otherwise control their integrity and the author's commercial interests. Derivative works and their authors benefit in turn from the full protection of copyright without prejudicing the rights of the original work's author
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Half-Life 2
HALF-LIFE 2 (stylized as HλLF-LIFE2) is a first-person shooter video game developed and published by Valve Corporation
Valve Corporation
. It is the sequel to 1998's Half-Life
Half-Life
, and was released in November 2004 following a five-year, $40 million development phase. During development, a substantial part of the project was leaked and distributed on the Internet. The game was developed alongside Valve's Steam software and the Source engine . Taking place some years after the events of Half-Life, protagonist Gordon Freeman is awakened by the enigmatic G-Man to find the world has been taken over by the alien Combine . Joined by allies including resistance fighter Alyx Vance , Gordon searches for a way to free humanity using a variety of weapons, including the object-manipulating Gravity Gun . Like its predecessor, Half-Life 2
Half-Life 2
received critical acclaim
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Consideration
CONSIDERATION is the concept of value offered and accepted by people or organisations entering into contracts . Anything of value promised by one party to the other when making a contract can be treated as "consideration": for example, if A signs a contract to buy a car from B for $5,000, A's consideration is the $5,000, and B's consideration is the car. Additionally, if A signs a contract with B such that A will paint B's house for $500, A's consideration is the service of painting B's house, and B's consideration is $500 paid to A. Further, if A signs a contract with B such that A will not repaint his own house in any other color than white, and B will pay A $500 per year to keep this deal up, there is also consideration. Although A did not promise to affirmatively do anything, A did promise not to do something that he was allowed to do, and so A did pass consideration
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UMG V. Augusto
UNIVERSAL MUSIC GROUP V. AUGUSTO was a federal court case filed by Universal Music Group
Universal Music Group
against Troy Augusto, a man who sold promotional CDs on eBay . UMG claimed that the CDs were their property, and Augusto's sales constituted copyright infringement. On January 4, 2011, the Ninth Circuit sided with Augusto, holding that "UMG’s distribution of the promotional CDs under the circumstances effected a sale (transfer of title) of the CDs to the recipients. Further sale of those copies was therefore permissible without UMG’s authorization." CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Ruling * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links BACKGROUNDUMG claimed that their promotional CDs marked "promotional use only" are their property for eternity and cannot be resold. Augusto deceives potential eBay buyers by speciously claiming that he has the right, under U.S
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Title 17 Of The United States Code
TITLE 17 OF THE UNITED STATES CODE is the United States Code that outlines United States copyright law
United States copyright law
. It was codified into positive law on July 30, 1947. * 17 U.S.C. ch. 1—Subject Matter and Scope of Copyright * 17 U.S.C. ch. 2—Copyright Ownership and Transfer * 17 U.S.C. ch. 3—Duration of Copyright * 17 U.S.C. ch. 4—Copyright Notice, Deposit, and Registration * 17 U.S.C. ch. 5—Copyright Infringement and Remedies * 17 U.S.C. ch. 6—Manufacturing Requirements and Importation * 17 U.S.C. ch. 7—Copyright Office * 17 U.S.C. ch. 8—Proceedings by Copyright Royalty Judges * 17 U.S.C. ch. 9—Protection of Semiconductor Chip Products * 17 U.S.C. ch. 10—Digital Audio Recording Devices and Media * 17 U.S.C. ch. 11—Sound Recordings and Music Videos * 17 U.S.C. ch. 12—Copyright Protection and Management Systems * 17 U.S.C. ch
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Copyright Infringement
COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT is the use of works protected by copyright law without permission, infringing certain exclusive rights granted to the copyright holder, such as the right to reproduce, distribute, display or perform the protected work, or to make derivative works . The copyright holder is typically the work's creator, or a publisher or other business to whom copyright has been assigned. Copyright
Copyright
holders routinely invoke legal and technological measures to prevent and penalize copyright infringement. Copyright
Copyright
infringement disputes are usually resolved through direct negotiation, a notice and take down process, or litigation in civil court . Egregious or large-scale commercial infringement, especially when it involves counterfeiting , is sometimes prosecuted via the criminal justice system
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Copyright Act Of 1976
THE COPYRIGHT ACT OF 1976 is a United States
United States
copyright law and remains the primary basis of copyright law in the United States, as amended by several later enacted copyright provisions. The Act spells out the basic rights of copyright holders, codified the doctrine of "fair use ," and for most new copyrights adopted a unitary term based on the date of the author's death rather than the prior scheme of fixed initial and renewal terms. It became Public Law number 94-553 on October 19, 1976 and went into effect on January 1, 1978
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Trade Secret
A TRADE SECRET is a form