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Software Cracking
Software
Software
cracking (known as "breaking" in the 1980s[1]) is the modification of software to remove or disable features which are considered undesirable by the person cracking the software, especially copy protection features (including protection against the manipulation of software, serial number, hardware key, date checks and disc check) or software annoyances like nag screens and adware. A crack refers to the means of achieving software cracking, for example a stolen serial number or a tool that performs that act of cracking.[2] Some of these tools are called keygen, patch, or loader. A keygen is a handmade product serial number generator that often offers the ability to generate working serial numbers in your own name. A patch is a small computer program that modifies the machine code of another program
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Software
Computer software, or simply software, is a part of a computer system that consists of data or computer instructions, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built. In computer science and software engineering, computer software is all information processed by computer systems, programs and data. Computer software includes computer programs, libraries and related non-executable data, such as online documentation or digital media. Computer hardware
Computer hardware
and software require each other and neither can be realistically used on its own. At the lowest level, executable code consists of machine language instructions specific to an individual processor—typically a central processing unit (CPU). A machine language consists of groups of binary values signifying processor instructions that change the state of the computer from its preceding state
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Hex Editor
A hex editor (or binary file editor or byte editor) is a type of computer program that allows for manipulation of the fundamental binary data that constitutes a computer file. The name 'hex' comes from 'hexadecimal': a standard representation for numbers that has 16 as its base 16, just as the familiar decimal representation has 10 as its base. Because different numerical representations are simply different ways of representing the same quantity, they can be converted into each other. Hence, a hexadecimal representation is an alternative representation for binary numbers, just as a binary number is an alternative representation for decimal numbers, with which we are more familiar. A typical computer file occupies multiple areas on the platter(s) of a disk drive, whose contents are combined to form the file
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Linux
Linux
Linux
(/ˈlɪnəks/ ( listen) LIN-əks)[9][10] is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux
Linux
kernel. Typically, Linux
Linux
is packaged in a form known as a Linux distribution (or distro for short) for both desktop and server use. The defining component of a Linux distribution
Linux distribution
is the Linux kernel,[11] an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991, by Linus Torvalds.[12][13][14] Many Linux
Linux
distributions use the word "Linux" in their name
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Internet
The Internet
Internet
is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite
Internet protocol suite
(TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies
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Fravia
Francesco Vianello (30 August 1952 – 3 May 2009), better known by his nickname Fravia (sometimes + Fravia or Fravia+), was a software reverse engineer,[1][2][3] and hacker,[4] known for his web archive of reverse engineering techniques and papers and was a well-known web-searcher.[5][6] He is also known for his work on steganography.[7] He had taught on subjects such as data mining, anonymity, stalking, klebing, advertisement reversing and ad-busting.[8] Fravia spoke six languages (including Latin) and had a degree in the history of the early Middle Ages
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GDB
The GNU
GNU
Debugger
Debugger
(GDB) is a portable debugger that runs on many Unix-like
Unix-like
systems and works for many programming languages, including Ada, C, C++, Objective-C, Free Pascal, Fortran, Go, Java[1] and partially others.[2]Contents1 History 2 Technical details2.1 Features 2.2 Remote debugging 2.3 Graphical user interface3 Examples of commands 4 An example session 5 See also 6 References 7 External links7.1 Documentation 7.2 TutorialsHistory[edit] GDB was first written by Richard Stallman
Richard Stallman
in 1986 as part of his GNU system, after his GNU
GNU
Emacs was "reasonably stable".[3] GDB is free software released under the GNU General Public License
GNU General Public License
(GPL)
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MacsBug
MacsBug
MacsBug
is a low-level (assembly language/machine-level) debugger for the classic Mac OS ( Macintosh
Macintosh
operating system). MacsBug
MacsBug
is an acronym for Motorola Advanced Computer Systems Debugger, as opposed to Macintosh
Macintosh
debugger (The Motorola 68000
Motorola 68000
Microprocessor is imprinted with the MACSS acronym[1]). The original version was developed by Motorola as a general debugger for its 68000 systems — it was ported to the Mac as a programmer's tool early in the project's development. MacsBug
MacsBug
is invoked by hitting the Macintosh's "Programmer's Key" or, as it became later known, the "Interrupt Key" or by pressing "Command-Power". MacsBug
MacsBug
offers many commands for disassembling, searching, and viewing data as well as control over processor registers
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Subroutine
