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Soft Point
A soft-point bullet (SP), also known as a soft-nosed bullet, is a jacketed expanding bullet with a soft metal core enclosed by a stronger metal jacket left open at the forward tip. A soft-point bullet is intended to expand upon striking flesh to cause a wound diameter greater than the bullet diameter. Jacketed soft point is usually abbreviated JSP in the ammunition and reloading industry.Contents1 Evolution 2 Expansion 3 Hollow-point bullets 4 Flat-point bullets 5 See also 6 ReferencesEvolution[edit] Lead-alloy bullets used with gunpowder firearms were unsatisfactory at the bullet velocities available from rifles loaded with nitrocellulose propellants like cordite. By the late 19th century, lead-alloy bullets were being enclosed within a jacket of stronger mild steel or copper alloyed with nickel or zinc to reliably impart stabilizing rotation in rifled barrels
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Aerodynamics
Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing. It is a sub-field of fluid dynamics and gas dynamics, and many aspects of aerodynamics theory are common to these fields. The term aerodynamics is often used synonymously with gas dynamics, the difference being that "gas dynamics" applies to the study of the motion of all gases, and is not limited to air. The formal study of aerodynamics began in the modern sense in the eighteenth century, although observations of fundamental concepts such as aerodynamic drag were recorded much earlier
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Winchester Rifle
Winchester rifle
Winchester rifle
is a comprehensive term describing a series of lever-action repeating rifles manufactured by the Winchester Repeating Arms Company. Developed from the 1860 Henry rifle, Winchester rifles were among the earliest repeaters. The Model 1873 was particularly successful, being colloquially known as "The Gun that Won the West".Contents1 Predecessors 2 Development 3 Winchester lever-action repeating rifles3.1 Model 1866 3.2 Model 1873 3.3 Model 1876 3.4 Model 1886 3.5 Model 1892 3.6 Model 1894 3.7 Model 1895 3.8 Model 88 3.9 Model 94224 Legacy 5 See also 6 Footnotes 7 References 8 External linksPredecessors[edit]Volcanic pistol.1860 Henry and 1866 Winchester Musket.Left to right Carbines two 1873/1894/92/Trapper 92.In 1848, Walter Hunt of New York patented his "Volition Repeating Rifle" incorporating a tubular magazine, which was operated by two levers and complex linkages
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Antimony
Antimony
Antimony
is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from Latin: stibium) and atomic number 51. A lustrous gray metalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite (Sb2S3). Antimony
Antimony
compounds have been known since ancient times and were powdered for use as medicine and cosmetics, often known by the Arabic name, kohl.[4] Metallic antimony was also known, but it was erroneously identified as lead upon its discovery. The earliest known description of the metal in the West was written in 1540 by Vannoccio Biringuccio. For some time, China
China
has been the largest producer of antimony and its compounds, with most production coming from the Xikuangshan Mine in Hunan
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Tin
Tin
Tin
is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from Latin: stannum) and atomic number 50. It is a post-transition metal in group 14 of the periodic table. It is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite, which contains tin dioxide, SnO2. Tin
Tin
shows a chemical similarity to both of its neighbors in group 14, germanium and lead, and has two main oxidation states, +2 and the slightly more stable +4. Tin
Tin
is the 49th most abundant element and has, with 10 stable isotopes, the largest number of stable isotopes in the periodic table, thanks to its magic number of protons. It has two main allotropes: at room temperature, the stable allotrope is β-tin, a silvery-white, malleable metal, but at low temperatures it transforms into the less dense grey α-tin, which has the diamond cubic structure
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Tensile Strength
Ultimate tensile strength
Ultimate tensile strength
(UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations,[1][2][3] is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size. In other words, tensile strength resists tension (being pulled apart), whereas compressive strength resists compression (being pushed together). Ultimate tensile strength
Ultimate tensile strength
is measured by the maximum stress that a material can withstand while being stretched or pulled before breaking. In the study of strength of materials, tensile strength, compressive strength, and shear strength can be analyzed independently. Some materials break very sharply, without plastic deformation, in what is called a brittle failure
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Annealing (metallurgy)
Annealing, in metallurgy and materials science, is a heat treatment that alters the physical and sometimes chemical properties of a material to increase its ductility and reduce its hardness, making it more workable. It involves heating a material above its recrystallization temperature, maintaining a suitable temperature for a suitable amount of time, and then cooling. In annealing, atoms migrate in the crystal lattice and the number of dislocations decreases, leading to a change in ductility and hardness. As the material cools it recrystallizes. For many alloys, including carbon steel, the crystal grain size and phase composition, which ultimately determine the material properties, are dependent on the heating, and cooling rate. Hot working or cold working after the annealing process alter the metal structure, so further heat treatments may be used to achieve the properties required
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Big-game Hunting
Big-game hunting
Big-game hunting
