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Sodium Pyrophosphate
Tetrasodium pyrophosphate, also called sodium pyrophosphate, tetrasodium phosphate or TSPP, is a colorless transparent crystalline chemical compound with the formula Na4P2O7. It is a salt composed of pyrophosphate and sodium ions. Toxicity is approximately twice that of table salt when ingested orally.[3] There is also a hydrated form, Na4P2O7 · 10(H2O).[4] Use[edit] Tetrasodium pyrophosphate
Tetrasodium pyrophosphate
is used as a buffering agent, an emulsifier, a dispersing agent, and a thickening agent, and is often used as a food additive
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Chemical Nomenclature
A chemical nomenclature is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds. The nomenclature used most frequently worldwide is the one created and developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The IUPAC's rules for naming organic and inorganic compounds are contained in two publications, known as the Blue Book[1] and the Red Book,[2] respectively. A third publication, known as the Green Book,[3] describes the recommendations for the use of symbols for physical quantities (in association with the IUPAP), while a fourth, the Gold Book,[4] contains the definitions of a large number of technical terms used in chemistry. Similar compendia exist for biochemistry[5] (the White Book, in association with the IUBMB), analytical chemistry[6] (the Orange Book), macromolecular chemistry[7] (the Purple Book) and clinical chemistry[8] (the Silver Book)
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Transparency (optics)
In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered. On a macroscopic scale (one where the dimensions investigated are much, much larger than the wavelength of the photons in question), the photons can be said to follow Snell's Law. Translucency (also called translucence or translucidity) is a superset of transparency: it allows light to pass through, but does not necessarily (again, on the macroscopic scale) follow Snell's law; the photons can be scattered at either of the two interfaces where there is a change in index of refraction, or internally. In other words, a translucent medium allows the transport of light while a transparent medium not only allows the transport of light but allows for image formation. The opposite property of translucency is opacity
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Recommended Exposure Limit
A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States
United States
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit. The REL is a level that NIOSH believes would be protective of worker safety and health over a working lifetime if used in combination with engineering and work practice controls, exposure and medical monitoring, posting and labeling of hazards, worker training and personal protective equipment. No REL has ever been adopted by OSHA, but they have been used as guides by some industry and advocacy organizations. RELs for chemical exposures are usually expressed in parts per million (ppm), or sometimes in milligrams per cubic metre (mg/m3)
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IDLH
The term immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) is defined by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
(NIOSH) as exposure to airborne contaminants that is "likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from such an environment." Examples include smoke or other poisonous gases at sufficiently high concentrations
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Ion
An ion (/ˈaɪən, -ɒn/)[1] is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons). A cation is a positively-charged ion, while an anion is negatively charged. Because of their opposite electric charges, cations and anions attract each other and readily form ionic compounds, such as salts. Ions can be created by chemical means, such as the dissolution of a salt into water, or by physical means, such as passing a direct current through a conducting solution, which will dissolve the anode via ionization. Ions consisting of only a single atom are atomic or monatomic ions
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Trisodium Phosphate
Trisodium phosphate
Trisodium phosphate
(TSP) is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Na3PO4. It is a white, granular or crystalline solid, highly soluble in water, producing an alkaline solution. TSP is used as a cleaning agent, lubricant, food additive, stain remover, and degreaser.[7] The item of commerce is often partially hydrated and may range from anhydrous Na3PO4 to the dodecahydrate Na3PO4·12 H2O. Most often found in white powder form, it can also be called trisodium orthophosphate or simply sodium phosphate.Contents1 Production 2 Uses2.1 Cleaning 2.2 Chlorinated trisodium phosphate 2.3 Flux 2.4 Painting enhancement 2.5 Food additive 2.6 Exercise performance enhancement3 Regulation3.1 TSP substitutes4 References 5 External linksProduction[edit] Trisodium phosphate
Trisodium phosphate
is produced by neutralization of phosphoric acid using sodium hydroxide, often with sodium carbonate
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Pentasodium Triphosphate
Sodium
Sodium
triphosphate (STP), also sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), or tripolyphosphate (TPP),[1]) is an inorganic compound with formula Na5P3O10. It is the sodium salt of the polyphosphate penta-anion, which is the conjugate base of triphosphoric acid. It is produced on a large scale as a component of many domestic and industrial products, especially detergents
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Sodium Hexametaphosphate