In computer programming, a subroutine is a sequence of program instructions that perform a specific task, packaged as a unit. This unit can then be used in programs wherever that particular task should be performed. Subprograms may be defined within programs, or separately in libraries that can be used by multiple programs. In different programming languages, a subroutine may be called a procedure, a function, a routine, a method, or a subprogram. The generic term callable unit is sometimes used.[1] The name subprogram suggests a subroutine behaves in much the same way as a computer program that is used as one step in a larger program or another subprogram. A subroutine is often coded so that it can be started (called) several times and from several places during one execution of the program, including from other subroutines, and then branch back (return) to the next instruction after the call, once the subroutine's task is done
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Disassembler
A disassembler is a computer program that translates machine language into assembly language—the inverse operation to that of an assembler. A disassembler differs from a decompiler, which targets a high-level language rather than an assembly language. Disassembly, the output of a disassembler, is often formatted for human-readability rather than suitability for input to an assembler, making it principally a reverse-engineering tool. Assembly language
Assembly language
source code generally permits the use of constants and programmer comments. These are usually removed from the assembled machine code by the assembler. If so, a disassembler operating on the machine code would produce disassembly lacking these constants and comments; the disassembled output becomes more difficult for a human to interpret than the original annotated source code
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Interactive Disassembler
The Interactive Disassembler (IDA) is a disassembler for computer software which generates assembly language source code from machine-executable code. It supports a variety of executable formats for different processors and operating systems. It also can be used as a debugger for Windows PE, Mac OS X Mach-O, and Linux
Linux
ELF executables. A decompiler plug-in for programs compiled with a C/C++ compiler is available at extra cost. The latest full version of IDA Pro is commercial; while an earlier and less capable version is available for download free of charge (version 7.0 as of February 2018[update]).[3] IDA performs automatic code analysis, using cross-references between code sections, knowledge of parameters of API calls, and other information
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Machine Code Monitor
A machine code monitor (a.k.a. machine language monitor) is software that allows a user to enter commands to view and change memory locations on a computer, with options to load and save memory contents from/to secondary storage. Some full-featured machine code monitors provide detailed control ("single-stepping") of the execution of machine language programs (much like a debugger), and include absolute-address code assembly and disassembly capabilities. Machine code monitors became popular during the home computer era of the 1970s and 1980s and were sometimes available as resident firmware in some computers (e.g., the built-in monitor in the Commodore 128). It was not unheard of to perform all of one's programming in a monitor in lieu of a full-fledged symbolic assembler. Even after full-featured assemblers became readily available, a machine code monitor was indispensable for debugging programs
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Device Driver
In computing, a device driver is a computer program that operates or controls a particular type of device that is attached to a computer.[1] A driver provides a software interface to hardware devices, enabling operating systems and other computer programs to access hardware functions without needing to know precise details of the hardware being used. A driver communicates with the device through the computer bus or communications subsystem to which the hardware connects. When a calling program invokes a routine in the driver, the driver issues commands to the device. Once the device sends data back to the driver, the driver may invoke routines in the original calling program. Drivers are hardware dependent and operating-system-specific. They usually provide the interrupt handling required for any necessary asynchronous time-dependent hardware interface.[2]Contents1 Purpose 2 Development 3 Kernel mode vs
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Opcode
In computing, an opcode (abbreviated from operation code, also known as instruction syllable, instruction parcel or opstring[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]) is the portion of a machine language instruction that specifies the operation to be performed. Beside the opcode itself, most instructions also specify the data they will process, in the form of operands
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Proprietary Software
Proprietary software is non-free computer software for which the software's publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights—usually copyright of the source code,[1] but sometimes patent rights.[2]Contents1 Software becoming proprietary 2 Legal basis2.1 Limitations3 Exclusive rights3.1 Use of the software 3.2 Inspection and modification of source code 3.3 Redistribution4 Interoperability with software and hardware4.1 Proprietary file formats and protocols 4.2 Proprietary APIs 4.3 Vendor lock-in 4.4 Software limited to certain hardware configurations5 Abandonment by owners 6 Formerly open-source software 7 Pricing and economics 8 Examples 9 See also 10 ReferencesSoftware becoming proprietary[edit] Until the late 1960
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Code Obfuscation
In software development, obfuscation is the deliberate act of creating source or machine code that is difficult for humans to understand. Like obfuscation in natural language, it may use needlessly roundabout expressions to compose statements. Programmers may deliberately obfuscate code to conceal its purpose (security through obscurity) or its logic or implicit values embedded in it, primarily, in order to prevent tampering, deter reverse engineering, or even as a puzzle or recreational challenge for someone reading the source code
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