is the hunting of large game, almost always large terrestrial mammals, for meat, other animal by-products (such as horn or bone), trophy or sport. The term is historically associated with the hunting of Africa's "Big Five" game (lion, African elephant, Cape buffalo, leopard and rhinoceros), and with tigers and rhinoceroses on the Indian subcontinent. Along with the big five animals, many other species are hunted including kudu, antelope, and hartebeest. Moose, elk, caribou, bison, mule deer, and white-tailed deer are the largest game hunted in North America, which is where most big-game hunting is conducted today. Big-game hunting
Big-game hunting
is conducted in Africa, North America, South America, Europe, Asia
Asia
and Australia. In Africa, lion, Cape buffalo, elephant, giraffe and other large game animals are hunted
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.357 Magnum
1934 Introduced 1935SpecificationsParent case .38 SpecialCase type Rimmed (R), straightBullet diameter .357 in (9.1 mm)Neck diameter .379 in (9.6 mm)Base diameter .379 in (9.6 mm)Rim diameter .440 in (11.2 mm)Rim thickness .060 in (1.5 mm)Case length 1.29 in (33 mm)Overall length 1.59 in (40 mm)Case capacity 26.2 gr H2O (1.70 cm3)Primer type Small Pistol MagnumMaximum pressure 35,000 psi (241 MPa)[1][2]Ballistic performance Bullet
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Rifle
Evolution of the modern rifle: Top: Baker rifle, an early 19th-century flintlock rifle. Second: Pattern 1853 Enfield, a mid 19th-century caplock rifled musket. Third: Dreyse needle gun, the first standard issue military breechloading rifle. Fourth: Henry rifle, the first successful lever action repeating rifle. Fifth: Lebel Model 1886 rifle, a late 19th-century bolt-action rifle and the first to use smokeless powder. Sixth: M1 Garand, an early 20th-century semi-automatic rifle and the first to be adopted as standard military issue. Seventh: АК-47, a mid 20th-century gas-operated, magazine-fed automatic rifle. Eighth: FAMAS, a late 20th-century selective fire, bullpup assault rifle.A rifle is a portable long-barrelled firearm designed for precision shooting, to be held with both hands and braced against the shoulder during firing, and with a barrel that has a helical pattern of grooves ("rifling") cut into the bore walls
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Hardness
Hardness
Hardness
is a measure of the resistance to localized plastic deformation induced by either mechanical indentation or abrasion. Some materials (e.g. metals) are harder than others (e.g
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Recoil
Recoil
Recoil
(often called knockback, kickback or simply kick) is the backward movement of a gun when it is discharged. In technical terms, the recoil momentum acquired by the gun exactly balances the forward momentum of the projectile and exhaust gases (ejecta), according to Newton's third law, known as conservation of momentum. In hand-held small arms, the recoil momentum is transferred to the ground through the body of the shooter; while in heavier guns such as mounted machine guns or cannons, recoil momentum is transferred to the ground through the mount. In order to bring the rearward moving gun to a halt, the momentum acquired by the gun is dissipated by a forward acting counter-recoil force applied to the gun over a period of time after the projectile exits the muzzle
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List Of Firearms
This is an extensive list of small arms—including pistols, shotguns, sniper rifles, submachine guns, personal defense weapons, assault rifles, battle rifles, designated marksman rifles, carbines, machine guns, flamethrowers, multiple barrel firearms, grenade launchers, and anti-tank rifles—that includes variants.Contents: Top 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z0–9[edit] 6P62 (Russian Federation - Unknown - 2010 - Fully Automatic Anti-Materiel Rifle - 12.7×108mm: Russian fully automatic anti-materiel rifle, similar to the Russian KPB-12.7. Never adopted by any military. Prototype everywhere)A[edit]A. Uberti, Srl.Revolvers 1873 Buntline Target
1873 Buntline Target
(Italian Republic - A. Uberti, Srl.
A

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List Of Rifle Cartridges
List of rifle cartridges, by category, then by name.From left to right: 1 .17 HM2, 2 .17 HMR, 3 .22LR, 4 .22 WMR, 5 .17/23 SMc, 6 5mm/35 SMc, 7 .22 Hornet, 8 .223 Remington, 9 .223 WSSM, 10 .243 Winchester, 11 .243 Winchester
.243 Winchester
Improved (Ackley), 12 .25-06 Remington, 13 .270 Winchester, 14 .308, 15 .30-06, 16 .45-70, 17 .50-90 SharpsContents1 Rimfire 2 Common centerfire2.1 Inches2.1.1 Smaller than .30 caliber 2.1.2 .30 caliber – .39 caliber 2.1.3 .40 caliber – .49 caliber 2.1.4 .50 caliber and larger2.2 Metric2.2.1 Smalle
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List Of Handgun Cartridges
List of repeating handgun cartridges, approximately in order of increasing caliber.Contents1 Table of handgun cartridges 2 Other cartridges used in repeating handguns 3 Gallery 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksTable of handgun cartridges[edit]Cartridge name Bullet diameter Case length Cartridge length Type Source 2.34mm rimfire (for Swiss mini gun) .092 in (2.3 mm) .240 in (6.1 mm) - Rimmed, rimfire [1] 2.7mm Kolibri
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Propellant
A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object. Common propellants are energetic materials and consist of a fuel like gasoline, jet fuel, rocket fuel, and an oxidizer. Propellants are burned or otherwise decomposed to produce the propellant gas. Other propellants are simply liquids that can readily be vaporized. In rockets and aircraft, propellants are used to produce a gas that can be directed through a nozzle, thereby producing thrust. In rockets, rocket propellant produces an exhaust, and the exhausted material is usually expelled under pressure through a nozzle. The pressure may be from a compressed gas, or a gas produced by a chemical reaction. The exhaust material may be a gas, liquid, plasma, or, before the chemical reaction, a solid, liquid, or gel
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