Glassy sodium Graham's salt Hexasodium metaphosphate Metaphosphoric acid, hexasodium saltIdentifiers3D model (JSmol)Interactive imageChemSpider23340 NECHA InfoCard 100.030.299EC Number 233-343-1MeSH sodium+polymetaphosphate PubChem CID24968InChIInChI=1S/6Na.H6O18P6/c;;;;;;1-19(2)13-20(3,4)15-22(7,8)17-24(11,12)18-23(9,10)16-21(5,6)14-19/h;;;;;;(H,1,2)(H,3,4)(H,5,6)(H,7,8)(H,9,10)(H,11,12)/q6*+1;/p-6 N Key: GCLGEJMYGQKIIW-UHFFFAOYSA-H NSMILES[Na]OP1(=O)OP(=O)(O[Na])OP(=O)(O[Na])OP(=O)(O[Na])OP(=O)(O[Na])OP(=O)(O[Na])O1PropertiesChemical formulaNa 6P 6O 18Molar mass 611.7704 g mol−1Appearance White crystalsOdor odorlessDensity 2.484 g/cm3Melting point
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Disodium Pyrophosphate
Disodium pyrophosphate
Disodium pyrophosphate
or sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP)[1] is an inorganic compound consisting of sodium cations and pyrophosphate anion. It is a white, water-soluble solid that serves as a buffering and chelating agent, with many applications in the food industry. When crystallised from water, it forms a hexahydrate, but it dehydrates above room temperature. Pyrophosphate
Pyrophosphate
is a polyvalent anion with a high affinity for polyvalent cations, e.g. Ca2+. Disodium pyrophosphate
Disodium pyrophosphate
is produced by heating sodium dihydrogen phosphate:2 NaH2PO4 → Na2H2P2O7 + H2OFood uses[edit] Disodium pyrophosphate
Disodium pyrophosphate
is a popular leavening agent found in baking powders
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Standard State
In chemistry, the standard state of a material (pure substance, mixture or solution) is a reference point used to calculate its properties under different conditions. In principle, the choice of standard state is arbitrary, although the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
(IUPAC) recommends a conventional set of standard states for general use.[1] IUPAC
IUPAC
recommends using a standard pressure po = 105 Pa.[2] Strictly speaking, temperature is not part of the definition of a standard state. For example, as discussed below, the standard state of a gas is conventionally chosen to be unit pressure (usually in bar) ideal gas, regardless of the temperature
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Color
Color
Color
(American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple. This perception of color derives from the stimulation of cone cells in the human eye by electromagnetic radiation in the visible spectrum. Color
Color
categories and physical specifications of color are associated with objects through the wavelength of the light that is reflected from them. This reflection is governed by the object's physical properties such as light absorption, emission spectra, etc. By defining a color space, colors can be identified numerically by coordinates
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Crystalline
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.[1][2] In addition, macroscopic single crystals are usually identifiable by their geometrical shape, consisting of flat faces with specific, characteristic orientations. The scientific study of crystals and crystal formation is known as crystallography. The process of crystal formation via mechanisms of crystal growth is called crystallization or solidification. The word crystal derives from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word κρύσταλλος (krustallos), meaning both "ice" and "rock crystal",[3] from κρύος (kruos), "icy cold, frost".[4][5] Examples of large crystals include snowflakes, diamonds, and table salt. Most inorganic solids are not crystals but polycrystals, i.e. many microscopic crystals fused together into a single solid
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CAS Registry Number
A CAS Registry Number,[1] also referred to as CASRN or CAS Number, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including all substances described from 1957 through the present, plus some substances from the early or mid 1900s), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals, isotopes, alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of unknown, variable composition, or biological origin).[2] The Registry maintained by CAS is an authoritative collection of disclosed chemical substance information. It currently identifies more than 129 million organic and inorganic substances and 67 million protein and DNA sequences,[3] plus additional information about each substance
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Chemical Compound
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds. There are four types of compounds, depending on how the constituent atoms are held together:molecules held together by covalent bonds ionic compounds held together by ionic bonds intermetallic compounds held together by metallic bonds certain complexes held together by coordinate covalent bonds.Many chemical compounds have a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service
Chemical Abstracts Service
(CAS): its CAS number. A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound, using the standard abbreviations for the chemical elements, and subscripts to indicate the number of atoms involved
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Sodium
Sodium
Sodium
is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal. Sodium
Sodium
is an alkali metal, being in group 1 of the periodic table, because it has a single electron in its outer shell that it readily donates, creating a positively charged ion—the Na+ cation. Its only stable isotope is 23Na. The free metal does not occur in nature, but must be prepared from compounds. Sodium
Sodium
is the sixth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and exists in numerous minerals such as feldspars, sodalite, and rock salt (NaCl)
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