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Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
Sodium
Sodium
dodecyl sulfate, synonymously sodium lauryl sulfate (or laurilsulfate; SDS or SLS, respectively), is a synthetic organic compound with the formula CH3(CH2)11SO4Na. It is an anionic surfactant used in many cleaning and hygiene products. The sodium salt is of an organosulfate class of organics. It consists of a 12-carbon tail attached to a sulfate group, that is, it is the sodium salt of dodecyl hydrogen sulfate, the ester of dodecyl alcohol and sulfuric acid
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Alkyl Sulfate
Organosulfates are a class of organic compounds sharing a common functional group commonly with the structure R-O-SO3−. The SO4 core is a sulfate group and the R group is any organic residue. All organosulfates are formally esters derived from alcohols and sulfuric acid, although many are not prepared in this way. Many sulfate esters are used in detergents, and some are useful reagents. Alkyl sulfates consist of a hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain, a polar sulfate group (containing an anion) and either a cation or amine to neutralize the sulfate group
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Palm Oil
Palm oil
Palm oil
is an edible vegetable oil derived from the mesocarp (reddish pulp) of the fruit of the oil palms, primarily the African oil palm Elaeis
Elaeis
guineensis,[1] and to a lesser extent from the American oil palm Elaeis
Elaeis
oleifera and the maripa palm Attalea maripa. Palm oil
Palm oil
is naturally reddish in color because of a high beta-carotene content. It is not to be confused with palm kernel oil derived from the kernel of the same fruit[2] or coconut oil derived from the kernel of the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera). The differences are in color (raw palm kernel oil lacks carotenoids and is not red), and in saturated fat content: palm mesocarp oil is 49 percent saturated, while palm kernel oil and coconut oil are 81 percent and 86 percent saturated fats, respectively
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Salt (chemistry)
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.[1] Salts are composed of related numbers of cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negative ions) so that the product is electrically neutral (without a net charge). These component ions can be inorganic, such as chloride (Cl−), or organic, such as acetate (CH 3CO− 2); and can be monatomic, such as fluoride (F−), or polyatomic, such as sulfate (SO2− 4).Contents1 Kinds of salts 2 Properties2.1 Color 2.2 Taste 2.3 Odor 2.4 Solubility 2.5 Conductivity 2.6 Melting point3 Nomenclature 4 Formation 5 Strong salt 6 Weak salts 7 See also 8 ReferencesKinds of salts[edit] Salts can be classified in a variety of ways. Salts that produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water are called alkali salts. Salts that produce acidic solutions are acidic salts. Neutral salts are those salts that are neither acidic nor basic
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Organosulfate
Organosulfates are a class of organic compounds sharing a common functional group commonly with the structure R-O-SO3−. The SO4 core is a sulfate group and the R group is any organic residue. All organosulfates are formally esters derived from alcohols and sulfuric acid, although many are not prepared in this way. Many sulfate esters are used in detergents, and some are useful reagents. Alkyl sulfates consist of a hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain, a polar sulfate group (containing an anion) and either a cation or amine to neutralize the sulfate group
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Ester
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.[1] Usually, esters are derived from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol. Glycerides, which are fatty acid esters of glycerol, are important esters in biology, being one of the main classes of lipids, and making up the bulk of animal fats and vegetable oils. Esters with low molecular weight are commonly used as fragrances and found in essential oils and pheromones. Phosphoesters form the backbone of DNA
DNA
molecules
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Dodecyl Alcohol
Dodecanol
Dodecanol
/ˈdoʊˈdɛkɑːnɒl/ (systematically named dodecan-1-ol) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)10CH2OH (also written as C 12H 26O). It is tasteless, colourless solid with a floral smell. It is classified as a fatty alcohol.Contents1 Production and use 2 Toxicity 3 Mutual solubility with water 4 References 5 External linksProduction and use[edit] In 1993, the European demand of dodecanol was around 60 thousand tons per year (Tt/a).[citation needed] It can be obtained from palm kernel or coconut oil fatty acids and methyl esters by hydrogenation.[3] It may also be produced synthetically via the Ziegler process. Dodecanol
Dodecanol
is used to make surfactants, lubricating oils, pharmaceuticals, in the formation of monolithic polymers and as a flavor enhancing food additive. In cosmetics, dodecanol is used as an emollient
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Sulfuric Acid
Sulfuric acid
Sulfuric acid
(alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4
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Hydrocarbon
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon,[1]:620 and thus are group 14 hydrides
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Chemical Polarity
In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment. Polar molecules must contain polar bonds due to a difference in electronegativity between the bonded atoms. A polar molecule with two or more polar bonds must have a geometry which is asymmetric in at least one direction, so that the bond dipoles do not cancel each other. Polar molecules interact through dipole–dipole intermolecular forces and hydrogen bonds
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Detergent
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.[1] These substances are usually alkylbenzenesulfonates, a family of compounds that are similar to soap but are more soluble in hard water, because the polar sulfonate (of detergents) is less likely than the polar carboxylate (of soap) to bind to calcium and other ions found in hard water. In most household contexts, the term detergent by itself refers specifically to laundry detergent or dish detergent, as opposed to hand soap or other types of cleaning agents. Detergents are commonly available as powders or concentrated solutions. Detergents, like soaps, work because they are amphiphilic: partly hydrophilic (polar) and partly hydrophobic (non-polar)
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Coconut Oil
Coconut
Coconut
oil, or copra oil, is an edible oil extracted from the kernel or meat of mature coconuts harvested from the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera). It has various applications
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Aggregation Number
An aggregation number is a description of the number of molecules present in a micelle once the critical micelle concentration (CMC) has been reached. In more detail, it has been defined as the average number of surfactant monomers in a spherical micelle.[1] The aggregation number of micelles can be determined by isothermal titration calorimetry when the aggregation number is not too high.[2][3] Another classical experiment to determine the mean aggregation number would involve the use of a luminescent probe, a quencher and a known concentration of surfactant. If the concentration of the quencher is varied, and the CMC of the surfactant known, the mean aggregation number can be calculated. References[edit]^ Moroi, Yoshikiyo. Micelles: theoretical and applied aspects. Springer Science & Business Media, 1992. ^ N.E. Olesen. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 453 (2015) 79-89 ^ Bouchemal, Kawthar, et al
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Anion
An ion (/ˈaɪən, -ɒn/)[1] is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons). A cation is a positively-charged ion, while an anion is negatively charged. Because of their opposite electric charges, cations and anions attract each other and readily form ionic compounds, such as salts. Ions can be created by chemical means, such as the dissolution of a salt into water, or by physical means, such as passing a direct current through a conducting solution, which will dissolve the anode via ionization. Ions consisting of only a single atom are atomic or monatomic ions
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Micelle
Micelle
Micelle
(polymers): Organized auto-assembly formed in a liquid and composed of amphiphilic macromolecules, in general amphiphilic di- or tri-block copolymers made of solvophilic and solvophobic blocks. Note 1: An amphiphilic behavior can be observed for water and an organic solvent or between two organic solvents. Note 2: Polymeric micelles have a much lower critical micellar concentration (CMC) than soap or surfactant micelles, but are nevertheless at equilibrium with isolated macromolecules called unimers
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Organic Synthesis
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds via organic reactions.[1] Organic molecules often contain a higher level of complexity than purely inorganic compounds, so that the synthesis of organic compounds has developed into one of the most important branches of organic chemistry
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